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A fjREATIS 

ON 

E RALD R 

BRITISH 



G BUR? 




JOHNSTON 

GH LONDON 




{7 



A TREATISE ON 



HERALDRY 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN 
WITH ENGLISH AND FRENCH GLOSSARIES 



JOHN WOODWARD, E.S.A.scoT, ETC 

(RECTOR OF ST. MARY'S CHURCH, MONTROSE) 

AND THE LATE 

GEORGE BURNETT, LL.D, ETC. 

(LYON KING OF ARMS) 
VOL. I. 







W. & A. K. JOHNSTON 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON 

1892 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 

Aberdeen Public Library (per Messrs D. Wyllie & Son, Book- 
sellers, Aberdeen). 
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Mr George Wilson, Bookseller, Edinburgh). 
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Librarian. 
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P. Johnston, Bookseller, Edinburgh). 
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Archibald Anderson, Esq., 30 Oxford Square, London, W. 
Messrs J. T. Anderson & Co., Stationers and Heraldic Artists, 

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( 3 ) 

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( 4 ) 

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seller, Glasgow). 

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The Right Hon. Lord R. Kerr, District Lodge, Curragh Camp, 
Ireland. 



( 5 ) 

Mons. C. Klincksieck, Paris (per Messrs Longmans & Co., 

Publishers, London). 

Mr Alderman Stuart Knill, Fresh Wharf, London Bridge, E.G. 
Perceval Landon, Esq.-, Hertford College, Oxford. 
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Mrs Thomas Leslie, Woodend House, Banchory. 
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Jedburgh. 

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Bookseller, Glasgow). 

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seller, Glasgow). 

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Manchester. 
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( 7 ) 

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(per Mr J. R. M'Intosh, Bookseller, Edinburgh). 
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E.G. 
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ERRATA. 

Page 104, line 15, " Plate XXXIV." should be " Plate XL." 
142, 2, " Plate XXXV. " should be " Plate XLII." 
7, " Plate XXXVI. " should be " Plate XLIII." 
159, 23, " Plate XIV., fig. 6" should be " Plate XV., fig. 

i." 

205, 31, "Plate XXXVIII." should be "Plate XLIII." 
222, 1 8, "Featherstone" should read " Usher of Feather- 
stone." 

236, 20, "fig. 3" should be "fig. 4-" 
239, 1 6, "fig. 9" should be "fig. 10." 
269, 32, "Plate XL VIII." should be "Plate L." 
308, 25, " Plate XI. " should be " Plate IX." 
356, 22, "Plate LIII." should be "Plate LVI." 
369, 29, "Plate XXXV." should be "Plate XXXIV." 

Plate XXXI II., No. 8, page 376, "Guzman Arms," the Compons of 
LEON should be Argent (not Or\ a lion rampant gules. 



INTRODUCTION. 

THE present work was undertaken, and considerable 
progress made in its execution, by my late friend Dr 
GEORGE BURNETT, who so long and so worthily, filled 
the office of Lyon King of Arms. At his much regretted 
decease, in 1889, his MS. was placed in my hands with 
the request that I would see through the press the work, 
then supposed by his friends to be nearly complete. An 
examination of the MS., however, proved that this was 
very far indeed from being the case. It consisted only 
of 230 pages, scarcely equal to 150 of the present work ; 
and, with every desire to be helpful, I could at that time 
only decline the task of completing a book of which 
three-fourths remained to be written, and the majority 
of the illustrations to be drawn. 

It was, however, thought by others who were interested 
a pity that Dr BURNETT'S labour (which included the 
preparations for thirty-two of the plates) should be 
altogether lost ; and I eventually accepted a proposition 
by which, upon certain conditions, the MS. and plates in 
preparation were to be handed over to me to be utilised 
in any way which I might think desirable. 

In the exercise of my judgment I determined to 
rewrite the book ; mainly in order that I might be able 
to give it a far wider application than Dr BURNETT had 
intended, and convert it into an Introduction to general 
European Heraldry. But I decided to print in full 
those portions of his work which seemed to me the most 
interesting and valuable ; and especially those relating 
to Scottish matters, with regard to which his official 



position and long continued historical research enabled 
him to speak with a knowledge and authority to which 
I could not pretend. 

I have, therefore, not only had the pleasure to comply 
with a very proper condition that Dr BURNETT'S name 
should appear in conjunction with my own upon the 
cover and title-page of the book, but I have also printed 
in extenso, and clearly marked with his initials, both in 
the text and in the synopsis, those valuable portions 
of the work to which allusion is made in the preceding 
paragraph. 

The portion of Chapter I. which relates to the use of 
the particule nobiliare is a condensation of a paper pre- 
viously written by me at Dr BURNETT'S request ; and I 
must also add, in fairness to myself, that I had communi- 
cated to him the general result of a rather laborious 
examination I had undertaken into the authenticity of 
RUXNER'S Thurnier Buck and the Leges Hastiludiales.' 1 

The extension of the scope of the work has necessitated 
its growth from one volume to two ; and even so I have 
been obliged to somewhat curtail the Chapters on Mar- 
shalling, External Ornaments, and Marks of Illegitimacy, 
which are condensations from my much more extensive 
collections ; and I am fully aware that the work might 
have been made more entertaining to the general reader 
had it been practicable to include chapters on several 
collateral subjects, as well as to bring under notice more 
of the many Curiosities of Heraldry. 

The object I have had in view, however, is not to 
furnish amusement to the general reader, but to make 
the work one of real utility to the student. Fine writing 
and the graces of composition have therefore had to give 
place to what is often a very bald and bare statement of 

1 This general result is stated much too broadly in some post- 
humous articles on Heraldry printed in the Edinburgh Encyclo- 
pedia over his initials. 



facts. Nor will the reader find herein any allusion 
(except occasionally by way of warning) to the many 
fables which have been so often repeated in our heraldic 
works as now frequently to be taken for approved facts, 
such as those which profess to account for the origin of 
the arms of many illustrious families by legends which 
will not endure examination by the light of history. 

These legends are often poetical and interesting; 
nevertheless Heraldry has suffered in public estimation 
as much by the continuous repetition of stones which an 
elementary knowledge of history proves to be fictitious, 
as by an entirely needless association with a multitude 
of absurdities in natural history, with which many of the 
old professed treatises on Heraldry were padded, and 
which are only of interest to us as affording a gauge 
of our ancestors' ignorance and credulity. 

Of late years there has been as great a revival of interest 
in Heraldry as in other archaeological matters. Its value 
is becoming increasingly recognised, not only as an 
interesting link between the present and the past, but 
as an important auxiliary, which those who are con- 
cerned in historical or artistic studies cannot afford to 
neglect. 

Forty years ago the late Professor COSMO INNES, one 
of the leading historical antiquaries of the time, wrote on 
this subject as follows : 

" I hope it will not alarm any one if I venture merely 
to allude to the science of heraldry, a study which of old 
engaged the attention of all that were gentle born 
which is now left to the tender mercies of the lapidary 
and the coach-painter Requiescat! I might indeed 
suggest the great importance of some knowledge of 
heraldry to the student of historical antiquities. For the 
pursuit of family history, of topographical and territorial 
learning, of ecclesiology, of architecture, it is altogether 
indispensable ; and its total and contemptuous neglect 



in this country is one of the causes why a Scotchman 
can rarely speak and write on any of these subjects 
without being exposed to the charge of using a language 
he does not understand." (Scotland in the Middle Ages, 
p. 302.) 

These remarks were equally applicable to persons of 
other nationalities besides that to which the Professor 
referred, but in all civilised countries many more persons 
are now interested in Heraldry than was the case when 
those words were written, and when a knowledge of the 
subject almost required of its possessor an apology for 
having wasted his time on a study deemed by the 
ignorant frivolous and unprofitable. 

No doubt what was called the "jargon of heraldry," 
and, even more, the undue importance attached by its 
professors to the petty minutice of blazon, had the 
natural effect of deterring many from it as a serious 
study. Heraldry has indeed in each country a lan- 
guage of its own, intended to express facts clearly and 
distinctly. That in use in Britain is a mixture of 
English and Norman - French, which assumed nearly 
its present shape in the thirteenth century. In the 
Heraldry of France, though some of the terms are the 
same as, or similar to, those in use among us, there 
are considerable differences in others, and still greater 
differences in modes of blazon. 

As the student who wishes to take a wider view of an 
interesting subject than is to be obtained from works 
describing the uses of his own country, will have at the 
outset to make the acquaintance of many of the most 
useful treatises which are written in the French language, 
I have endeavoured to facilitate his progress by adding 
to the work a French, as well as an English, Glossary; 
and by printing so many blazons in the French language 
as should be sufficient to give a person of moderate 
intelligence a fair idea of the phraseology employed, and 



of the differences referred to above. Specimens of 
blazon in Spanish, German, and Portuguese are included 
in the work, and the instances adduced in illustration 
are drawn for the first time from the Armory of every 
European state. In the choice of these I have been 
mainly guided by the desire to justify a position which 
I take up as regards annes parlantes, and to which 
allusion is made in the last Chapter of the book. 

The first volume will be the more useful to the 
beginner ; the second will, I hope and think, be of equal 
use and interest to those who have already mastered the 
general principles of the Science. 

My object has been, then, to set forth historical facts ; 
there is no dearth of treatises which will enable the 
student who has acquired a knowledge of these " dry 
bones," to clothe them with any desired amount of poetic 
and graceful fiction. 

With regard to the illustrations I should say that the 
plate of fac-similes from the Armorial de Gelre is only 
entitled so to be described as far as its general outlines 
are concerned. The splendid edition of this work, pub- 
lished in fac-simile by M. VICTOR BOUTON, had not 
come under my notice at the time my drawing was 
made, and the colouring is what I conceived should 
be there, rather than the (often erroneous or unheraldic) 
tinctures employed in the MS. itself. I must also guard 
myself against the supposition that I endorse the authen- 
ticity of all the coats which appear in the Salle des 
Croists at Versailles to which I have often referred. 
Some coats which appear there may be open to serious 
doubts ; but these do not, I think, exist in regard to any 
of the examples quoted in the present work. 

The utility of such a book as this largely depends 
upon its having a good Index. Both the reader and the 
writer are to be congratulated that in the present case 
the Index has been the careful work (I think a " labour 



( vi ) 

of love") of GEORGE HARVEY JOHNSTON, Esq., who 
is himself an enthusiastic and well - instructed student 
of Heraldry, and for whose intelligent and sustained 
interest in the work I am delighted to make my sincere 
and grateful acknowledgments. 

My critics will, I trust, be of the mind of HORACE : 

" . . . . non ego paucis 
Offendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit, 
Aut humana parum cavit natura." 

De Arte Poetica^ 1. 351-3. 

JOHN WOODWARD. 

MONTROSE, 1891. 



S Y N O P S I S. V O L. I. 

CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

The duties of a Herald Definition of Heraldry, or Armory- 
Social rank in feudal times Insignia Gentilitia Who are 
" noble "? Letters of nobility, Grants of Arms Continental 
practice Gentleman Esquire [The Particule Nobiliare 
Christian names Formation of Surnames " Le Premier 
Baron Chretien" Surnames not used even in i8th Century 
Noble families not using the particule Legislation about the 
partictde in France, and in Lorraine BERANGER The 
German von Use of the particule in Holland, Italy, Spain, 
etc. (J. W.)] In England Silly modern assumptions. (G. B.) 

pp. i 18 

CHAPTER II. 

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT-ARMOUR. 

A. Origin of Armorial insignia Ancient treatises Boke of St. 
Albarfs Seize Quartiers of our Saviour at Mentz (J, W.) 
Coats ascribed to the patriarchs Earliest tomb with Armorial 
shield PLANCHE'S conclusions Earliest Armorial Seal 
ELLIS'S theory Etruscan and Greek vases Roman cohort 
ensigns The Leges Hastiludiales ascribed to HENRY the 
FOWLER Early standards and shields bearing charges had 
no hereditary character The Bayeux Tapestry ; its evidence 
against the use of personal arms (J. W.) The Second Crusade 
Mr BURNETT'S conclusion as to date of arms Arms assumed 
Restrained by Sovereign Right to Arms disputed Grants 
and assignations of Arms Military character of. (G.B.) 

pp. 1936 

B. Origin and development of Coat-ArmourMaterials for in- 
quiryInfluence of the Crusades Change in armour still more 
influential Tournaments and jousts Origin of Dan- 



( viii ) 

gerous sport Originated in GermanyRegulated and syste- 
matised in France RUXNER'S Thurnier Buck, an elaborate 
fiction The Leges Hastiludiales of late origin The negative 
evidence of seals, coins, tombs Arms of the Popes Early 
tombs with arms in Britain Shields without arms Early 
seals Transition of personal devices into hereditary Arms 
Use of Arms in Scotland, the Low Countries, France, Spain, 
Italy, Sweden My conclusion as to date. (J. W.) pp. 36 52 



CHAPTER III. 

SHAPE OF SHIELD TINCTURES PARTED COATS. 

Primary use of Armorial Insignia The shield Shape and size 
affected by character of armour The Bayeux Tapestry 
armour and shield Type at commencement of I3th century 
Later forms The Spanish shield Oval shields a bonche 
Ecu en palette Ecu en banniere Circular escucheons Ecu en 
lozange Points of the Escucheon Tinctures Metals Furs 
Exceptional use of other colours Cendree Brundtre 
JB leu-celeste A maranthe Eisen farbe Carnation Proper 
Purpure Nonsensical ideas as to arms being indicative of 
moral qualities Furs Ermine Vair Modes of indicating 
colours by hachures Fields of a single metal, tincture, or fur 
The Blut-fahne or Regalien quarter Varieties of Ermine 
Varieties of Vair Bejfroi Menu-uair Potent Vaire, or 
Verrey Plumetf Papelonne Fur au naturel Arms of 
BREGENZ Parted Coats Partition lines Modes of partition 
Ecartele en equerre Gyronny The CAMPBELL coat 
German and other Continental partitions Chape Chausse 
Chaperonne Paly Barry Bendy Fretty Chevronny 
Chequy Lozengy Rules of Blazon Armes Fausses Seme 
Diaper pp. 53115 



CHAPTER IV. 

ORDINARIES. 

Classification simply for convenience Origin of the Ordinaries 
The CHIEF Double Chiefs Chefs abaisses Guelphic and 
Ghibelline Chiefs The fillet The diw'seThe Chief-pale 
The Pale Tierced in pale Pallets Endorse Pallets 
Retraits. 



The FESS The STUART arms The Bar Bars gemels Tierced 
in fess. 

The BEND The bend Engoule'e The Krantzlein, or Crancelin 
Bendlets Bendlets enhanced The Cotice. 

The BEND-SINISTER No certain mark of illegitimacy Arrange- 
ment of arms in Churches The Chapel of the Golden Fleece 
at Dijon The Cathedral at Haarlem St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor. 

The CHEVRON Different usages of Chevron ploye Chevron 
etime Chevrons rompus, brises, faillis Chevronels Couple 
closes. 

The CROSS as an Ordinary The SALTIRE The Saltire and Chief 
Flanchis The PILE Emanche Pointe Mediaeval pennons 
The/Wr/ pp. 116151 

The CROSS as a Charge Varieties of The Passion, or Long Cross 
Cross Calvary Cross Patriarchal Cross of LORRAINE 
Greek Cross, or Cross Couped Cross Patty, or Formy The 
Otelle The Maltese Cross The VICTORIA Cross The Cross 
Patty-fitchy The Cross Potent The Cross Potent-fitchy 
The Cross of JERUSALEM The Cross Patonce The Cross 
Flory, or Fleury The Cross Floretty, or Fleur-de-lisee 
The Cross of CALATRAVA The Cross Ancree, or Moline 
The Cross Sarcelly, or Recercelee The Cross Botonny The 
Cross Pommetty The Cross Clechee The Cross of Tou- 
LOUSE The Cross Tau The Cross Guivre', or Gringolee 
The Cross Urdee The Cross Avellane The Cross Aiguisee 
Crosslets pp. 151164 



CHAPTER V. 

THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

The Quarter The Canton The Canton-indented The Canton 
and Fess. 

The Giron Arms of the GiRONS, MORTIMERS, and PRESSIGNY. 

The Inescucheon, or Escucheon. 

The Bordure A Bordure circular Vftu en rond, et en ovate The 
Orle Unfaux ecusson. 

THE TRESSURE The Royal Tressure of SCOTLAND Its origin- 
Its early use As an Augmentation Grant of to Foreigners 
Variously floriated Foreign use of the Tressure. 

The Fret The Lozenge The Lozenge-throughout. 



The Fusil Mascle Rustre. 

The Flaunche Flanque en nwaT Flasque Voider The Billet, 
and Delve. 

The Label Labels of unusual number of points Labels in 
unusual positions Curious Labels Roundles Noms bizarres 
The Arms of the MEDICI Roundles charged Besans- 
tourteauX) and Tourteaux-besans Fountains, and Gurges 

pp. 165193 



CHAPTER VI. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. I. THE HUMAN FIGURE. 

Arms of See of Chichester, and other ecclesiastical foundations 
Saints Biblical personages Mythological Nude figures 
Savages Knights Dancers Parts of the human body 
Moor's heads Hungarian memorials of Turkish fights Heads 
of GERION, JANUS, ARGUS, BOREAS, MIDAS, etc. Cherubim 
and Seraphim The human eye The heart Valentine coats 
Beards, lips, teeth Piratical coats The skeleton Arms 
and hands University of Paris Dextrocheres, etc. The 
Foi Human legs and feet .... pp. 194 207 



CHAPTER VII. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. II. BEASTS. 

I. THE LION The Lions of ENGLAND Leopards in French and 
English blazon Different attitudes Parts of the Lion Early 
and curious examples of the Lion in Arms LlOmbre du 
Lion. 

II. OTHER BEASTS. The Tiger Its vanity! The Leopard 
Leopard's heads Jessant de Us The ferocious Musion The 
Panther The Catamount The wild Boar The domestic Pig 
Domestic economy in arms Wolves Ravissant The Bear 
The Polar Bear The Bear's Head The Fox The Elephant 
The Camel Deer, etc. Moose-deer Holyrood Abbey 
Bulls Calves Heads Goats and Goat's Heads Sheep 
The Paschal Lamb The Antelope The Horse and Ass The 
Hare Seals Otters Beavers Urchins Moles Squirrels 
Apes Rats Dogs, etc. ... pp. 208 241 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. III. BIRDS. 

I. THE EAGLE. The Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire Its origin 

and development The single-headed Eagle The double- 
headed Eagle The Heiligenscheine The Eagle in other 
princely and Royal coats The Eagle of the German Empire 
The Allerion The Eagle of the French Empire Parts of 
the Eagle. 

II. OTHER BIRDS. The Vulture The Falcon Owls The Swan 

Heron Stork Crane and Heron Ostrich and Pelican 
Ravens and Choughs The Popinjay Cocks and Hens 
Swallows and Martins Peacocks, and Birds of Paradise 
Other birds pp. 242 267 



CHAPTER IX. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. IV. FISH, REPTILES, INSECTS. 

I. FISH. The Dolphin The DAUPHINS of FRANCE The Barbel 

The Salmon and Pike The Whale The Eel Shell-fish. 

II. REPTILES. Serpents Lizards Crocodiles Scorpions Tor- 
toises Frogs and Toads Johnnie Crapaud Leeches, 
Worms, and Snails. 

III. INSECTS The Butterfly The House-fly Wasps The Bees 
of the French Empire Ants Grasshoppers Wood-lice 
Fleas pp. 268285 



CHAPTER X. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. V. MONSTERS. 

The Griffin The Sea-Griffin The Dragon Le Dragon Mon- 
strueux Wyverns The Cockatrice and Basilisk Archi- 
tectural Monsters The Salamander UAmphipttre 
The Sphinx, Harpy, and Hydra The Unicorn The Sea- 
Unicorn The Phoenix The Pegasus The Centaur Le 
Centaur Sagittaire The Sea-Horse The Sea-Stag The 
Cock-Fish The Sea-Lion The Sea-Dog The Mermaid or 
Siren The Faun, Devil, and Cerberus . . pp. 286 304 



CHAPTER XL 

INANIMATE CHARGES. I. ASTRONOMICAL. 

The Sun The Moon Crescents The Star, Estoile, and Mullet- 
Constellations Comets Rainbows Thunderbolts Storms 
The Wind Champagne Mount Terrace Water River 
Volcanoes Fire Flames .... pp. 305 314 



CHAPTER XII. 

INANIMATE CHARGES. II. THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

I. TREES, and FLOWERS. Groves Forests Trees Branches 
The Crequier Palms Leaves The Trefoil The Nenuphar 
Leaf Quatrefoils Cinquefoils Fraises The Rose of ENG- 
LAND The Fleur-de-lis of FRANCE The Natural Lily The 
Thistle of SCOTLAND Wreaths and Chaplets Other Flowers 
Tobacco. 

II. FRUITS. Pomegranates Grapes Oranges Garbs 
Vegetables Klee-stengeln .... pp. 315 344 



CHAPTER XIII. 

INANIMATE CHARGES. III. MISCELLANEOUS. 

MILITARY. Sword Spears Cronels Helmets Axes Bows 
Arrows Scythes (Polish) Shields Banners Beacons 
Battering - Rams Caltraps Chains (NAVARRE) Water- 
Budgets Horse-shoes Polish Coats Breys Barnacles 
Stirrups Castles Towers Bridges Brog Columns 
Ladders Slings Portcullis Cannon Needle-gun. 

NAUTICAL. Ships Lymphads Boats Anchor Noah's Ark. 

ECCLESIASTICAL CHARGES. Keys Crozier Tiara Chalice 
Candlestick Censers The Gonfanon Bell Scourges 
Ecclesiastical Hat Pallium Pilgrims' Scrips and Staves. 

DOMESTIC. Maunch Buckles Cushions Crowns, etc. Cups- 
Musical Instruments Harp of IRELAND Horns The 
Clarion, or Rest Dice Cards Chess-rook Money 
Cauldron Eatables M irrors Combs Wearing Apparel 
Agricultural Instruments Mallets Letters and Words 

PP- 345395 



PLATES IN VOLUME I. 



PLATK 

I. Shields ... . . facing page 44 

II. Examples of Shields and Armour . . ., ,, 54 

III. Emblazoned, Tinctures . . . ,,60 

IV. ,, Furs . . . . ,,62 
V. ,, Modes of Partition . . ,,80 

VI. Modes of Partition . . ,,84 

VII. ,, Modes of Partition . ,,90 

VIII. Modes of Partition . . ,, 100 

IX. ,, Rules of Blazon ,, 108 

X. ,, Arms containing Oh icf and Pale . ,, 118 

XI. ,, Arms containing Fcss . . ,, 124 

XII. ,, Arms containing Bend . . ,, 130 

XIII. , , Arms containing Chevron . . , , 13(5 

XIV. ,, Arms containing Cross . . ,, 140 
XV. ,, Arms containing Cross and Salt ire- . . , 144 

XVI. ,, . Arms containing Pile and Pall . ,,146 

XVII. ,, Arms containing Bordurc, Orlc, and 

Treasure . . . ,, 172 

XVIII. ,. Arms containing Canton, Gt/ron, 

Flanchc, Lozcnyc, Masclc, and 
Fusil . . . ,,100 

XIX. ,, Arms containing JJillct, lioundlcs, 

Gurycs, Rainbow, Annulet, Vires, 
Fret, and Escutcheon . . ,, 192 

XX. ,, Arms containing Human Figure and 

parts thereof ... 198 

XXI. ,, Arms containing Lions . ,, 212 

XXII. ,, Arms containing Lions and parts of 

Lions, and also Tiger and Leopard ,, 222 

XXIII. ,, Arms containing Boar, Wolf, Bear, 

Fox, and Stag. . . . ,,228 

XXIV. ,, Arms containing Bull, Goat, Lamb, 

Antelope, Horse, Hare, Otter, 
Talbot, Herrison, Mole, and 
Ermine .... 

XXV. ,, Arms containing Eagle, Falcon, Owl, 

Swan, Stork, Pelican 

XXVI. ,, Arms containing Chough, Papingoes, 

Cock, Martlet, Bream, Salmon, 
Dolphin, Barbel, Trout, Stockfish, 
Escallops ... ,, 266 

XXVII. ,, Arms containing Snake, Serpent, 

Griffin, Dragon, Wyvern, Cocka- 
trice, Unicorn, Seahorse, and 
Mermaid . . . . ,,288 

XXVIII. ,, Arms containing Sun, Crescent Star, 

Estoile, Mullet, Mount, Hill, 
River, and Hedge . . ,,308 

XXIX. ,, Arms containing Trees, Forest, and 

Leaves . . ,, 318 



PLATE 

XXX. Emblazoned, Arms containing Flowers, Fleur- 
de-lis, Thistle, Chaplet, Pome- 
granate, Rye, and Garb . . facing page 332 
XXXI. ,, Arms containing Sword, Spear, 
Battle-axe, Helmet, Bow, Arrow, 
Pheon, Battering-Ram, Caltrap, 
Chains, and Water-Budget . ,, 346 
XXXII. ,, Arms containing Barnacle, Stirrup, 
Castle, Tower, Column, Ladder, 
Stair, and Lymphad . . ,, 358 

XXXIII. ,, Arms containing Maunch, Buckle, 

Crown, Key, Cup, Cushion, 
Caldron, Horn, Clarion, and 
Words . . . ,.376 

XXXIV. Banners, Sail with Arms, etc. . . 388 



/ 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 



VOL. I. 



FIG. 


PAGE 


FIG. 


PAGE 


1. From Etruscan Vases . 


18 


47. Cross, Passion . 


164 


2. 


18 


48. Greek 


164 


3. . . 


18 


49. Calvary . 


164 


4. ',; . . 


18 


50. Patriarchal 


164 


5. Cohort Ensigns . 


19 


51. Potent . 


164 


6. ,, . 


19 


52. Lorraine . 


164 


7. Shield, Oval 


53 


53. Patty 


164 


8. , (I bouche . 


53 


54. Patty-Fitchy 


164 


9. , .... 


53 


55. Maltese . 


164 


10. , Spanish . 


53 


56. Patonce . 


164 


11. , Lozenge . 


53 


57. Fleur-de-lisee 


164 


12. , 16th Century . 


53 


58. Flory 


164 


13. , . . 


53 


59. Fourchy . 


164 


14. , 


53 


60. Aiguisee . 


164 


15. English Points of Escucheon 


59 


61. Tau . 


164 


16. French 
17. Line, Engrailed . 
18. , Embattled 


59 

75 

75 


62. Eagle of Germany 
63. Fleur-de-lis, from Tomb o 
Count d'Euat, St. Hilaire 


242 

e 

315 


19. , Indented . 


75 


64. Fleur-de-lis, from Portrai 


b 


20. , Invecked . 


75 


in Sauvageot Collection 


. 315 


21. , "Wavy or Undy . 


75 


65. Fleur-de-lis, from staine< 


1 


22. , Nebuly . 


75 


glass in Depaulis Collec 




23. , Dancetty . 


75 


tion 


. 315 


24. , Raguly . 


75 


66. Fleur-de-lis, from Rey, Plat 


3 


25. , Potente . 


75 


IV., Fig. 31 . . 


315 


26. , Dovetailed 


75 


67. Fleur-de-lis, from Seal o 


f 


27. , Urdy 


75 


Falaise . 


. 315 


28. Per Pale . 


77 


68. Fleur-de-lis, from Seal of th 


s 


29. Fess .... 


77 


Chatelet of Paris . 


. 315 


30. Quarterly .... 


77 


69. Fleur-de-lis, from Rey, Plat 




31. Per Bend . 


77 


XVII., Fig. 210 . 


\ 315 


32. Bend-Sinister 


77 


70. Fleur-de-lis, in time of lates 


fc 


33. Saltire . . 


77 


Bourbon Kings 


. 315 


34. Chevron 


77 


71. Early Swedish Coat, fron 


i 


35. Ente en point . 


77 


HILDEBRAND, DetSvcnski 


I 


36. Champagne 


77 


Eiks Vapnet . 


. 326 


37. The Pale . 


116 


72. Arms of Crequy . 


. 344 


38. Fess .... 


116 


73. Helmet from Worsaac 


} 


39. Bend .... 


116 


Nordiske Oldsager . 


. 345 


40. Bend-Sinister 


116 


74. Helmet from Worsaac 


i 


41. Chevron 


116 


Nordiske Oldsager . 


. 345 


42. Saltire 


116 


75. Lymphad . 


. 366 


43. Pile .... 


116 


76. 


. 366 


44. Gyron .... 


116 


77. Helmet 


. 395 


45. Lozenge 


116 


78. 


. 395 


46. Fusil .... 


116 


79. 


. 395 



A 

TREATISE ON HERALDRY, 
BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 

CHAPTER I. 

ETYMOLOGICALLY a treatise on Heraldry should be an 
explanation of the duties of a Herald. Though an 
analogy has been drawn between the Greek K 4jpv, or 
Latin fecialis, and the herald of later times, the latter 
was essentially a mediaeval officer whose name seems 
to be derived from Heer, a host, and Held, a champion. 

He was in the first place the messenger of war or 
peace between sovereigns ; and of courtesy or defiance 
between knights. His functions further included the 
superintendence of trials by battle, jousts, tournaments, 
and public ceremonies generally. When the bearing of 
hereditary armorial insignia became an established 
usage its supervision was in most European countries 
added to the other duties of the herald. The office 
survives in our own, and in some other countries, but 
with duties greatly curtailed ; and with this narrowing 
of his functions the term " Heraldry " has come to 
signify, not a knowledge of the multifarious duties of 
a herald of former times, but chiefly the study of that 
part of them which relates to family and national 
insignia, including also subsidiarily such kindred topics 
as precedence, hereditary and personal titles and dignities, 
and the insignia which are attached to them. 
B 



The "science" or rather art, which teaches us the 
language, and instructs us in the origin and development, 
of these symbols, should with greater propriety be 
termed Armory. This is the designation applied to it 
by the earliest writers on the subject, both in England 
and in France, but it is one which for more than two 
and a half centuries, has greatly fallen into disuse ; 
and the better understood name of Heraldry conse- 
quently appears in the title of the present work. The 
term Armory is used by GERARD LEGH, Accidence 
of Armory, 1568 ; BOSSEWELL, Armorie of Honor, 
WYRLEY, True Use of Armorie, 1592; BOLTON, Elements 
of Armorie, 1610. GuiLLIM (or the writer who used his 
name) led the more modern fashion by calling his work, 
first published in 1610, A Display of Heraldry. Sir 
GEORGE MACKENZIE'S treatise on the Science of 
Heraldry, treated as a part of the Civil Law and Law 
of Nations, was published in 1680. Though one of 
NlSBET's earlier books was, in 1716, entitled An Essay 
on the Ancient and Modern use of Armory, his later and 
principal work, printed in 1722, was called A System of 
Heraldry. 

[On the other side of the Channel, JEAN LE 
FERON in 1544 calls his work Le Grand Blason 
d'Armoiries, a term also employed by BAR A in 
1581 and following years. GELIOT'S work, pub- 
lished in 1635, is La Vraie et Perfect Science des 
Armoiries ; DE LA COLOMBIERE in 1644 uses the 
term " La Science Heroique ; " but three years 
later appeared FAURE's Abrege Methodique de la 
Science Heraldique. SEGOING, who printed his 
Mercure Armorial in 1648, calls its later editions 
Le Tresor Heraldique. The many small, but most 
valuable, treatises of the learned Jesuit PERE 
MENETRIER have similarly varying titles, e.g., 
r Abrege Methodique des Principals Heraldiques ; 



( 3 ) 

021 du Veritable Art du Blason, appeared in 1661 ; 
and La Pratique des Armoiries in 1671. In later 
books the designation is usually " la Science du 
Blason" etc. The great German authority, SPENER, 
entitles his work Opus Heraldicum, whence RUDOL- 
PHUS took the title Heraldica Curiosa.}. W.] 
Before entering on the consideration of armorial dis- 
tinctions, it may be advisable to make a few preliminary 
observations on a subject intimately connected with them : 
differences of social rank, and surnames. 

At all times, and in all countries, the condition of 
society has been one of inequality. In the heroic days 
of Greece we have a glimpse of families or races of 
larger, stronger, more vigorous men, ruling over the rest 
of the community. In ancient Rome there were two 
great classes, corresponding with the new settlers, and 
the ancient inhabitants of the country who had to make 
way for them. In old Celtic times, when cattle were 
the synonym of wealth, the unequal distribution of this 
wealth, which had its origin in the natural diversities of 
character, led to a gradation of rank which is recognised 
in the Brehon laws. The broadly marked difference 
between the nobleman or gentleman, and the rest of 
the community, is one of the most prominent features 
of mediaeval life ; and the source from which the less 
abrupt gradations of rank in modern society have been 
gradually developed. According to feudal ideas the 
whole land was, in the first instance, the property of the 
Sovereign, from whom it was held under the obligation 
of rendering stated military service ; with or without the 
further obligation of attendance at his court and council. 
The immediate vassals of the Crown, who were in the 
first instance called Barons (as emphatically the King's 
men\ enjoyed in some cases the office of Comes, or Dux, 
and had vassals who held their lands from them by a 
like military tenure ; and with obligations of attendance 



( 4 ) 

at the courts of their superiors similar to those by which 
the latter held their lands from the Sovereign. By a 
constitution of this kind, but with variations in detail, 
society was held together in the different parts of Europe. 
The landholder was the nobleman or gentleman ; and 
the smallest tenant of land held by military tenure 
participated in the privileges of nobility. The gentry of 
England had many privileges recognised by law. If a 
churl, or peasant, defamed the honour of a gentleman, 
the latter had his remedy in law ; but if one gentleman 
defamed another the combat was allowed. For similar 
offences a gentleman was punishable with less severity 
than a churl, unless the crime was heresy, treason, or 
excessive contumacy. A gentleman, in his examination, 
was not subjected to torture ; and, if condemned to 
death, he was beheaded and not ignominiously hanged. 
A churl might not challenge a gentleman to combat, 
" quia conditioned impares" 

Side by side with feudalism grew up the use of dis- 
tinctive devices, by which on banner or shield the 
performers of military service were distinguished. Like 
the jus imaginum of classic times, the right to bear 
insignia gentilitia became in the later middle ages the 
distinctive privilege of the nobly born. "Nobiles," says 
Sir EDWARD COKE, " sunt qui arma gentilitia anteces- 
sorum suorum proferre possunt." To use the words of 
CAMDEN, " Nobiles dividuntur in minores et majores. 
Nobiles minores sunt equites aurati, armigeri, et qui 
vulgo generosi et gentlemen vocantur." Or in the 
language of Sir JAMES LAWRENCE (Nobility of the 
British Gentry, p. 3,4th edition, London, 1840), "Any 
individual who distinguishes himself may be said to 
ennoble himself." A prince judging an individual 
worthy of notice gave him patent letters of nobility. 
In these letters were blazoned the arms which were to 
distinguish his shield. By this shield he was to be 



( 5 ) 

known, or nobilis. " A plebeian had no blazonry on 
his shield, because he was ignobilis, or unworthy of 
notice. . . . Hence arms are the criterion of nobility. 
Every nobleman must have a shield of arms. Whoever 
has a shield of arms is a nobleman. In every country 
in Europe without exception a grant of arms or letters 
of nobility is conferred on all the descendants." 

[ LE RoQUE, in his Traite de Noblesse (4to, Rouen, 
1734), says: " Le Roy par ses lettres patentes 
concernant les Armoiries, les a non seulement 
confirmees dans la non-derogeance : il annoblit 
tacitement ceux qui ne sont pas nobles, puisqu'il 
leur accorde ou confirme des armoiries." 

At page 59 he adds : " Quand un souverain 
permet par ses lettres a un non noble d'avoir des 
armoiries il 1'annoblit tacitement, pourvu que la 
concession n'ait point quelque cause contraire ; car 
puisqu'on ne peut porter des armoiries nobles sans 
etre noble ou anobli, le prince donnant pouvoir a 
quelqu'un d'en porter, il lui accorde en meme temps 
la Noblesse, puisque sans cela la concession serait 
inutile : Concesso uno conceduntur omnia, sine quibus 
explicari non potest? J. W.] 

As illustrating the usage of letters of nobility existing 
in our own country reference may be made to two 
examples of the reign of HENRY VI. (printed from the 
Excerpt a Historica in the Herald and Genealogist, 
i., p. 135), one to NICHOLAS CLOOS, the other to ROGER 
KEYS, clerk, and THOMAS his brother. CLOOS had been 
engaged in the works of King's College, Cambridge, and 
KEYS in those of Eton College ; and in reward for their 
services each had a grant of nobility containing the 
express words " nobilitamus nobilemque facimus et 
creamus," these being followed by others showing that 
armorial ensigns were regarded the usual tokens of 
nobility : " in signum hujus nobilitatis arma et armorum 



( 6 ) 

signa damus et concedamus." As further English 
examples of the Sovereign conferring rank by a personal 
act, we need hardly allude to the accolade in knight- 
hood, and the creation of an esquire by the imposition 
of a collar of livery. 

Out of Great Britain the term " noble " is still 
habitually used in its original sense, and the prerogative 
of raising persons to noble rank is continually exercised 
by Continental Sovereigns. The practice which has 
gradually established itself in England of restricting the 
words "noble" and "nobility" to members of the 
Peerage, has perhaps been partly brought about by the 
devolution by the Sovereign of his right to concede 
armorial ensigns to the Kings of Arms ; the Sovereign's 
prerogative being only directly exercised in creating 
Peerages, in advancing to the rank of Baronet, in con- 
ferring simple Knighthood (which has fallen into disuse 
on the Continent), and in nominating to the several 
chivalric orders. The difference of usage in this matter 
between Britain and the Continent has not unfrequently 
been the source of a strange confusion of ideas on the 
other side of the Channel, particularly at the minor 
courts of Germany, where we have heard of a member of 
the British aristocracy, of the- most ancient and dis- 
tinguished lineage, in respect that he was not himself 
a peer, or " noble " in the popular English acceptation, 
having to give the pas to a " Baron " or " Herr Von," 
who had newly received his patent of nobility along 
with his commission in the army. 

While the stricter meaning of the word is retained to 
the present day in the expression " gentleman by birth," 
it has often come to be difficult for one who is not a 
genealogical expert to know who is, or who is not, a 
gentleman of coat-armour, the less abrupt gradation of 
ranks and the courtesy of society having caused the 
word gentleman to be applied in a somewhat loose 



( 7 ) 

sense to any one whose education, profession, perhaps 
whose income, raises him above ordinary trade or menial 
service ; or to a man of polite and refined manners and 
ideas. 

A cognate word to gentleman, whose popular accepta- 
tion has come to differ much from its original meaning, 
is esquire. It originally meant the armour-bearer or 
shield-bearer of a knight. 

[" L'Ecuyer etait dans le principe le serviteur 
Noble qui assistait le Chevalier et portait son Ecu 
ou ses armes quand il allait a la guerre ; plus tard, 
le droit de porter un Ecu peint des armoiries et de 
devises fut le droit particulier a ceux qui etaient 
Nobles de race ancienne, de la 1'origine du nom 
d'Ecuyer (armiger) qualification que prirent tous les 
gentilshommes dans la suite des temps. Un arret 
du Parlement de Paris du 30 Octobre 1554, avait 
proclame le titre d'Ecuyer : * Caracteristique de la 
Noblesse, jusqu'a preuve du contraire.' Noble et 
Ecuyer sont deux expressions qui marchaient 
toujours ensemble dans le langage legal d'autre 
fois." Le Heraut d' Armes, p. in, Paris, 1863. 
J.W.] 

A knight fully equipped in the days of chivalry was 
attended by two esquires, whose spurs were not of gold, 
like the knight's, but of silver. An esquire was created 
by the king by placing spurs on his heels and a collar 
about his neck. It is difficult to say who in strict law 
is now entitled to be designed an esquire. Every gentle- 
man of coat-armour is not an esquire. BLACKSTONE 
quotes with approval CAMDEN's definition of four 
classes of esquires. These are: " i. The eldest sons of 
knights, and their eldest sons in perpetual succession. 
2. The eldest sons of the younger sons of peers, and 
their eldest sons in perpetual succession ; both which 
species of esquires Sir HENRY SPELMAN entitles 



armigeri natalitii. 3. Esquires created by the King's 
letters patent, and their eldest sons. 4. Esquires in 
virtue of their offices ; justices of the peace, and others, 
who bear any office under the crown." " To these," 
continues BLACKSTONE, " may be added the esquires 
of Knights of the Bath, each of whom constitutes three 
at his installation, and all foreign, nay Irish peers." 
BLACKSTONE'S mention of Irish peers is accounted for 
by the fact that before the Union of 1801 peers of 
Ireland were in law foreigners. CAMDEN'S third class 
of esquires no longer exists, creation by letters patent 
or investiture having long ceased. CHRISTIAN, in his 
Notes to Blackstone, would limit the official title of 
esquire to holders of offices of trust under the crown 
who are styled esquires in their commissions ; and he 
remarks on BLACKSTONE'S omission of barristers, who 
have been decided by the Court of King's Bench to be 
esquires by office. No Esquires of the Bath have been 
appointed since 1812, and by the statutes of the Order 
in 1847, these Knights have no longer the power to 
nominate any. In the common usage of this country, 
at the present day, the designation " esquire " is 
habitually placed after the names of all persons supposed 
to be in comfortable circumstances ; and its use is con- 
sidered almost essential in addressing a letter to anyone 
who, in the looser sense of the word, would be called a 
" gentleman." 

In connection with the same subject some remarks 
may not be inappropriate on the use of the preposition 
de in French, or von in German, the presence or 
absence of which as a prefix to the surname is often 
supposed by foreigners to be an absolute test as to 
whether a person is, or is not, " noble " in the Continental 
sense, i.e., as having, or not having, the right to use 
armorial bearings. The absence of the " Particule 
Nobiliaire" from the surnames of the majority of the 



( 9 ) 

noblesse and gentry of Britain has been a cause of much 
of the foreign confusion of ideas with regard to the 
nobility of our untitled families, which has been 
already adverted to. 

[A historical investigation into the origin of the 
Particule Nobiliaire will show conclusively that it 
is not, and never has been, a titre de noblesse; an 
infallible mark of gentle descent ; but we must 
recognise the fact that in later times it has so 
generally been found in connection with the names 
of families of noble descent as to have become 
in many countries of the Continent one of its 
distinguishing marks. On the introduction of 
Christianity into Europe its preachers strenuously 
endeavoured to substitute, at baptism, the Christian 
name of a saint or martyr for the pagan name, 
often full of undesirable associations, of the 
neophyte. This was not done without a severe 
struggle. SS. CHRYSOSTOM (Homily xiii., Epistle 
to the Corinthians] and GREGORY THE GREAT 
allude to this repugnance, and enforce the substitu- 
tion. An examination of the "Personen Register" 
in the Urknndenbuch der Abtei Sanct G alien (vol. i., 
A.D. 700-840, Zurich, 1863) will show how little 
success had attended the attempt. The number of 
Scriptural or saintly names is absolutely insignificant 
as compared with the host that are neither the one 
nor the other. But even where the effort was suc- 
cessful the list of holy names was a limited one, and 
it was necessary to adopt surnames as an additional 
means of distinguishing individuals when, as at 
Bayeux in 1 1 7 1 , there were a hundred and ten knights, 
besides those of lower grade, who all bore the name 
of GUILLAUME. The commonest and readiest way 
of distinguishing persons who bore the same appella- 
tion was that of adding to the son's name that which 



his father had borne, as had been done long before 
by the Jews, and by both Greeks and Romans. This 
was, of course, the origin of the many British and 
Scandinavian surnames which end in the syllable 
"son"; ROBERTSON, JOHNSON, etc.; and of the 
Sclavonic surnames terminating in " ski," " off," 
" vitch," etc. In the Latin Cartularies, the formula 
is usually " ODO filius ISAMBARDl"; " PETRUS 
films ALBERTI," etc. The Cartulary of St. Pere, de 
Chartres, in 1119, has the briefer form " ANSOLDUS 
ROGERII," "ALCHERIUS ADALONIS," etc. In the 
Grand Capitnlaire of Champagne a deed of 1261 
mentions GULIELMUS RAIMUNDI ; others allude to 
BERNARDUS ANFREDI, GULIELMUS GIRAUDI, etc. 
When these names were translated into the vernacular 
they naturally became, PIERRE D'ALBERT, ANSOLDE 
DE ROGIER, GUILLAUME DE RAIMOND, GUILLAUME 
DE GlRAULD, etc. (La Particule Nobiliaire, par 
LOUIS VlAN, Paris, n.d.). 

In this way the " particule" originated, and some 
of the most ancient families in France, such as the 
DE GUILLAUME, Seigneurs de Montpellier ; the DE 
PIERRE, Seigneurs de Ganges ; the D'ANDRE", 
Seigneurs de Montfort ; the DE JEAN, the DE 
BARTHELEMY, and others who bear apparently 
Christian names employed as surnames, trace the 
origin of the fact back to those early times. " Dans 
le onzieme, et dans le douzieme siecle, et quelque 
fois dans le troizieme siecle, chaque personnage 
ne portait que son prenom ou nom de bapteme, 
remplace quelque fois par une designation per- 
sonelle, un sur nom ou un sobriquet." BLANCMES- 
NIL, Les Salles des Croisades, xxiii. The Conquest 
of England, the Crusades, and other military ex- 
peditions, which made it needful to adopt surnames 
to distinguish persons of the same Christian name 



( II ) 

from one another, also served to increase the use of 
the de. But the earliest known use of the particule 
to indicate the possession of a fief dates from the 
reign of PHILIP I. (about 1062). 

HUGH THE GREAT, Duke of France and Count 
of Paris, had the surname of CAPET, but used no 
territorial de. Later the possession of a fief afforded 
an easy and natural means of forming a distinctive 
surname ; thus the Lords of Montmorency, who had 
generally borne the ordinary name of BOUCHARD, 
became BOUCHARD DE MONTMORENCY. 

The family of MONTMORENCY bore the seem- 
ingly proud title of Premier Baron Chretien; which, 
however, like many other things, was not really so 
great as it appeared to be. Its origin appears to 
have faded out of remembrance, but a little research 
shows that it simply meant that the Baron de 
Montmorency was the first of the four Vassal 
Barons, or Chevaliers Bannerets, of the Chretiente, 
or possessions of the bishop, in the He de France. 
The other three were : le Vicomte de MEAUX, le 
Vicomte de MELUN, and le Sire de 1'lLE ADAM. 

But persons of much lower grade, having no 
pretensions to nobility, assumed as a distinctive 
surname the name of the town or district whence 
they came. In "La Vie de St. Louis" by the con- 
fessor of Queen MARGARET, we find the name of 
" JEAN DE CROY, mason, townsman of Compiegne." 
Even serfs leaving their own village, where a Chris- 
tian name had sufficed, added its name with the de 
to their own. As late as the elections in 1789, the 
serfs in the Jura Mountains had no surnames. 

On the other hand many of the noblest families of 
France never used the "particule" FOUCAULD, Seig- 
neur de la ROCHE, became indeed much later, "le Due 
de la ROCHEFOUCAULD.'' POTIER was the name 



( 12 ) 

of the Due de GEVRES, the Marquis de GRIGNON, 
and the Seigneur de NOVION ; NOMPAR, the original 
appellation of the Dues de la FORCE. The families 
of POT, MIRON, MILON, PHILIPPEAUX, AMELOT, 
RUSE, BRULART, FOUQUET, and many other mar- 
quises and counts, never used the de. M. LAINE 
gives the following list of eminent families who 
never used the particule, or only assumed it in 
modern times: DAMAS, CHABOT, BERMOND, 
Seigneur d'ANDUSE MALVOISIN ou MANVOISIN 
PRUNELE, FOUCAUD, OSMOND, MORETON, 
QUATREBARBES, GOYON, BEAUPOIL, VlSDE- 
LOU, SEGUIER, DAVID, LASTEYRIE, FAYDIT, 
GASCQ, GUISCARD, YSARN, COUSTIN, - 
AUTHIER, MAINGOT, BRACKET (y. Les Salles 
des Croisades, par le Comte de DELLEY de 
BLANCMESNIL, p. 265, Paris, 1866). JACQUES 
TEZART, Seigneur des EsSARTS, Baron de TOUR- 
NEBU, was highly offended at the unauthorised 
addition of the de to his ancient and illustrious name. 
Still, the fact that by the many the de was 
associated with the possession of nobility caused it 
to be coveted and assumed by many who had no 
right at all to use it. In 1474, LOUIS XL autho- 
rised a notary named DECAUMONT to separate the 
first syllable from the rest, and to become DE 
CAUMONT. An Ordonnance^ given at Amboise, 
March 26, 1555, and registered at Rouen, interdicted 
the use of any name but the legal patronymic, and 
enjoined even gentlemen to sign legal documents 
by their family names, to the exclusion of the 
appellations of their seigneuries. This was con- 
firmed in 1560, by article 110 of the Ordonnancc 
d'Orleans. The Parliament of Toulouse, in 1566, 
gave a decision, " ordonnant d'enlever la particule 
mise dans le tableau, conune signe de noblesse, devant 



( 13 ) 

le nom de plusieurs procureurs" (VlAN, La Particule 
Nobiliaire], The procureur du Roi in the bailliage 
de Dijon, about the same time, declared, " Tame et 
la raison de la loi trouve que tous nos roturiers en 
general qui changent leur nom en un autre gentil- 
hommesque, ou lesquels y adioustent un article, 
sont sujets a la peine de faux, car ils usurpent une 
qualite de noble qui tient espece de rang signale en 
France." 

On the other hand, a decision was given by the 
Parliament of Toulouse in 1566, at the instance of 
a certain procureur, "de retablir sur le tableau le 
nom de cet officier et, comme signe de noblesse, la 
particule que 1'on y avait a tort omise." 

JEAN LOIR, Commissary-general of Artillery, etc., 
obtained from HENRI IV. in 1596, permission to 
prefix the de to his name ; and similar licences, 
which were understood to convey nobility, were 
granted in later reigns. Before the Ordonnance of 
1579 (which provided the contrary) the possession 
of a noble fief acquired by purchase, even by a 
" roturier," conferred nobility on its possessor, who, 
of course, assumed its designation ; and LOUIS XIV. 
in 1696 "permettait aux possesseurs de biens en 
roture dans les directes du Roi d'en prendre le 
nom." 

In 1585, CHARLES III., Duke of LORRAINE, 
perceiving that many of his subjects assumed the 
particule and so attributed to themselves nobility 
in order to avoid certain imposts, published an 
Ordonnance, which strictly prohibited " aux Anoblis 
et issus de Nobles qu'ils n'aient a soi par adjonction 
vocale le, la, du ou de, et semblables mots, qui ne 
servent que pour obscurcir la famille dont ils sont 
sortis;" but the edicts had little effect. (The edict 
is printed in full in the appendix, and it is probable 



( 14 ) 

that on some of its expressions was founded the 
claim advanced in Lorraine in 1750, that "a la 
quatrieme generation, un anobli, devenu gentil- 
homme selon les regies heraldiques, acquerait le 
droit de transmettre la particule de sa fief a 
son nom.") 

In 1699 LOUIS XIV. published a declaration for 
Franche Comte that " les anoblis et tous autres (que 
les nobles de race) ne peuvent prendre le de devant 
leurs noms." This article, which made the particule 
" forbidden fruit " to all but " nobles de race" naturally 
increased the number of those who desired to make 
use of it ; and moreover in consequence of the edict, 
the de appeared in the dictionaries as a sign of 
nobility. "Get article de marque le genitif, et se 
met devant les noms de famille qui viennent de 
seigneuries, M. DE CHATEAUNEUF ; M. DE GRAM- 
MONT " (RlCHELET, Dictionnaire, 1707). The 
Due de ST. SlMON, in his Memoires, speaks of 
its wholesale usurpation : " Le de s'usurpait 
aussi par qui voulait depuis quelque temps." 
However, the de continued to be the subject of 
legal grants ; and, after the Restoration, HOZIER 
was authorised to insert the particule in the 
official certificates before the name of the person 
ennobled. 

In 1822, LOUIS XVIII. asked a person to whom 
he was giving audience how he could reward the 
devotion he had evinced, and was met by a request 
for permission to use the de. " ' Prenez-en deux ! ' 
dit le Roi, en fredonnant le vers d' Horace : 

. . . . ' Gaudent prasnomine molles 
Auriculas . . . . '" 

Almost in our own time there was the poet 
PIERRE JEAN DE BE" RANGER, who may have fairly 
inherited the particule from remoter progenitors 



than his tailor grandfather, but who scouted the 
idea that it indicated noble descent : 

" He quoi, j'apprends que Ton critique 
Le de qui precede mon nom. 
' Etes vous de noblesse antique ?' 
Moi, noble \ oh vraiment, 

Messieurs, non ! 

" Non, d'aucune chevalerie 
Je n'ai le brevet sur velin. 
Je ne sais qu'aimer ma patrie, 
Je suis vilain, et tres vilain, 

Je suis vilain, 

Vilain, vilain." 

Under the First Empire many titles were granted 
without the de. CAMBACE"RES was "le Due 
CAMBACE"RES ; " PASQUIER, " le Due PASQUIER." 
Under the Second Empire, in 1858, the Code Penal 
was revised and the assumption of names and titles 
stringently forbidden. Applications for change of 
name, and for the addition of the particule, or for 
its separation from a name with which it had become 
incorporated, required to be made to the Garde 
des Sceaux, and were often granted. 

At the present day when a German is ennobled, 
or, as we should say, made a gentleman of coat- 
armour, he acquires the right to use the territorial 
prefix von, in some shape. Sometimes the preposi- 
tion is affixed to his previously plebeian name, and 
SCHNEIDER becomes VON SCHNEIDER. But in 
cases like to this, in which the surname is obviously 
unterritorial, it is often retained unaltered and the 
von is inserted before the name of some territorial 
possession, real or imaginary, the newly ennobled 
becoming MULLER VON MtJLLERSHAUSEN, and the 
like. The Viennese gentry could hardly be per- 
suaded that LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN was only of 



bourgeois descent, since he used a prefix which 
seemed equivalent to their familiar von. 

In Holland the prefix van or vander is no 
sign of nobility. 

In Flanders, De at the commencement of the 
name is only the equivalent of the French Le, and, 
like it, is no mark of noble descent. DETlMMER- 
MAN is only the equivalent of Le CHARPENTIER ; 
DEHANTCHOUMAKER of Le GANTIER ; DEMEULE- 
NAER of Le MEUNIER, and so forth. In Austria 
since the middle of the eighteenth century the 
diplomas of persons ennobled run after this fashion 
"... Item uti particula de, vel a, si voluerit." So 
is it generally in Belgium. 

The particule nobiliaire is but little in use in Italy 
and Spain. The princes COLONNA, BORGHESE, 
GABRIELI, etc. ; and such families as DORIA, 
DONATO, BALBI, MACHIAVELLI, would not think 
of using it. Nevertheless, when a member of 
such a family settles in France the common usage 
begins to prevail, and the Commendatore STROZZI, 
becomes gradually DE STROZZI. Sometimes the 
name of the family is translated, FlESCHI becomes 
DE FlESQUE ; and CASANOVA, DE MAISONNEUVE. 

J.W.] 

Turning to England, the Norman adventurers with 
whom surnames began, took their names for the most 
part from their paternal fiefs, or sometimes from their 
places of birth or residence, and they thus naturally used 
the de. Their younger sons, and others, applied the de 
to estates awarded them as their portion of the con- 
quered country, calling themselves DE HASTINGS, DE 
WlNTON, a form of their name probably never in ver- 
nacular use, and completely discarded with the dis- 
appearance of Norman-French, by either being dropped 
altogether, or passing into "of." In a very few excep- 



( 17 ) 

tional cases it was retained for the sake of euphony, or 
from coalescing with the initial vowel, as in DE LA 
BECHE, DEATH (D'ATH), DELAMERE, DELAWARR, 
DEVEREUX (D'EVEREUX), DANVERS (D'ANVERS), 
DANGERFIELD (D'ANGERVILLE). Even these names 
were sometimes translated into the vernacular. In the 
Restoration of Edward IV. we read of " Sir MARTYN 
OF THE SEA " (DELAMERE) ; and in FABYAN'S Chronicle 
of " Syr EDMUND OF THE BECHE." In the fifteenth 
and sixteenth century the Lords DELAWARR were 
frequently called LA WARR, though the title passed to 
America in the form of DELAWARE. 

As a rule, however, the old historical surnames in 
England never were preceded by the prefix in question ; 
and the writer of this is greatly disposed to deprecate 
the foolish fashion which began about a century ago, 
and has gone on to a considerable extent both in 
England and Ireland, of assuming (by royal licence) 
a De before the surname, under, no doubt, an erroneous 
impression that in feudal and chivalric times the name 
was thus used. One of the earliest instances was in 
1752 when Lord CLANRICARDE and other BOURKES 
were transmuted into DE BURGHS. Since then other 
BOURKES have followed suit, and POWERS, VESEYS, 
CLIFFORDS, GREYS, COURCYS, TRAFFORDS, and MUL- 
LINSES, have been transformed into DE LA POERS, DE 
VESEYS, DE CLIFFORDS, DE COURCYS, DE TRAFFORDS, 
and DE MOLEYNS ; and the example set by families of 
consideration has been followed by persons whose sur- 
names possess no historic associations. The extensive 
introduction of the French particles into peerage titles is 
also matter of regret. The barony now styled DE Ros 
used to have the English form of ROOS when held by 
the families of CECIL, MANNERS, and VILLIERS ; the 
present modification of it was adopted in 1806, by Lady 
HENRY FITZGERALD (when the barony was revived in 



her favour after a long abeyance), that lady at the same 
time assuming the DE Ros as surname of herself and 
family. Perhaps the most absurd example from its 
tautology was when Sir JOHN FLEMING LEICESTER, 
Bart, of Tabley in Cheshire, was raised to the peerage 
as Lord DE TABLEY, of Tabley House. 





FIG. 3. FIG. 4. 

From ETRUSCAN VASES, Vide p. 26. 





FIG. 5. FIG. 6. 

COHORT ENSIGNS, Vide p. 27. 



CHAPTER II. 

SECTION A. (BY G. B.) 

WHEN, and how, did the bearing of armorial insignia 
originate ? Before entering on the investigation here 
suggested, let us see, briefly, what the old armorial 
writers had to say upon the subject. 

Except a short treatise of the fourteenth century by 
BARTOLO DI SASSOFERRATO, De Armis et Insiginis ; 
and another by JOHANNES ROTHE of Eisenach ; the 
earliest work extant on Heraldry is that of NICHOLAS 
UPTON, De Studio Militari, written early in the fifteenth 
century, and edited by Sir EDWARD BYSSHE, in 1654. 
Lady JULIANA BERNERS' Boke of St. Albaris, which 
appeared in 1486, was in a great degree borrowed from 
UPTON'S treatise. The first edition of GERARD LEGH'S 
Accedens of Armory was published in 1562, and Sir 
JOHN FERNE's Blazon of Gentrie, in 1586. 

Only a few specimens can be given of the speculations 
in which these authors indulge regarding the antiquity 
of coat-armour, and its mystical or symbolical meaning. 

Some of them go beyond Adam in their search for the 
origin of armorial bearings. " At hevyn," says the author 
of the Boke of St. Albans, " I will begin, where were 
V. orderis of aungelis, and now stand but IV. in cote 
armoris of knawlege encrowned ful hye with precious 



( 20 ) 

stones, where Lucifer with mylionys of aungelis owt of 
hevyn fell into hell and odyr places, and ben holdyn 
ther in bondage ; and all " (the remaining angels) " were 
erected in hevyn of gentille nature." 

" Criste," says the same authority " was a gentylman 
of his moder's behalue, and bare cotarmure of aunseturis. 
The iiij euangelists berith wittnesse of Cristis workys in 
the gospell with all thappostilles. They were Jewys and 
of gentylmen come by the right lyne of that worthy 
conqueroure Judas Machabeus, but that by succession of 
tyme the kynrade fell to pouerty, after the destruction 
of Judas Machabeus and then they fell to laboris and 
ware calde no gentilmen, and the iiij doctores of holi 
church Seynt Jerom Ambrose Augustyn and Gregori 
war gentilmen of blode and of cot armures." (See 
LOWER, Curiosities of Heraldry, pp. 2, 249.) 

[At a much later date arms were assigned to the 
Blessed Saviour that He might not appear at a 
disadvantage in those Chapters of the Continent 
where, as at Mayence, the members had to prove 
their sixteen quarters. 

An escucheon thus put up in the Cathedral at 
Mayence is still extant, and is described and figured 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ccix. It is a 
shield of twenty quarters in five vertical rows each 
of four quarters, which are charged with the instru- 
ments of the passion, and other bearings : i. Argent, 
the cock that warned S. PETER ; 2. Azure, one of the 
water pots of Cana argent ; 3. Gules, the thirty pieces 
of silver in three piles eac/i of ten pieces ; 4. Azure, 
the Passover chalice argent ; 5. Gules, a label in bend 
bearing the letters I. N.R.I. ; 8. Argent, the hand that 
smote Him and dried up, in bend sable ; 9. Argent, 
the seamless coat gules ; 12. Sable, the lantern 
argent ; 1 3. Or, the crown of tJwrns traversed by tJie 
reed and hyssop in bend ; 14. Argent, the hammer 



and pincers in salt ire; 15. Sable, the box of alabaster ; 
1 6. Argent, the orb of sovereignty azure, banded and 
crossed or ; 17. Azure, tJie tJiree dice (i and 2) 
proper ; 18 and 19 together. Gules, the handkerchief 
of S. VERONICA with the impress of the Sacred 
Face; 20. Or, three passion-nails in pile gules. The 
6, 7, 10 and n quarters form a separate arrange- 
ment ; 6 and 10 are or ; 7 and II azure ; in 6 and 
7 are the Sacred Hands wounded ; in 10 and 12 the 
Sacred Feet also wounded. Over these last four is 
an escucheon en surtout argent charged ivith the 
Sacred Heart. Thus the " five wounds " occupy 
the centre of the whole escucheon. This is also 
surmounted in German fashion by three crowned 
or coroneted helms, which bear as crests : 

1 (centre) A banner gules charged with a cross 
argent, between the reed and sponge, and the lance ; 

2 (to the dexter) The cross and ladder ; 3 (to the 
sinister) The pillar, scourge, and whip. J. W.] 

GERARD LECH, in answer to the question when began 
armes, whether at the siege of Troy or not, says : " At 
the siege of Troy there was a certain perfectness of it, 
determined amongst princes, as in our days now we do 
perfect things that were but rudely done of auncient 
tyme. Some things also be imperfect that were done 
of our forefathers. I mean herein of no other thing but 
of armes also, and in armorye, whose lawes were before 
the siege of Troy, as appeareth in Deuteronomion, which 
hath had .since then so many addicions, that few here- 
haughtis know the lawe of armes, nor yet many civilians." 
In the course of the argument are blazoned the coats of 
the nine worthies " Duke Josua, Hector, David, Alex- 
ander, Judas Machabeus, Julius Caesar, King Arthur, 
Charlemagne, and Sir Guy Erl of Warwike," and the 
conclusion arrived at is that " although the siege of 
Troye be of aunciente 2751 years past, yet, if ye waye 



( 22 ) 

the matter, ye shall perceive the beringe of armes and 
armory are much more auncient." 

Sir JOHN FERNE'S work, The Blazon of Gentrie, in 
1586, has a fund of information regarding antediluvian 
Heraldry. The use of furs in heraldry is deduced from 
the " coats of skins " of our first parents, and arms are 
assigned not only to Adam (innocent and fallen), but to 
Jabal, Jubal, Naamah, and Tubal Cain ; (LOWER, Curiosi- 
ties of Heraldry, pp. 4 and 5.) 

GUILLIM'S Display of Heraldrie, which was first pub- 
lished in 1611, is a work of much higher order than the 
former productions. In the short introduction to the 
history of Heraldry, along with indications of a half 
belief in the speculations of previous writers, there occurs 
the remark, " the antiquity of gentilicial arms in Britain 
will prove of far later date than many of our gentry 
would willingly be thought to have borne them." In 
GUILLIM'S work we have in fact for the first time a 
methodical and intelligent treatise on the usage of arms 
in England, giving examples of a large number of the 
charges as borne in actually existent coats. Conceits, 
doubtless, we have which recall those of his predecessors. 
It is firm matter of faith with him as with them that 
each tincture, ordinary, and charge denote some special 
virtue or quality in the original bearer of the coat. 

Considerable credulity is shown in his excursions into 
the field of Natural History. There is scarcely a bird, 
beast, or fish described as a heraldic charge with regard 
to which he does not favour us with some strange piece 
of folk lore, no doubt the ordinary belief of the people 
of his time. For instance, he tells us that " the milk of 
the seal or sea calf is very wholesome against the falling 
sickness, but she sucketh it out and spitteth it lest it 
should profit any other." While we are told that the 
hair of women will, under certain conditions, turn into 
very venomous serpents, we are to refuse credence to 



( 23) 

the common story that " if a man stricken of a scorpion 
shall sit upon an asse with his face to the taile of the 
ass, his pain shall pass out of him into the asse. He 
that believes this," he adds, " is the creature that must 
be ridden upon." GUILLIM has gone through a number 
of editions, and is still in deserved favour with students 
of heraldry. 

In 1 66 1, fifty years later than the first edition of 
GUILLIM, SVLVANUS MORGAN produced his Sphere of 
Gentry and Armilogia y treatises vying in absurdity 
with those of any of GuiLLlM's predecessors. Adam's 
original escutcheon, whose form corresponded with his 
spade, was, according to MORGAN, a plain red shield ; 
Eve's, of the lozenge shape indicating her spindle, was 
of argent, and Adam in virtue of his wife being an 
heiress (!) bore Gules an inescutcheon argent ! Abel 
bore Quarterly argent and gules, in front of a pastoral 
staff to indicate that he was a shepherd. We also see 
suspended from a fruit tree Adam's shield, as borne after 
his fall, of the pattern which we would now call Gyronny 
of eigJit. " Joseph's Coat," to which one division of the 
work is devoted, is not " of many colours " as we would 
expect, but CJiequy sable and argent. The armes of 
each of Jacob's sons are given, and the standards set up 
in the camp of Israel are adduced as evidence that 
regular heraldry was then in use. (LOWER, Curiosities 
of Heraldry, pp. 5 and 6.) 

DE LA COLOMBIERE in his Science Heroique published 
in 1699 expresses a like belief in the primeval antiquity 
of Heraldry. From that time, however, various writers 
abroad and in our own country began to be less credu- 
lous, and were content to deduce the origin of armorial 
insignia from ancient mythology, or the usages of 
classical times. Among these may be numbered the 
learned Scottish Herald NlSBET, who traces arms to the 
?^ iinagiwnm, and whose elaborate work is still 



regarded as a standard authority on Scottish Armory. 
By and by a few enlightened armorialists began to 
remark the absence of armorial bearings from early 
seals and monuments, and to doubt if their introduction 
was not the invention of a much later age. 

Among these was the learned French Jesuit Pere 
MENESTRIER who flourished towards the close of the 
seventeenth century and whose heraldic works are of 
the highest interest and of great authority. 

[His Origine des Armoiries appeared in 1680, and 
his opinion as briefly summed up (and one which 
he had already expressed in his rare little duo- 
decimo volume Abrege Methodique des Principes 
Heraldiques ; OIL du Veritable A rt du Blason, pub- 
lished in 1661, and of which there are several later 
editions some of great rarity) is that hereditary 
arms originated in tournaments and are conse- 
quently of German origin. This is an opinion with 
which I shall deal later on. J. W.] 
The earliest instance MENESTRIER could find of a 
coat of arms on a sepulchral monument in France, 
Germany, Italy, or the Low Countries, was on the tomb 
of a Count VON WASSERBURG in the church of St. 
Kmmeran at Ratisbon bearing the date 1010, and the 
learned father expressed his conviction that the arms 
themselves could not be of so early a date, and that 
they had been added on some subsequent occasion when 
the monument had undergone a restoration. 

EDMONSON in his Complete Body of Heraldry (1780) 
a work in which he was greatly aided by Sir JOSEPH 
AYLOFFE, had a glimpse of the truth in this matter, 
but more erudition is displayed in the Inquiry into the 
Origin and Progress of Heraldry in England, by the 
Rev. JAMES DALLAWAY, who, rejecting the mythological 
theory, still clung to the idea that the coins of the 
Anglo-Saxon Kings bore heraldic devices. 



( -'5 ) 

The levelling principles of the French Revolution 
were naturally hostile to the study of Armory, but long 
before that event the conceits of the old heralds had 
helped to bring into disrepute what had once been an 
essential branch of a liberal education. Armorial art, 
too, had declined with the general decline of the arts : 
the symbols had lost their beauty, and it was but natural 
that the philosophers of the eighteenth century, who 
could see nothing but folly in the life of the ages that 
had gone before them, held heraldry in little respect. 

It is now more than fifty years since a revival of 
interest began in heraldry and in the kindred subject 
of genealogy. The value of heraldry to the historical 
student began to be recognised, and its true origin and 
history to be made the subject of serious criticism. 
Mr J. A. MONTAGU'S Guide to the Study of Heraldry 
(1840), and Mr M. A. LOWER'S Curiosities of Heraldry 
(1845), are works of real value, and at least equally 
so, a work called The Pursuivant of Arms by the late 
Mr PLANCHE, Somerset Herald, first published in 1851. 
Mr PLANCHE'S conclusions have been very much acqui- 
esced in by most later writers on the subject. Two of 
these as expressed in the author's own words are 
" i. That heraldry appears as a science at the com- 
mencement of the thirteenth century; and that, although 
armorial bearings had then been in existence un- 
doubtedly for some time previous, no precise date has 
yet been discovered for their first assumption. 2. That 
in their assumption the object of the assumer was not, 
as it has been generally asserted and believed, to sym- 
bolise any virtue or qualification but simply to distinguish 
their persons and properties, to display their pretensions 
to certain honours or estates, attest their alliances, or 
acknowledge their feudal tenures." In support of his 
vJews Mr PLANCHE appealed to the entire absence of 
any indication of the Existence of armorial bearings in 



the shields and banners verbally described and pictorially 
represented in the centuries preceding the twelfth. For 
example, ANNA COMNENA in her biography of her father 
the Greek Emperor ALEXIUS I., written in the beginning 
of the twelfth century, gives a minute account of the 
convex shields of the French knights of that date, with 
a surface of highly polished metal and a boss in the 
centre ; and in a Spanish manuscript of the year 1 109 
in the British Museum, we have circular shields orna- 
mented as well as plain, but destitute of any approach 
to an armorial device. While, from the date of the 
! Norman Conquest of England onwards, sealing became 
a necessary form for the validity of writs, and the 
arms on a seal are the most important evidence of the 
bearing of the owner, the earliest authentic instance of 
an armorial shield on a seal is on that of PHILIP I. 
Count of Flanders, appended to a charter of date 
1 164. 

The chief representative of an opposite position is 
Mr W. G. ELLIS, who in his Antiquities of Heraldry 
(1869) has collected a mass of interesting matter relating 
to what he calls the heraldry of ancient times, and of 
all nations of the world, and he certainly succeeds in 
showing to how great an extent pictorial symbols, 
which had originally a meaning, have been in use 
among all nations of mankind, civilised and savage. 
His plates are curious as showing the occasional occur- 
rence among these manifold devices of some resembling 
modern figures of blazon. The crescent, the mullet, the 
lozenge, the quatrefoil, and the fleur de lis are traced by 
him to counterparts existing among Egyptian, Chinese, 
Indian and Japanese emblems, and among the figures 
on Etruscan vases he shows us what in heraldic language 
would be called a bull's head caboshed and a not un- 
heraldic looking demi-boar. We have also on the Greek 
vases two dolphins naiant in pale, a demi-wolf, and three 



( 27 ) 

legs conjoined in pairle as in the well-known arms of the 
Isle of Man. (Figs, i, 2, 3, and 4, p. rS.) 

The lines in the seventh book of the ^Eneidvi VIRGIL 

(655-658) 

" Post hos insignem palma per gramma currum 
Victoresque ostentat equos, satus Hercule pulchro 
Pulcher Aventinus ; clypeoque insigne paternum, 
Centum angues, cinctamque gerit serpentibus hydram." 

are relied on as evidence of the hereditary character of 
classic symbols. 

The Roman cohort ensigns which appear on TRAJAN'S 
column at Rome, devices which occasionally bear a 
resemblance perhaps not always accidental to the 
designs of later ages, are assumed to be the family 
insignia of the commander of the cohort, and with 
other devices of tribes and clans are considered by 
Mr ELLIS to have descended through the dark ages 
until they appeared in the eleventh century as heredi- 
tary coat-armour. (See Figs. 5 and 6, p. 19.) 

But the argument on which the ingenious author 
most relies is the recognition of hereditary ensigns as 
not only being, but having been for generations, the 
badge of gentility, in the Leges Hastiludiales of HENRY 
THE FOWLER, of the date 938. These laws contain not 
only specific directions regulating the use of " insignia 
gentilitia " and of their registration by the heralds, but 
regard them as the exclusive privilege of the nobly born 
and exclude from participation in the tournaments all 
whose ancestors had not borne them for at least four 
generations. Cap. XII. De hominibus novis. 

" Quisquis recentioris et notae nobilis et non talis ut 
a stirpe nobilitatem suam et origine quatuor saltern 
generis auctorum proximorum gentilibus insignibus pro- 
bare possit is quoque ludis his exesto." 

Article XIII. imposes penalties for the breach of other 



( 28 ) 

articles and concludes with the alternative "aut nobilitatis 
farnae insignium gentilitiorum denique amissionem incur- 
rat." (ELLIS, Antiquities of Heraldry, pp. 149-150.) 

Mr ELLIS considers that these Leges Hastiludiales quite 
outweigh the negative evidence against the introduction 
of hereditary arms which Mr PLANCHE and others 
found in their absence from seals, and sepulchral monu- 
ments before the eleventh or twelfth century. But if 
we have some hesitation about accepting all Mr ELLIS'S 
conclusions he has at least brought to light two facts 
of importance. First That the figures of mediaeval 
heraldry contain in some instances, elements suggested 
by those of earlier ages. Even Mr PLANCHE while giving 
a general denial to this proposition seems to make an 
exception in the case of the origin of the three legs in the 
shield of the Kingdom of Man, which he is willing to 
admit may have been derived from the classical symbol 
of Trinacria (Sicily). Second That we have instances 
too many to be accounted for by accident, of arms more 
or less similar both in their colours and charges, being 
borne in the beginning of the thirteenth century by 
cognate families whose common descent was from an 
ancestor who lived before the Norman Conquest, a fact 
of which in the present state of our knowledge the 
adoption through collateral consanguinity seems a more 
satisfactory explanation than the hypothesis that a 
common ancestor bore arms at a time when no tangible evi- 
dence is producible of the existence of hereditary insignia. 

Admitting the ingenuity of much of Mr ELLIS'S argu- 
ment, a full consideration of the whole evidence has led 
the present writer to take up a position more nearly 
approaching that of Mr PLANCHE. Instances certainly 
occur in remote times of nations, tribes, and individuals 
distinguishing themselves by particular emblems or 
ensigns, more especially in war, as these ensigns afforded 
rallying points in the field of battle. The standards of 



'9 ) 

the Jewish twelve tribes are a familiar case. AESCHYLUS 
and EURIPIDES describe the devices on the shields of 
their heroes, there being however no correspondence 
between the two enumerations. TACITUS alludes to 
figures of animals on the shields of Celtic tribes ; and 
PLUTARCH to those of the savage hordes of Denmark, 
Norway, and North Germany. But the omission of all 
such devices on what representations and descriptions 
have been handed down to us of the shields of the early 
middle ages, shows that the bulls, boars, wolves, and 
horses of TACITUS, and the more conventional symbols 
of the cohort ensigns, if any traditional memory of them 
had been assured, played no prominent part in the 
life of these ages, and certainly had no hereditary 
character. As little can we trace any connection between 
the language of arms and the mysterious symbols found 
sculptured on stone in Wales, Norway, Denmark, and 
more extensively in Scotland, of whose significance archae- 
ologists have as yet been unable to give a plausible explana- 
tion. (See Dr STUART'S splendid work on the Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland, published by the Spalding Club.) 

The evidence afforded by the famous tapestry preserved 
in the public library of Bayeux, a series of views in 
sewed work representing the invasion and conquest of 
England by WILLIAM the Norman, has been appealed to 
on both sides of this controversy, and has certainly an 
important bearing on the question of the antiquity of 
coat-armour. This panorama of seventy-two scenes is 
on probable grounds believed to have been the work 
of the Conqueror's Queen MATILDA and her maidens ; 
though the French historian THIERRY and others ascribe 
it to the Empress MAUD, daughter of HENRY III. The 
latest authorities suggest the likelihood of its having been 
wrought as a decoration for the Cathedral of Bayeux, 
when rebuilt by WILLIAM'S uterine brother ODO, Bishop 
of that See, in 1077. The exact correspondence which 



( 30 ) 

has been discovered between the length of the tapestry 
and the inner circumference of the nave of the Cathedral 
greatly favours this supposition. This remarkable work 
of art, as carefully drawn on colour in 1818 by Mr C. 
STOTHARD, is reproduced in the sixth volume of the 
Vetusta Monumenta ; and more recently an excellent 
copy of it from autotype plates has been published by 
the Arundel Society. Each of its scenes is accompanied 
by a Latin description, the whole uniting into a graphic 
history of the event commemorated. We see HAROLD 
taking leaving of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR ; riding to 
Bosham with his hawk and hounds ; embarking for 
France ; landing there and being captured by the Count 
of Ponthieu ; redeemed by WILLIAM of Normandy, and 
in the midst of his Court aiding him against CONAN, 
Count of BRETAGNE ; swearing on the sacred relics to 
recognise WILLIAM'S claim of succession to the English 
throne, and then re-embarking for England. On his 
return, we have him recounting the incidents of his 
journey to EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, to whose funeral 
obsequies we are next introduced. Then we have 
HAROLD receiving the crown from the English people, 
and ascending the throne ; and WILLIAM, apprised of 
what had taken place, consulting with his half-brother 
ODO about invading England. The war preparations 
of the Normans, their embarkation, their landing, their 
march to Hastings, and formation of a camp there, form 
the subjects of successive scenes ; and finally we have the 
battle of Hastings, with the death of HAROLD and the 
flight of the English. In this remarkable piece of work 
we have figures of more than six hundred persons, and 
seven hundred animals, besides thirty-seven buildings, 
and forty-one ships or boats. There are of course also 
numerous shields of warriors, of which some are round, 
others kite-shaped, and on some of the latter are rude 
figures, of dragons or other imaginary animals as well as 



crosses of different forms, and spots. (Plate I., figs. 
2, 3.) On one hand it requires little imagination to find 
the cross patee and the cross botonnee of heraldry pre- 
figured on two of these shields. But there are several 
fatal objections to regarding these figures as incipient 
armory, namely, that while the most prominent persons 
of the time are depicted, most of them repeatedly, none 
of these is ever represented twice as bearing the same 
device, nor is there one instance of any resemblance in 
the rude designs described to the bearings actually used 
by the descendants of the persons in question. If a 
personage so important and so often depicted as the 
Conqueror had borne arms, they could not fail to have 
had a place in a nearly contemporary work, and more 
especially if it proceeded from the needle of his wife. 

[See LOWER'S acute remark as to the absence from 
the shields of the simple heraldic figures known 
as the Ordinaries. " Nothing but disappointment 
awaits the curious armorist who seeks in this vener- 
able memorial the pale, the bend, and other early 
elements of arms. As these would have been much 
more easily imitated with the needle than the 
grotesque figures before alluded to, we may 
safely conclude that personal arms had not yet been 
introduced." Curiosities of Heraldry, p. 19. J. W.] 
The Second Crusade took place in 1 147 ; and in 
MONTFAUCON'S plates of the no longer extant windows 
of the Abbey of St. Denis, representing that historical 
episode, there is not a trace of an armorial ensign on any 
of the shields. That window was probably executed at 
a date when the memory of that event was fresh ; but in 
MONTFAUCON'S time, the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, the Science heroique was matter of such moment 
in France that it is not to be believed that the armorial 
figures on the shields, had there been any, would have 
been left out. 



( 32 ) 

Between the Second Crusade and the Third, we can 
point to the already noticed seal of PHILIP I. of 
FLANDERS. Among English royal personages the 
r first on whose seal an armorial design occurs is King 
JOHN, and that before he was king ; he bore vita patris 
two lions passant. RICHARD CCEUR DE LION had also 
two armorial seals (afterwards to be described) one in 
use before, the other after the Third Crusade (1189). 
The glorious but fruitless expedition alluded to, in 
which the Sovereigns, Nobles, and Knights of France, 
Germany, and England, were brought into intimate 
contact, had doubtless considerable influence in extending 
over Christendom a custom, whose practical utility in 
distinguishing one knight from another had been its first 
recommendation. The fashion of tournaments also 
helped, and before long the ownership of a distinctive 
shield of arms (not necessarily granted by the Sovereign, 
but often assumed proprio motu\ became essential to 
the idea of a baron, knight, or gentleman. 
i We may therefore regard the latter half of the twelfth 
1 century as the earliest period to which we can trace the 
f use of arms in the proper sense. Early in the thirteenth 
century the practice began of embroidering the family 

i ensigns on the surcoat worn over the hauberk or coat of 
mail, whence originated the expression " coat of arms." 
Arms were similarly embroidered on the jupon, cyclas, 
and tabard, which succeeded the surcoat ; and displayed 
on the banners and pennons of knights, or floating 
from the shafts of their lances ; they were also enamelled 
or otherwise represented on furniture, personal orna- 
ments, and weapons. 

In the infancy of arms great latitude was allowed in 
representing the charge fixed on or inherited. It was 
used singly, or repeated, or in any attitude which the 
bearer chose, or which the form of his shield suggested. 
But as coats of arms multiplied, confusion could only be 



( 33 ) 

obviated by restraining the bearers' fancy, and regulating 
the number, position, and colour of the charges, and the 
attitudes of such animals as were represented on the 
shields ; and in the course of time Sovereigns found it 
necessary to interfere with the unrestricted assumption 
of arms within their respective realms, and to regulate the 
bearing of them. It became an established rule that no 
two families in the same kingdom were to bear the same 
arms ; and the right to bear a particular coat sometimes 
became matter of hot dispute. Before the establishment 
of the Court of Chivalry (of which in a future Chapter) 
the question who had the preferable right was in 
England as elsewhere generally decided by the ordeal 
of combat. Sir EDWARD BYSSHE in his notes on 
NICOLAS UPTON De Studio Militari gives some instances 
of such armorial combats in England, also of one of 
which the scene was in Scotland, the particulars of 
which are rather curious. According to the document 
which he gives at length, in the year 1312 HUGH 
HARDING, an Englishman, and WILLIAM DE SEINTE- 
LOWE (?) a Scotsman, each claimed the right to the coat 
Gules, three greyhounds courant or, collared aztire. The 
combat which was to decide between them took place at 
Perth in the presence of King ROBERT BRUCE, when 
the Englishman was the victor, and the following letters 
were (according to BYSSHE) granted by the King of 
Scots, declaring the Englishman's superior right : 
" Robertus Dei Gratia rex Scotiae [Scotorum ?] Omnibus 
ad quos presentes literae pervenerint salutem. Cum nos 
accepimus duellum apud nostram villam de Perthe die 
confectionis presentium inter Hugonem Harding, Angli- 
cum, appellantem, de Armis de Goules tribus leporariis de 
auro currentibus colloree de B, et Willielmum de Seint- 
lowe (?) Scotum, appellatum, eisdem armis sine differentia 
indutos : Quo quidem duello percusso, praedictus Williel- 
mus se finaliter reddidit devictum, et prsedicto Hugoni 



( 34 ) 

remisit et relaxavit, et omnino de se et heredibus 
suis in perpetuum praedicta arma cum toto triumpho 
honore et victoria ore tenus in audientia nostra. Quare 
nos in solio nostro, tribunal! regali Sancti Patris (?) cum 
magnatibus et dominio [dominis] regni nostri personaliter 
sedentes, adjudicavimus, et finaliter decretum dederimus 
per praesentes, quod prsedictus Hugo Harding et 
heraedes sui de csetero in perpetuum habeant et teneant 
gaudeant et portent praedicta arma integraliter, absque 
calumpnia, perturbatione, contradictione, reclamatione, 
praedicti Willielmi, seu heredum suorum. In cujus rei 
testimonium has literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes 
apud dictum villam nostram de Perthe secundo die 
Aprilis anno regni nostri septimo anno de Domini 1312." 
Making allowance for the transcriber's errors in 
extending a few words, and regarding " Sancti Patris " 
as a misreading for some other word, the technical 
phraseology of the document is so exactly what prevailed 
in Scotland at that date, that it is difficult to doubt its 
genuineness. Like other Englishmen (then in the partial 
occupation of Scotland, and gradually giving way in the 
struggles of 1312), HARDING would look on Scotland as 
an integral portion of EDWARD'S dominions ; and thus 
presumably consider it an offence for any Scotchman to 
bear the arms which he bore. But his acceptance of 
ROBERT BRUCE as arbiter of the duel, and of his letters 
patent as King of Scots is somewhat remarkable. SIN- 
CLAIR (SAINTCLARE in the writing of that date) 
might readily be misread " SAINTELOWE." We know 
from the evidence of seals that the SlNCLAlRS of Roslin 
bore the engrailed cross (probably as in later times 
sable) as far back as the thirteenth century, also from 
the Armorial de Gelre that the SlNCLAlRS of Herdmans- 
toun, who are not known to have been of kin to them, 
bore in the reign of DAVID II. the same cross engrailed 
but of azure for a difference. Is it possible that the grey- 



( 35 ) 

hound coat was first used by them, and then abandoned 
for a coat resembling that of the other SlNCLAlRS ? 

While the right of property in arms and their 
inherently hereditary character was thus fully recognised, 
there are some curious exceptional instances, also in the 
fourteenth century, of arms being granted by feudal 
lords to their vassals or retainers, and being transferred 
by gift and devised by will. On 26th February 1356-7 
WILLIAM, Baron of GREYSTOCK, granted a coat-armorial 
to ADAM OF BLENCOWE, who is said to have been his 
standard-bearer at Cressy and Poitiers. FROISSART tells 
us of Lord AUDLEY immediately after the victory of 
Poitiers dividing among his four esquires a gift bestowed 
on him by the Black Prince, and giving them at the 
same time leave to bear his own arms with a difference. 
In 1391 THOMAS GRENDALL of Fentoun, cousin and 
heir of JOHN BEAUMEYS, sometime of Sautray, in respect 
that the said arms with their appurtenances are escheated 
to him as next heir, granted the said arms with their 
appurtenances to Sir WILLIAM MoiGNE, Knight, which 
arms are Argent, on a cross azure five garbs or. CAMDEN 
gives other instances of gifts and assignations of arms in 
the reigns of HENRY IV. and HENRY VI., but it is 
doubtful if these would have been sustained as legal in 
later times. (See Appendix.) 

The military character which then attached to arms is 
shown by the deposition of a witness in 1408, to the 
effect that, though descended of noble blood, he had no 
armorial bearings because neither he nor his ancestors 
had ever been engaged in war. Even in the beginning 
of the fifteenth century there was probably a good deal 
of assumption of arms proprio motu, and the Boke of St. 
Albaris contains the rather startling dictum that any 
one might assume arms at his own hand, provided they 
had been borne by no one else. In the year 1419, the 
increase in the unlicensed use of arms had called forth a 



( 36 ) 

proclamation from HENRY V. forbidding all persons 
who had not borne arms at Agincourt to assume them, 
except in virtue of inheritance or of a grant from the 
crown. [G. B.] 



SECTION B. - (BY j. w.) 

It has been seen that the works of the old armorialists 
will not afford us help in tracing the origin and develop- 
ment of armory. But we are not without the needful 
materials, in seals, monuments, painted windows, and 
(more especially in England) in Rolls of Arms. 

The influence exerted by the Crusades upon the 
adoption of heraldic insignia appears to me to have been 
exaggerated by some writers, but we need not deny that 
the influence was considerable. In armies composed of 
people of diverse languages the use of banners with 
definite and familiar devices, under which the members 
of different followings might rally ; and of some dis- 
tinctive insignia by which the leaders might be easily 
recognised, appears a matter of necessity ; a necessity 
probably greater in the time of the Third Crusade 
(1189-1192) when the hosts of England, France, and 
Germany were combined, than at any other ; and a period 
which coincides remarkably with the general adoption 
of armorial bearings. 

The substitution which took place at this period of 
the cylindrical helmet (which covered the whole visage 
of the wearer, leaving him only small apertures through 
which to see and breathe), for the old open Norman 
conical helmet, with its nasal guard, must have had a very 
considerable effect in the same direction. (See Plate II.) 
On its adoption it became no longer possible for soldiers 
to recognise their leader by his face. The date of the 
commencement of this substitution is about 1180, at 
which time (as we see by the seal of PHILIPPE D'ALSACE, 



( 37 ) 

Comte de FLANDERS), the conical helmet (which had 
already become cylindrical with a domed covering) was 
replaced by the cylindrical helm with a flattened top ; to 
which a few years later was added the plate which com- 
pletely covered the face with the exception of two small 
slits (ceillieres) to enable the wearer to see, and still smaller 
holes through which he breathed. (Plate II., fig. 5). 

On two seals of RICHARD C(EUR DE LION the prince 
is represented ; on that of the date 1 189 (British Museum 
Catalogue, No. 80) he is shown as wearing the old conical 
Norman helmet, but on that of 1 198 (No. 87) the helmet 
has the flat top, and this is the case on the seal of King 
JOHN in the following year (Brit. Mus. Cat., No. 91). 

The flat-topped helmet worn by RICHARD I. on his 
second great seal (of 1 198) is remarkable as being the 
most ancient helmet bearing a crest with which we are 
acquainted ; it bears the lion of England in the centre -\ 
of a fan-shaped crest. The next known example is that 
of MATHIEU II. DE MONTMORENCY, Constable of France, 
in 1224, on which the head and neck of a peacock rise 
from the flat-topped helm. (DEMAY, p. 1 38, also engraved 
in VREE, Sigilla Com. Flandr., plate 10.) 

The Crusades must also have had considerable effect 
in causing arms, which had previously been assumed 
and changed at pleasure, to become hereditary. The 
descendants of a knight who had fought with distinction 
under certain ensigns in the Holy Wars, would feel a 
very natural pride in preserving and handing down to 
posterity the banner or the shield with the blazonings 
which recalled their ancestor's prowess. On this point 
EYSENBACH says, on the whole with justice: " Les 
croisades rendirent 1'usage des armoiries plus general 
et leur pratique invariable ; elles les regulariserent tout 
a fait, puisqu'elles devinrent des lors des recompenses 
accordees aux chevaliers et aux villes qui s'etaient 
distingues dans les guerres saintes. Ce fut aussi depuis 



( 38 ) 

les croisades que les armoiries devinrent hereditaires. 
On congoit aisement que les fils de ceux qui s'etaient 
approprie des symboles pour ces pieuses expeditions, 1 
se firent un point de religion et d'honneur de transmettre 
a leurs descendants 1'ecu de leurs peres comme un 
monument de leur valeur et de leur piete. An retour 
de la croisade, en effet, cette enseigne qui avait ete 
plantee sur la breche d'Antioche, ou de Jerusalem, qui 
avait ete benite par le legat du pape sur le tombeau de 
Jesus Christ, etait reveree comme une sainte relique et 
precieusement gardee comme une gloire de famille. 

" Flottant sur le plus haut des tours du manoir, elle 
signalait au loin la demeure d'un champion et peut-etre 
d'un confesseur de la foi. Bien plus, les signes qu'on 
y voyait etaient reproduits par 1'armurier sur le bouclier 
du croise ; par le peintre sur les vitraux de la chapelle 
seigneuriale ; par 1'imagier sur le chene des portes du 
chateau ; par la chatelaine elle meme sur la nappe de 
1'autel, ou etaient deposees les saintes reliques que le 
croise avait pieusement enlevees de quelque eglise 
schismatique de 1'Orient (!)... Ces enseignes et ces 
symboles durent naturellement passer, je le repete, 
comme la plus precieuse partie de 1'heritage, au fils aine 
du defunt, qui en adoptait les emblemes sans y rien 
changer, les transmettait a son tour a ses enfants comme 
une signe de suprematie, de commandement ; comme la 
preuve de leur descendance d'un homme illustre, en un 
mot, comme une marque de noblesse." Histoire du 
Blason, et Science des Armoiries, pp. 70, 71, Tours, 1848. 

It may be suspected, not only from this passage, but 

1 "Dans ces expeditions de la Terre Sainte, ceux qui avoient 
deja de ces Symboles se les rendirent plus propres ; et ceux qui 
n'en avoient, en choisirent, tant pour se faire remarquer, dans les 
combats (leur armure de tete empechant qu'on ne connut leur 
visage) que pour etre distinguez des autres." MEZERAY, PAbrcge 
Chronologique de P Histoire de France, torn, ii., p. 515. 



( 39 ) 

from others in the work, that the writer from whom are 
borrowed the above eloquent sentences, attached a 
larger amount of credence than would generally be 
conceded at the present day, or at all events by the 
present writer, to the stories which account for many 
existing armorial bearings, by declaring that they were 
special rewards for special prowess in the Crusades ; 
or that the Saracen's heads, crescents, crosses, escallop 
shells, and other charges which figure in them, had 
direct reference to the part the ancestors of the present 
bearers played in those stirring events. Still, there is 
no doubt that, as stated above, the Crusades had an 
appreciable effect in the extension, consolidation, and 
systematising of Heraldry which the student must not 
overlook, or altogether ignore. 

The tournaments, which became general in the 
thirteenth and following centuries, had probably a very 
much larger influence in these respects than can be 
attributed to the Crusades ; and they certainly con- 
tributed very greatly to the conversion of personal into 
hereditary insignia. 

Military exercises and sham fights may be traced 
back to classical times with much greater probability 
than hereditary insignia (see VIRGIL, lib. vii.), but it 
would be difficult to say whether tournaments, in the 
usual sense of the term, originated in Germany or in 
France. Under the Carlovingian kings military 
exercises, analogous to the jousts of later times, 
certainly took place. The historian NlTHARD gives 
some details of a joust which was held on the occasion 
of the interview between the brother princes, LOUIS THE 
GERMAN, and CHARLES THE BALD in 842. Du CANGE 
attributes the origin of tourneys to the French ; and 
quotes the Chronicon Turonense which thus records the 
death in 1066 of GEOFFREY DE PREUILLY (of the 
family of the Counts de VENDOME). "Gaufridus de 



( 40 ) 

Pruliaco, qui torneamenta invenit, apud Andegavum 
occiditur." A similar entry appears in the Chronicon S. 
Martini Turon : " fuit proditio apud Andegavum, ubi 
Gaufridus de Pruliaco, et alii Barones, occisi sunt. 
Hie Gaufridus de Pruliaco torneamentum invenit" 

These entries probably only mean that GEOFFREY 
DE PREUILLY was the first who formulated the rules 
under which these military exercises were to be held. 

Du CANGE (VI. Dissertation sur Ihistoire de S. Louis, 
par de Joinville] remarks, that tourneys are considered 
by the writers of the middle ages as sports essentially 
French: and MATTHEW PARIS in 1179 calls them 
"joutes francaises " " conflictus gattici" There is 
abundant evidence that these tourneys were no child's 
play. In 1186 GEOFFREY PLANTAGENET, Duke of 
BRITTANY, son of HENRY II. of England, was slain in a 
tourney at Paris. JOHN, Markgrave of BRANDENBURG, 
thus lost his life in 1269. FREDERICK II., Count 
Palatine, fractured his spine by a fall from his horse in 
one of these encounters. In the twelfth century the 
Popes INNOCENT II., EUGENIUS III., and ALEXANDER 
III., fulminated their bulls against them, as later did 
INNOCENT III., and other popes. PHILIPPE LE BEL and 
PHILIPPE LE LONG issued Ordonnances against them (v. 
DU CANGE), but it was only the unfortunate death in 1 5 59 
of HENRI II. of France, who was killed in a tourney by 
a splinter from the lance of DE MONTMORENCY, which 
caused their discontinuance. 

We may reasonably conclude that the tournaments 
which probably originated in Germany were introduced 
into England from the neighbouring kingdom of France ; 
in which kingdom they were first systematised and regu- 
lated. The earliest regular tournament of which we can 
find a record in the old German chroniclers appears to be 
that which was held at Niirnberg in 1127, under the 
Emperor LOTHAIR (BRUNNER, Annales Boici, torn, iii., 



( 41 ) 

p. 283). The date of the tourney at Gottingen, which 
I find quoted from the BraunscJiweiger CJironicle, as 1 1 19, 
is probably a mistake for 1129, as LOTHAIR was only 
elected King of the Romans at Mainz in the year 1125. 
It is pretty clear, both from the entire lack of outside 
corroboration, -and from internal evidence hereafter 
noticed, that RiJXNER's TJmrnier Buck was not derived 
from any ancient MS., but is an elaborate fiction, so far 
as it relates to the tourneys which he asserts were held 
antecedently to the twelfth or thirteenth centuries ; and 
that no credence whatever is to be attached to the long 
lists of members of later noble families who are said 
to have taken part in the tourneys ; or to their blazons ; 
or to those Leges Hastiludiales, which, by requiring four 
generations of noble descent from those who partici- 
pated in these sports, would have carried back systematic 
and hereditary armory at least a century beyond their 
supposed promulgation by HENRY THE FOWLER in 

937- 

Even with regard to tournaments which we know 

with certainty really took place, RUXNER'S list is 
seriously inaccurate. He omits any mention of that 
which was held at Neuss in 1175; and which was 
worthy of remembrance since in it forty-two knights 
and their esquires lost their lives in the melee. 

According to the Chronicum Belgicum Magnum there 
was held near Cologne, in the year 1240, a tourney 
in which sixty knights and esquires were slain. Neither 
of this, nor of the one held at Niirnberg in 1433 does 
RtJXNER make any mention. With regard to the Thur- 
nier-Ordnung\\. can be shown that, instead of dating from 
the tenth century, they were first drawn up at Heidelberg 
in 1481, and Heilbronn in 1484. Some other respects in 
which RtJXNER trips, are set forth, and the whole matter 
is well summed up, in Dr MICHAEL PRAUN'S treatise 
Von dem Adelichen Europa, und denen Heerschilden des 



( 42 ) 

Teutschen Adels, 1688, of which the following passage 
as given in RUDOLPHI, Heraldica Curiosa, p. 16 (Niirn- 
berg, 1698), is a summary. " Wiewol diese Meinung 
schon etliche Anstosse leiden miissen, indem einige dem 
Rixner in seinen Thurnier-Buch, wo er diesen Thurnier, 
und alle damals anwesende Personen beschrieben und 
genennet, wenig trauen wollen, sowol, weil solches bey 
keinen andern Scribenten zu finden ist, als auch, weil er 
selbsten zu seiner Beglaubigung nichtanders vorbringt als 
dasz er solches bey einem Pfarrer in Sachsen in einem 
geschriebenen Buch gelesen, und abgeschrieben habe, 
welches dem Goldasto in Rational, ad lib. der Reichs- 
Satz, pag. 305, gar verdachtig ist, weilen er hinzu setzt, es 
habe gedachter Pfarrer gleich nach solcher Abschrifft 
sein Manuscript verbrennt ; da doch solches zu griind- 
lichern Beweiss hatte billig sollen aufbewahret werden. 
Ferner konnen sie das reine Teutsche in der Thurnier 
Ordnung, welche Rixner dem HENRICO AUCUPI zu- 
schreibt, mit der damaligen Redens-Art nicht zusammen 
reimen, wie ingleichen, wan er sagt, dass diese Thurnier- 
Ordnung, mit Zuziehung der * vier Reiclis Herzogenl 
nahmlich Pfaltzgraf Conrad bey Rhein ; Herman, Hertzog 
in Schwaben; Bernhard, Hertzog in Bayern; und Conrad, 
Herzog in Francken, etc., gemacht worden ; da doch 
damalen der Hertzog in Francken und Pfaltzgraf eins 
gewesen ; wozu noch kommen die unnothige Wieder- 
holungen in den meisten Articuln, und die Unterschrifft 
welche einige Dignitaten bemerckt, woran doch zu 
zweiffeln, ob sie damals schon gewesen ; wie auch der 
iibelangebrachte Titel, der Edlen, als welcher in densel- 
bigen Zeiten nicht den Rittern, sondern Fiirsten und 
Herren gebiihret habe ; von dem IX. und XI. Articul, 
wollen sie ebenfalls zweiffeln, ob sie sich zu besagten 
Zeiten schicken. Endlich will ihnen auch unglaublich 
scheinen, dass, da man vor Zeiten die Bischoffe in 
Teutschland nicht einmal ordentlich aufgezeichnet hat, 



( 43 ) 

man gleichwol alle die Alte vom Adel, so auf jedem 
Thurnier erschienen, sollte so fleissig zusammen gesch- 
rieben haben, indem es auch kaum zu thun moglich 
gewesen ware, weil man vor HENRICI IV. Zeiten, nicht 
einmal die Fiirsten, Hertzogen, Grafen, und Herren mit 
ihren Zunamen,in den alten Diplomatibus aufgezeichnet 
finde, und nicht eigentlich gewust, wie sie geheissen 
haben ; wie vielweniger halte man solches also von der 
Ritterschafft wissen konnen." 

Having thus disposed of Mr ELLIS'S cJieval de bataille, 
we may proceed to consider the evidence which is trust- 
worthy with regard to the date at which armorial bear- 
ings were adopted into general use, and finally became 
hereditary ensigns of noble descent. 

This evidence we should expect to find on sepulchral 
monuments ; on coins, and seals ; and in any lists, or 
documents descriptive of events in the course of which 
armorial bearings would be likely to be borne. 
MENETRIER (in his Traite de VOrigine des Armoiries^ 
p. 54) assures us that there is no tomb of an earlier 
date than the eleventh century on which armorial 
insignia are depicted. MENETRIER seems to me to 
have understated the matter by at least a century. 
CLEMENT IV., who reigned 1265-8, is the first of the 
Popes on whose tomb, at Viterbo, armorial bearings are 
depicted. 

The tombstone of WILLIAM, Count of FLANDERS, \ 
who died in 1127, bears his effigy [WREE, de Seghelen 
der Graven van Vlaendren, plate 9. Te Brugghe (Bruges), 
1640] ; the long oval shield which covers the greater part 
of the body has no armorial bearings, but is ornamented 
and strengthened by the usual floriated boss, or " escar- 
buncle " of the period. 

The splendid plaque in champleve enamel which was 
formerly an ornament of the tomb of GEOFFROI 
PLANTAGENET, Count d'ANjou, who died in 1151, 



( 44 ) 

and was father of our HENRY II., is preserved in the 
Museum at Le-Mans, and is one of the earliest examples 
of armorial bearings upon a monumental memorial which 
exist. I have engraved the shield on Plate II., fig. 3. 

I do not know of any sepulchral monument in England 
which has armorial bearings of an earlier date than 
the thirteenth century. One of the earliest is the slab 
of Sir WILLIAM DE STAUNTON at Staunton, Notts, 
of the date 1226 ; which bears his arms (arg.) two chevrons 
(sable) within a bordure (BOUTELL, Christian Monuments, 
p. 140). The slab of ETHELMAR DE VALENCE, Bishop of 
Winchester, 1261, bears the barruly shield of VALENCE 
(BOUTELL, ibid., p. 1 1 8). Other early instances are 
afforded by the incised slab of JOHN, Baron of GREY- 
STOCK, summoned to Parliament by writ in 1295, which 
remains at Greystock, though in a mutilated condi- 
tion (BOUTELL, ibid., p. 75). The slab of Sir RICHARD 
DE BOSELYNGTHORPE, c. 1280, bears a small shield 
charged with a chevron (ibid., p. 146). 

Armorial bearings are still less ancient upon coins. 
MENETRIER tells us that the earliest French coins upon 
which they appear are the deniers ,dor of PHILIPPE DE 
I VALOIS struck in 1336. It was not until the reign of 
HENRY VI I L, that arms appeared on our own silver 
coins. Mr ELLIS indeed finds arms in the unheraldic 
device of a plain cross between four radiating doves, 
which appears on a coin of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, 
and out of which the Heralds evolved the coat of arms 
(Azure, a cross flory between five martlets or) which was 
at a much later date, in the thirteenth century, attributed 
to that prince. (See Chapter IV., p. 157.) 

But I quite agree with Mr SETON (Law and Practice 
of Heraldry in Scotland, p. 1 89), in considering that seals 
form the most authentic, as well as the earliest, record of 
heraldic bearings. (The rise and development of the 
use of seals is the subject of fuller treatment in another 



PLATE I. 




EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 

1, 2, 3. Bayeux Tapestry. 4. Jourdain de Tesson, 12th Century. 5. Vitre 
(Morice). 6. llth Century (Demmin, p. 290). 7. Berchfold IV. Von 
Zahringeu, 1177. 8, 9, 10. 12th Century Chessmen. 11. From Demmin, 
pp. 174 and 291. 



( 45 ) 

chapter of this work.) On these the effigy of the 
owner was represented as in life ; clad in the armour 
of the period, with shield and sword or lance. Some- 
times, indeed, as upon the seals of the early Counts of 
Flanders (See VRE, de Seghelen, plates 5, 6, 7), only the 
inside of the large curved shield is seen upon very early 
instances ; but on the later seals the shield is so turned 
that if any armorial bearings had been depicted they 
would have been visible. When we remember that the 
very object of the adoption of armorial bearings was to 
distinguish the bearer in war from other persons, we may 
be quite sure that had the user of the seal possessed such 
armorial bearings, such clear indications of the personality 
of the proprietor would not have been omitted from the 
seal which authenticated his charters and formal docu- 
ments. Let us then see what light comes to us from 
these contemporary witnesses. Some early shields are 
represented in Plate I., these bear no heraldic devices ; 
the long curved oval shield is often strengthened by a 
border ; by bands of metal nailed upon the wood ; and, 
most frequently, by a metal floriated boss, the arms of 
which extended to the edges of the shield ; and from 
which in later times some varieties of the Cross, and the 
heraldic charge known as the escarbuncle, may have 
been derived. That this latter was not originally a 
heraldic distinction may be proved inter alia by the fact 
that on the shield of GEOFFREY PLANTAGENET, alluded 
to in the preceding page, the floriated boss appears, 
irrespective of the rampant lions which formed his 
armorial bearings. (Plate II., fig. 3.) 

So also on the recumbent effigy on the floor of the 
Temple Church so long, but erroneously, attributed to 
GEOFFREY DE MAGNAVILLE, Earl of ESSEX, and which 
may possibly date from about the close of the twelfth 
century, the shield, which bears three bars dancetty, is 
strengthened by an escarbuncle, or floriated cross, in 



( 46 ) 

relief, which passes over the charges. 1 (See Mr. J. GOUGH 
NICHOLS'S valuable, and most interesting paper on 
this effigy in the Herald and Genealogist, vol. iii., pp. 
97-112.) 

EVSENBACH, in his Histoire du Blason gives a 
list of very early seals upon which armorial bearings 
appear, but which are, in my opinion, of very 
doubtful authenticity. To the contract of marriage 
of SANCHO, Infant of CASTILLE, with GUILLEL- 
MINE, daughter of CENTULUS GASTON II., Viscount 
of BEARN, of the year 1000, are appended seven 
seals of which two remain entire ; one has a shield 
charged with a greyhound, the other has a shield bendy. 
The former is supposed to have been that used by 
GARCIA ARNAUD, Comte d'ANCE et de MAGUSAC, 
who lived at the time, and whose descendants bore a 
greyhound as their armorial charge. But I believe this 
whole document to be a fabrication of a much later date. 
A like doubt attaches to two seals of ADELBERT OF 
LORRAINE affixed to charters of the years 1030, 1037, 
which have on them shields charged with an eagle au 
vol abaisse. A charter of RAYMOND DE ST. GlLLES, 
dated 1088, is said to bear a seal on which is the cross 
which formed the bearing of the Counts of TOULOUSE, 
and was called by their name, the cross videe, clecliee, 
et pommettee (vide infra, p. 161), and which I believe 

1 Similarly the seal of EON DE PONTCHASTEAU in 1200, is 
charged with three crescents and a chief, over all the floriated boss. 
Even as late as 1231 the seal of EONyf/r le comtc has a shield with 
an escarbuncle which is evidently constructional. (See MORICE, 
Memoires pour servir de Preuves a F Histoire Ecclesiastique et 
Civile de Bretagne, Paris 1742, tome i., seals xxviii., xxi.) From the 
same work are taken the shields engraved on Plate L, fig. 5, of 
ROBERT DE VITRE, 1172, whose long pavotse has an escarbuncle 
of fourteen rays, and that of ADAM D'HEREFORD (Plate II., fig, 2) 
on which the shield has a boss, and is strengthened with a bordure, 
and bands in cross and saltire. The shield Plate I., fig. n is 
from DEMMIN, Weapons of War, page 174. 



( 47 ) 

was simply developed out of the constructional boss of 
the older shields. The seal of THIERRY II., Count of 
BAR and MONTBELIARD, appended to a deed dated 
1093, is sa id to bear two barbel addorsed, as in the later 
arms. HUGH II., Duke of BURGUNDY, in 1102, bears 
on his seal a shield, Bendy of six within a bordure, the 
well known arms of Burgundy-ancient. RAOUL DE 
BEAUGENCY, a follower of GODFREY DE BOUILLON 
in the First Crusade, in a deed dated 1104, seals 
with a shield : Chequy and a fess. In the same 
year a seal of SIMON DE BROYES has a shield bearing 
the canting arms of the broyes which later formed 
part of the coat of JoiNVILLE, or DE GENEVILLE. 
The seal of GuiRAND DE SlMlANE in 1113, and later, 
bears the ram which is the charge of the coat of that 
family. 

The earliest seal of a Count of Flanders given by 
VREE, in his work De Seghelen der Graven van Vlaendren, 
which bears a shield charged with the lion of Flanders 
is that of Count ROBERT on plate 4, attached to a charter 
of 1072. But of this MABILLON has demonstrated the 
falsity ; and on that ground, and not (as Mr ELLIS 
rather unworthily suspects) because it " conflicts with a 
cherished theory," Mr PLANCHE passes it over entirely 
in his Heraldry Founded on Facts ; and says of the seal of 
PHILIP I. Count of FLANDERS in 1164 (0 tnat it is the 
earliest unquestionable example in the collection of 
UREDIUS (i.e. WREE, or VREE, as afore mentioned) on 
which the lion appears as a heraldic bearing. But I am 
pretty sure that Sir CHARLES MEYRICK also expressed 
a doubt as to the authenticity of this seal, not 
because the use of the arms " conflicts with a cherished 
theory," but on account of some peculiarities of the 
armour. I gather also that DEMAY, the great French 
authority on Sigillography, agrees with him, since 
he passes over this particular seal, and says : " On 



( 48 ) 

rencontre le lion pour la premiere fois dans le type de 
Philippe d'Alsace, en 1170. Le sceau de 1164" (an 
authentic seal, not the one referred to above) " du meme 
comte, n'en fait pas mention. 1 On le chercherait en 
vain sur les sceaux des predecesseurs de Philippe " (Le 
Costume dapres les Sceaux, p. 189, Paris, 1880). We 
have then here, the first certainly authentic use of arms 
upon a seal towards the close of the twelfth century. 
Other seals which M. DEMAY adduces corroborate very 
strikingly the generally received idea that it was only 
after the middle of the twelfth century that regular 
armorial bearings came into general use. This evidence 
is here given in a condensed form. The seal of 
MATHIEU I. DE MONTMORENCY, in 1160, has no arms ; 
that of MATHIEU II., in 1177, bears a shield with the 
older form of the Montmorency coat, a cross between 
four alerions. No arms are visible on the seal of CONON, 
Count of SOISSONS in 1172, but in 1178 and 1180 his 
shield bears a lion passant. MATHIEU II., Count of 
BEAMOUNT SUR OISE, in 1173 has no arms, but his 
successor MATHIEU III. in 1177 seals with a shield 
charged with a lion rampant. The COUCY seal in 1150 
has no armorial bearings, but the well-known coat : 
Barry of six vair and gules ', appears on the seal of 1 190. 
The lion borne by the family of GARLANDE does not 
appear on the seal of GUI DE GARLAND in 1170, but is 
engraved on that used in 1192. In 1185 GERARD DE 
ST. AUBERT bears no arms ; but in 1194 his buckler is 
charged with Chevronny and a bordure. On the seal of 
BALDWIN THE BRAVE, Count of HAINAULT, of the 
date of 1182, the well-known arms: Chevronne of six, 
or and sable do not appear, but they are represented on 
his counter-seal in 1282. The Counts of CHAMPAGNE 

1 On further consideration I think the matter is explicable other- 
wise, as I see M. DEMAY, fig. 92, ascribes the disputed seal of 
PHILIPPE D'ALSACE to about 1181. 



( 49 ) 

in 1 1 80 and 1186 are represented as bearing the plain 
shield with its ornamented boss; but before 1197 
HENRI II. had assumed the coticed bend. ROTROU III. 
Count of PERCHE, in 1 190 uses no arms; but in 1 197 his 
son GEOFFROI bears the shield with the three chevrons 
(DEM AY, Le Costume, etc., pp. 189-192). So also in 
Scotland the seal of ALAN STEWART in 1170 had 
apparently no arms upon the shield borne by his 
mounted effigies; but in 1190 the shield of the same 
ALAN bears for the first time the fess chequy (LAING, 
Scottish Seals, i., 772-773). 

We need not however suppose, and M. DEM AY warns 
us against so doing, that " le blason fait son apparition 
dans les dernieres annees du douzieme siecle, brusque- 
ment, sans transition." On the contrary he adduces some 
interesting examples of earlier date which enable us to 
see how the transition was effected. Passing by for the 
present the development of the fleur de lis in the arms 
of France, which will be referred to in another section, 
we may cite the following instances. On a seal of 
ENGUERRAN, Count de ST. POL, anterior to the year 
1 150, the mounted knight bears a long uncharged shield, 
but the base of the seal is seme with garbs. These garbs 
later became true heraldic charges ; and, to the number 
of five, were the blazon of the family of the CANDAVENE, 
to which ENGUERRAN belonged. The seal of H ELLIN DE 
WAVRIN, in 1 177, bears an eagle volant holding a serpent 
in its claws ; in 1193 the eagle displayed appears as the 
charge of the seal of ROBERT DE WAVRIN, Seneschal of 
Flanders. In 1 195, the seal of ROGER DE MEULAN has 
a lion passant ; two years later the lion, but rampant, is 
enclosed in a shield on the seal of JEAN DE MEULAN ; 
and ROGER DE MEULAN is represented holding this escut- 
cheon on his seal of 1204. JULIENNE, Dame de ROSOY, 
is represented in 1195 between two roses; in 1201 the 
roses have become heraldic, and the shield of ROGER 



( 5 ) 

DE ROSOY in 1 20 1 bears three. (DEMAY, loc. cit., pp. 

I93-I94-) 

A like process went on elsewhere ; the seal of JOHN 
DE MUNDEGUMBRI of Eagleshame, about 1170, bears a 
single fleur de lis (LAING, Scottish Seals, i., No. 590) ; and 
three fleurs de lis became later the arms of the family 
of MONTGOMERY. The seal of WILLIAM DE INAYS, 
appended to the instrument of fealty by which certain 
Scottish magnates did homage to EDWARD I. in 1296, 
bears only a single six-pointed mullet, or star (heraldic 
bearings at that time not having become generally 
adopted in Scotland); in later times the INNES coat was 
charged with three mullets (Ane Account of the Familie 
of Innes. Spalding Club, 1864, page 56). Similarly, the 
seal of RICHARD FALCONER of Hawkerston, in 1170 
bears a fleur de lis supporting two falcons (LAING, i. 323). 
In the same year the seals of ROBERT, PATRICK, and 
WALTER CORBET (Ibid., i., 201-3) have corbies perched 
upon the branches of a tree; while, in 1292, GILBERT 
and WILLIAM CONNISBURGH have on their seals 
(Ibid., i., 199-200) conies in the midst of foliage. In all 
these cases, as in many others, the device assumed in 
reference to the name became the foundation of the 
regular heraldic bearings of the family. 

Mr STODART says (Scottish Arms, ii., 291): "The 
seal of ODO BURNARD, attached to a charter relating to 
Arlesey, 1200, has a leaf, or perhaps a flower of seven 
leaves on a short stalk ; another seal of the same person, 
a little later, has three leaves on a shield. The leaves 
have been called burnet (pimpernel) leaves, but all the 
Scottish blazons have holly. One leaf appears on the 
seal, 1252, of RICHARD BURNARD of Faringdon in 
Roxburghshire." Hence came the arms borne by the 
BURNETTS of Leys, etc. : Argent three holly leaves in chief 
vert, and a hunting horn in base sable, garnished and 
stringed gules. These arms, quartering in the second and 



( 5' ) 

third Azure, three garbs or for CRAIGMYLE, were borne 
by the BURNETTS of Kemnay; and, with the difference 
of a mullet sable in the fess point of the quartered coat, 
by the late GEORGE BURNETT, LL.D., Lyon King of 
Arms, and joint author of the present work, a younger 
brother of BURNETT of Kemnay, in Aberdeenshire. 

The seal of WILLIAM LINDSAY, Lord of ERCILDOUN 
and CRAWFORD, in 1 170, is not armorial ; that of SlMON 
of LINDSAY of the same date has an eagle displayed 
the heraldic charge of the Norman family of the 
LlMESAYS which in 1345 becomes the (single) heraldic 
supporter of the family arms (Gu. a fess chequy arg. 
and as.} upon the seal of Sir DAVID LINDSAY, Lord of 
CRAWFORD (LAING, Scottish Seals, i., Nos. 503, 504, 509, 
and ii., 629, 630. See also Lives of the Lindsays, vol. i., 
pp. 3-5 and 440). 

BUTKENS in his Trophees de Brabant (Lib. 4., cap. 3), 
attributes the rise of Armorial bearings in the Low 
Countries to about the middle of the twelfth century. 
He says : " Certes il nous seroit bien difficile de trouver 
quelles armoiries les Princes mesmes portoient en ce 
temps la, puisque dans leurs Sceaux Ton ne trouve 
aucune marque ou Blason ; et veritablement le port des 
armes n'est si ancien, n'y les armes si hereditaires, comme 
on les imagine maintenant, et ou ce qu'on peut juger des 
Sceaux, le Blason en nos quartiers n'a este en usage que 
peu devant 1'an MCLX." 

Even in the thirteenth century arms had not become 
definitely hereditary. In 1223 AYMAR DE SASSENAGE 
bore a bend. In 1251 GUILLAUME DE SASSENAGE bore 
two swans accostes by two cotices fretty. In 1249 
GUILLAUME, Seigneur de BEAUVOIR, bore Quarterly, 
and a cotice in bend; in 1279 a GUILLAUME DE 
BEAUVOIR (who MENETRIER thinks may have been the 
same person) bore a lion. EUDES ALLEMAN, Seig- 
neur des CHAMPS, in 1265, bore a bend between six 



( 52 ) 

fleurs de lis ; AYMAR ALLEMAN, a griffon passant ; ODO 
ALLEMAN, a single flour de lis. GUI ALLEMAN in 1307 
bore four fleurs de lis and a label. The branch of this 
family at Uriage bore an eagle, and that at Arbent in 
Bresse, a lion. Finally, SlBOUD ALLEMAN, Bishop of 
GRENOBLE, in the year 1455, having assembled in his 
Episcopal Palace all his relations of the name, to the 
number of twenty-three, they resolved that for the future 
all should bear exclusively the arms of the ALLEMANS 
of Vaubonnois, namely : Gules fleury or, over all a cotice 
argent. (MENETRIER, De lOrigine des Armoiries et du 
Blason, pp. 88, 89.) MENETRIER declares that he had him- 
self seen the formal document drawn up on this occasion ; 
and he adds, " Je pourrois alleguer cent autres exemples 
semblables de diverses maisons de Normandie, de 
Champagne, de Bourgogne, et des Pays Bas." 

In our own country mutations of arms were by no 
means infrequent, as in the case of the FERRERS, Earls 
of DERBY; and a noble marrying a lady of higher posi- 
tion, or greater possessions, usually assumed her arms. 
(Further allusion to this will be found hereafter in the 
chapter on MARSHALLING.) 

In Spain the introduction of Hereditary Arms does not 
appear to have been earlier than the commencement of 
the thirteenth century. In Italy the case was the same. 
JOVIUS, Bishop of NOCERA, in 1556, writes : "Al tempo 
di Friderico Barbarossa vennero in uso 1'insegne delle 
Famiglie, chiamate da noi ' Arme,' donate de principi, per 
merito dell' honorate imprese fatte in guerra, ad effete di 
nobilitare i vallorosi Cavallieri, ne nacquero bizarrisime 
inventioni ne' cimieri et pitture ne gli scudi." 

In Sweden the earliest known example of an armorial 
shield is of the year 1219. (See HlLDEBRAND, Det 
Svenska Riksvapnet ; in the Antiqyatisk Tidskrift for 
Sverige ; 1883.) The shield is engraved on p. 326. 




FIG. 7 



FIG. 8 



FIG. 9 



FIG. 10 




FIG. 11 



FIG. 12 



FIG. 13 



FIG. 14 



CHAPTER III. 

As the primary use of Armorial Ensigns was to 
distinguish warriors by the devices on their shields, 
so when these bearings came to be depicted on seals, or 
monuments, or in Rolls of Arms, they continued to be 
represented upon a shield or escucheon. This varied 
in form at different times, following the modifications 
which took place in the equipment of the warrior ; the 
size and shape of the shield being materially affected by 
the quality of the armour. 

At the time of the Norman Conquest this was com- 
posed of links interlaced ; or of scales, rings, and other 
small pieces of steel, sewn upon the linen or leather 
hauberk, which was usually quilted in diamond-shaped 
spaces. While this rude armour, which is depicted in 
the Bayeux Tapestry (see also Plate II., fig. i), was 
usually sufficient to turn an arrow shot from a distance, 
it was utterly inadequate to resist the thrusts of a spear, or 
sword, at close quarters ; and the defence of the warrior 



( 54 ) 

against these was provided for by a shield of large dimen- 
sions, sufficient to cover the whole of the body. On 
the Bayeux Tapestry this appears of a kite - shaped 
form, but, as is evident from our plates, it was really 
curved round the warrior's body, and was adorned and 
strengthened by a metal border and intersecting bands, 
or by a boss with a projecting spike and floriations, 
which afterwards became the foundation of the heraldic 
charge known as the escarbuncle (Plates I. and II.). 
The latest instances of the use of this boss are probably 
afforded by the seals of RICHARD CCEUR DE LlON ; and 
of RICHARD DE VERNON, in 1 195. (DEMAY, Le Costume 
dapres les Sceaux, p. 141.) 

As the texture of the coat of mail became closer, and 
the pieces of which it was composed more continuous, 
its powers of resistance were greatly increased, and the 
large, heavy, cumbersome shield was no longer needed. 
Accordingly the shield, though still somewhat curved, and 
sufficiently large to protect the vital organs, underwent a 
considerable diminution in size, as well as a modification 
in shape (Plate II., fig. 5). Upon the early seals where 
the warrior is represented on horseback, bearing his shield, 
the curvature of the shield often prevents us from having 
a full view of the bearings depicted upon it ; but on the 
counter-seal, or secretum, which contained only, or chiefly, 
the representation of the owner's shield of arms, this is 
represented flat, or with only a slight incurvation. The 
form given to it varied considerably at various times. 
On the earliest armorial seals the shield is of a 
heart shape, with round top and sides as in the 
seal of HENRY DE FERRIERES in 1205 (cf. the secretum 

of EUSTACIA DE CHATILLON, I2l8 ; VREE, Gen. Com. 
Fland., plate vi. ; DEMAY, Le Costume dapres les Sceaux, 
fig. 205, 1205). The secretum of PHILIPPE DE MALDE- 
GHEM in 1207 (VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre, 
plate 4), shows that the lines of the shield, both at the 



PLATE II. 




EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 

1. 13th Century Maire de Soissons (Demay). 2. Adam de Hereford (Morice, 
XIV.). 3. From Champleve enamel of Geoffrey Plantagenet, 1157, at 
Le Mans. 4. Abbey of St. Victor, Marseilles, 12th Century (Demay). 
5. Kobert d'Artois, 1237 (Demay). 



( 55 ) 

top and the sides, were beginning to lose something of 
their convexity, though the top angles were still rounded 
off. (See also the seal and secretum of ROBERT II., 
Comte de DREUX, circa 1202, in VREE, Ghiealogie des 
Comtes de Flandre^ plate 7.) A little later the shield 
becomes slightly elongated, and all its lines flatter ; the 
top line joins the side ones at a distinct angle, instead 
of being rounded off as formerly. Both types occur on 
the seal and the secretum of PIERRE DE DREUX, son of 
ROBERT II., and husband of ALICE, Duchess of 
BRETAGNE, c. 1212. On his seal the shield borne by the 
Count was of the elongated triangular shape ; the heart- 
shaped shield appears on the secretum. (VREE, Genea- 
logie des Comtes de Flandre, plate 8.) 

To this type succeeded the regular " heater-shaped " 
shield ; flat on the top, with the sides gently curved and 
meeting at a point, which prevailed in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. Later, especially after the 
introduction of the custom of quartering arms, there was 
an increasing tendency to give greater width to the base 
of the shield. About the middle of the fourteenth 
century we find the shield penche or couc/ze (that is placed 
at an angle instead of being droit, or in a vertical 
position), and supporting on its upper angle the crested 
helm, with its mantling or lambrequins. In this form 
the shield was suspended above the pavilions at the tour- 
naments. (See the Plates from the Armorial de Geldre ; 
and the Zurich Wappenrolle.) Towards the end of the 
fifteenth century appeared such forms as those represented 
in Fig. 8, p. 53. This shield is said to be a bouche, and 
the notch at the angle was contrived as a rest for the 
lance of the wearer. 

In southern countries, especially in Spain, the shield 
assumed a distinctly rounded shape in the base, which 
has been retained in the Peninsula to the present day, 
and of which examples are found in the mediaeval seals 



( 56 ) 

of the Counts of Foix, Beam, Toulouse, etc. (See 
DEMAY, Le Costume, etc., p. 228.) An oval shield was 
also in use in southern countries, especially in Italy, where 
it is still greatly employed ; and it is the form almost 
invariably used there, and elsewhere, for the Arms of 
Ecclesiastics. On the seals of ENGUERRAN DE COUCY, 
in 1380, and of OLIVIER DE CLISSON, Constable of 
France, in 1397, the oval shield has the notch a boucJie 
which converts it into the Ecu en palette (DEMAY, Le 
Costume, etc., p. 230). The prevailing forms became 
more florid in the sixteenth century, particularly in 
Germany (see figs. 12, 13, and 14). 

What may be called the " vair-shaped " shield was 
much in vogue in Britain in the eighteenth, and early 
part of the present century ; as were other still more 
untasteful forms ; but within the last fifty years there 
has been, along with a revived knowledge of, and taste 
for, Art, a reversion to .the earlier and simpler types of 
the shield. The " heater-shaped " shield is now very 
generally employed for single coats ; while for those 
which contain quarterings, or small charges, the shield 
with straight top and sides and ogee curves in base, 
which finds favour in France ; or the Spanish shield 
(which is the same, except that the base is formed by a 
segment of a circle) are much used. (See p. 53, fig. 10.) 

In Great Britain the Royal Arms are very generally 
represented (or misrepresented) in an oval, sometimes 
even in a circular shield. This has arisen from the 
circumstance that. the shield is encircled by the Garter 
which forms the principal ensign of the Most Noble Order 
of that name. In imitation of this, oval shields, which are 
surrounded by the collars, or by garters or bands bearing 
the mottos of the Orders, are often, but without any 
necessity, employed by the Knights of the THISTLE, 
BATH, etc. (On the use of the oval shield abroad, see 
page 58.) 



( 57 ) 

There are a few early examples of shields of circular 
shape. [See the seal of JEAN, Due de BERRY, 1408, 
(Plate of Seals, No. I, infra)] and that of MARIE 
D'ANjou, Queen of CHARLES VII.] A monumental 
slab at Chetwynd in Shropshire has a circular shield 
charged with arms, GOUGH, Monuments, vol. i., p. cviii. 
(quoted in BOUTELL, Christian Monuments, note on 
p. 74). The arms of Savoy were often borne on a circular 
escucheon on the breast of an eagle (vide post. Chap. VIII., 
p. 243-244). The Ecu en banniere, a shield of a square 
shape, has from very early times been used by Knights 
Bannerets ; and in France it is still employed by certain 
families, which descend from persons who have held the 
dignity of Chevaliers Bannerets. Thus the Poitevin 
family of BARLOT bear : de Sable, a trots croix patees 
d'argent. L'e'cu en banniere. The BEAUMANOIRS, Mar- 
quises de LAVARDIN, whose arms are : d'Azur, a onze 
billettes d'argent, 4, 3, 4 ; do the same. The arms of the 
ARCHAMBAULTS, who descend from the first House of 
BOURBON, are often borne en banniere, they are : d'Or, 
au lion de gueules, accompagne de huit coquilles d'azur, 
rangees en orle. 

But in the fourteenth, and commencement of the 
fifteenth centuries the ecu en banniere was not unfre- 
quently used by great ladies. M. DEMAY, in his Costume 
tfapres les Sceaux, engraves (Fig. 284) an instance ; in 
it the arms of JEANNE, Dame de PLASNES, are im- 
paled with those of her husband. In VREE, Genealogie 
des Comtes de Flandre, plate 60 contains the seal of 
MARGUERITE DE BAVIERE, wife of JEAN SANS-PEUR. 
She was the daughter of ALBERT DE BAVIERE, Count 
of HAINAULT, HOLLAND, etc., son of the Emperor 
LOUIS. On her seal the ecu en banniere appears to be 
quarterly, but really it is impaled : Per pale : I. Per f ess, 
(a) in <:te/BURGUNDY-modern ; (b) in base BURGUNDY- 
ancient. 2. Also Per f ess ; (a) in chief BAVARIA ; (b) in 



( 58 ) 

base, the quartered coat of HAINAULT and HOLLAND, 
without a pourfilar line. (These coats are blazoned in 
the chapter on MARSHALLING.) 

Two seals of ALFONZO of SPAIN in 1324, 1325, have 
the arms on an ecu en banniere. 

The ancient but very inconvenient custom still prevails 
by which the arms of an unmarried lady, or a widow, are 
placed upon a lozenge-shaped shield. On the Continent, 
and especially for widows, this usage has many excep- 
tions ; and an oval shield, which obviates the mutilations 
so frequently necessitated by the adoption of the lozenge, 
is increasingly in use. The employment of the Ecu en 
lozange goes back to the thirteenth century. An early 
instance is engraved by DEMAY (Fig. 283), it is of the date 
1262, and in it ISABELLE DE SAINT VRAIN bears in 
a lozenge her arms, a double-headed eagle displayed. 
But in these early times, the lozenge was occasionally, 
if rarely, used by men also. PIERRE DE LA FAUCHE 
thus sealed in 1270; and JEAN, Comte d'ARMAG- 
NAC, in 1369. In the last named year JEANNE DE 
BRETAGNE, wife of CHARLES DE BLOIS, thus bore her 
arms (DEMAY, Le Costume cTapres les Sceaux, p. 229). 

In VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre, plate 58, 
are engraved two seals of MARGARET, Countess of 
HAINAULT, HOLLAND, etc., wife of the Emperor Louis 
(of Bavaria), in which her arms are borne in a lozengeonthe 
breast of the Imperial eagle (single-headed). The shield 
is not quartered according to modern usage, but bears 
four lions rampant, i, 2, I. The two in chief and base 
are the red lion of HOLLAND ; the two in flanks, the 
black lion of FLANDERS. As in the coat of her grand- 
daughter MARGUERITE DE BAVIERE, described above, 
there is no division of the quarters by a pourfilar line 
(these coats are referred to below in the Chapter 
on MARSHALLING). The lozenge has been used in 
Britain for unmarried ladies since the fourteenth century. 



( 59 ) 

SYLVANUS MORGAN derives it from EVE'S spindle ; just 
as, according to his fancy, the tasteless form of the shield 
affected in his time was a reminiscence of ADAM'S spade ! 

POINTS OF THE ESCUCHEON. 
To facilitate the description, or, as it is technically called, 




FIG. 15. FIG. 16. 

"blazoning" of arms, the surface or "field" of the 
escucheon has been mapped out into nine, or sometimes 
(and more conveniently), into eleven points, represented 
in the woodcuts above, each point being known by its 
special name. 



ENGLISH. 

A. Fess point, 

B. Middle chief, . 

C. Middle base, . 

D. Dexter chief, . 

E. Sinister chief, 

F. Dexter flank, 

G. Sinister flank, 
H. Dexter base, . 
I. Sinister base, . 
K. Honour point, 
L. Nombril point 



FRENCH. 

le centre (abime) ; " en cceur.' 
le point du chef, 
la pointe de 1'ecu. 
le canton dextre du chef, 
le canton senestre du chef, 
le flanc dextre. 
le flanc senestre. 
le canton dextre de la pointe. 
le canton senestre de la pointe. 
le point d'honneur. 
le nombril de 1'ecu. 



It will be observed that the dexter and sinister sides 
of the shield are so called from their position in relation 
to the right or left side of the supposed bearer of the 
shield, and not to the eye of the spectator. D B E is 



( 60 ) 

the chief of the shield ; H C I, its base ; D F H the 
dexter flank ; E G I, the sinister flank ; and in each 
case the centre letter marks the " point " of that particular 
region. 

TINCTURES. 

Armorial insignia consist for the most part of one or 
more objects called "charges," depicted on afield, i.e. the 
escutcheon which represents the knightly shield, and 
whose points have been already explained. One coat of 
arms differs from another, not by the differences of the 
charges only, but by differences of colour ; or, more 
correctly speaking, of tincture, both in the charges and 
in the field. The field may be of one, or of more than 
one tincture, divided by the partition lines hereafter to 
be explained, which are represented on page 75. The 
tinctures used in British Heraldry are nine in number ; 
and comprise two metals, five colours, and two furs. 
Of these furs there are several variations to be noted 
presently. 

The metals are Or, that is gold, Plate III., fig. I ; 
and Argent, that is silver, fig. 2 ; in painting these 
are often represented by the colours yellow and white ; 
but they are more properly represented by the actual 
metals. 

The colours are red, known as gules ; blue, known as 
azure; black, as sable; green, as vert; purple, as purpure. 
The French equivalents are, dazur, de gueules, de sable> 
de sinople, de purpure. 

Besides these are two other colours mentioned in old 
heraldic treatises orange, known as tenny or tenn^ and 
blood colour, termed sanguine. These last occur so 
rarely in British Heraldry as to be scarcely worthy of 
enumeration with the other five. They were intended 
by the old heralds to be used in the system of " abate- 
ments" which they had invented, and of which some 



PLATE III. 





1. Or. 





3. Gules. 

Hi 





5. Sable. 





7. Purpure. 



2. Argent. 




4. Azure. 




6. Vert. 




8. Tenny. 




9. Sanguine. 



( 61 ) 

notice will be found under that word. Practically these 
abatements (" Sottises anglaises" is the severe, but not 
unjust estimate of the learned French writer on blazon, 
le Pere MENETRIER) were never in use, and the colours 
were, therefore, not needed. There is, however, in the 
Lyon Register, one instance only of the use of sanguine 
as the tincture employed in an honourable coat. The 
arms of the family of CLAYHILLS of Invergowrie, are : 
Per bend sanguine and vert, two greyhounds courant bend- 
ways argent. I have also met with a few foreign instances 
of the use of tenne ; the Prussian Counts of BOSE bear 
as their first quarter, Azure, a Latin cross patee alesee 
tenny. 

Besides the metals, tinctures, and furs which have been 
already described, other tinctures are occasionally found 
in the Heraldry of Continental nations ; but are compara- 
tively of such rarity as that they may be counted among the 
curiosities of Blazon ; which would require a separate 
volume. That of which I have collected most instances 
is Cendree, or ash colour ; which is borne by (among 
others) the Bavarian family of AsCHAU as its armes 
parlantes: Cendree, a mount of three coupeaux in base, 
or. 

Brundtre, a brown colour, is even more rare as a 
tincture of the field ; the MlEROSZEWSKY in Silesia, 
bear, de Brunatre, a cross patee argent supporting a raven 
rising sable, and holding in its beak a horse-shoe proper, 
its points towards the chief. 

Bleu-celeste, or bleu du del, appears occasionally, apart 
from what we may term "landscape coats." That it 
differs from, and is a much lighter colour than, azure is 
shown by the following example. The Florentine 
CINTI (now CINl), bear a coat which would be numbered 
among the armes fausses, or a enquerir: Per pale azure 
and bleu-celeste an estoile counter changed. 

Amaranth, or Columbine, is the field of a coat (of 



which the blazon is too lengthy for insertion in this place) 
which was granted to a Bohemian knight in 1701. 

The use of the term "proper " of course covers every 
shade which can be found in an artist's palette ; it is 
indicated in German hachures by indented lines in the 
direction of purpure ; but Eisen-farbe seems to have an 
independent existence in some modern coats. 

Carnation is the technical French term for the colour 
of naked flesh, and is often employed in blazon. 

Of the regular tinctures purpure is much less used in 
British Armory than any other. In France it was 
disputed as to whether it was a separate tincture at all. 
The lion of LEON is often blazoned purpure, but was 
not intended to be of a tincture distinct from gules. (See 
my paper in Notes and Queries, iii. series, vol. i. p. 471 ; 
and another in the Genealogist, vol. v., p. 49, on " The 
Heraldry of Spain and Portugal.") 

The old armorists covered their ignorance of the 
history of the subject on which they wrote, and filled 
their treatises, by assigning to each metal and colour 
special attributes, not only when these were used alone, 
but varying according to their combinations with others. 
Into these absurdities we need not enter ; they were 
quite incompatible with the long prevalent system of 
differencing the coats of members of the same family by 
change of tincture ; and as a matter of fact at no time, 
and in no country, were the moral qualities of the bearer 
indicated by the tinctures or charges of the shield. Tinc- 
tures which were supposed appropriate to represent the 
moral qualities of one member of a family would obviously 
often have been quite inappropriate to indicate those of 
his brothers, or of his sons. Still, an idea prevails that one 
colour or metal is more honourable than another, as gold 
is a more precious metal than silver ; and the colours 
have usually been ranked in the order in which they are 
here placed. Gules and azure have each the first place 



PLATE IV. 




1. Ermine. 
(Ancient.} 




4. Erminois. 




8. Countervail-. 





2. Ermine. 




5. Pean. 




7 Vair, 





3. Ermines. 




6. Vair. 

(Ancient.} 



L 

:: A 



10. Vair undy. 




11. Potent. 13. Vairy. 

12. Counterpotent. 



( 63 ) 

assigned to them by various heralds, on the ground that 
the tinctures of the arms of the Sovereign must be the 
most honourable. According to this reasoning azure 
would hold the first place in France, and gules in 
England. 

The only furs in use in the early days of heraldry 
were ermine and vair. The former, of white with black 
spots of special shape, was supposed to represent the 
white skin and the black tail of the animal so called. 
Ermine is often thus represented, as was originally always 
the case, by a white field with black spots. But in the 
middle ages the field was often of silver (argent). The 
ermine on the " Stall plates" of the Knights of the Garter 
in St. George's Chapel at Windsor, has the field of silver, 
not of white. (See Mr HOPE'S paper on these " Stall 
plates" read before the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
Archceologia, vol. li.) Vair is said to represent the fur of 
a species of squirrel, much used for lining cloaks and 
mantles according to the sumptuary laws of olden times. 
As the number of coats of arms increased several varieties 
of these furs were introduced. Ermines, Erminois, and 
Pean, are really only variations of ermine ; and have no 
more right to be separately enumerated as furs than have 
the varieties of ermine and vair hereafter to be noticed. 
A black fur with white spots, the reverse of ermine, is 
known as ermines (in French, contre-hermine). In. 
erminois the fur is gold colour with black spots, or tails ; 
Pean is the reverse, black with gold spots. These latter 
are not known by a special name in foreign heraldry, 
but the field is said to be of such or such a colour seine 
dhermines. Thus, erminois would be in French blazon ; 
d'Or, seme determines de sable ; Pean would be de Sable, 
seme determines a" or. Other variations are noted further 
on in this Chapter ; and see Plate IV. 

Drawings, engravings, and sculptures in which colour 
was unattainable, laboured under the disadvantage of 



( 64 ) 

giving very imperfect information regarding the coat 
which they were designed to represent ; and in the 
seventeenth century it first occurred to heralds that by 
an arrangement of lines and points, it might be pos- 
sible, even without the use of colour, to indicate heraldic 
tinctures in sculpture or engraving. 

The first system of this kind appears to have been that 
of FRANCQUART, in Belgium, c. 1623. It was succeeded 
by those of BUTKENS, 1626; PETRA SANCTA, 1638; 
LOBKOWITZ, 1639; GELENIUS ; and DE ROUCK, 1645 ; 
but all these systems differed from each other, and were 
for a time the cause of confusion, and not of order. 
Eventually, however, the system of PETRA SANCTA (the 
author of Tesserae Gentilitice] superseded all the others, 
and has remained in use up to the present time. 

By it, Or is represented in engravings by dots ; argent 
is left plain ; gules is denoted by perpendicular ; azure 
by horizontal lines ; sable by the conjunction of both. 
Vert is indicated by diagonal lines from the dexter to 
the sinister; purpure by diagonal lines from the sinister 
to the dexter. 

By the side of each metal and colour in Plate III. is 
placed its representation by lines and points. 

Another device for indicating the tinctures in engrav- 
ings and sketches was that called " tricking ; " in it 
letters and abbreviations were used to mark the tinc- 
tures, and a numeral the repetition of a charge. 

The arms in SlEBMACHER's Wappenbuch, Niirnberg 
(ist edition in 1605, later edition 1734), are thus tricked, as 
are those in MAGNENEY's Recueil des Annes, Paris, 1633. 

One of the absurd pedantries affected by English 
armorialists was the substitution of planets for the ordi- 
nary names of the tinctures in the blazons of Sovereign 
Princes ; and of precious stones in those of peers. As this 
mode of blazoning, though now happily discarded, was 
adhered to by writers as late in date as GUILLIM, it is 



needful to give here the respective synonyms of the 
different metals and colours. 



TINCTURES. 


PRINCES. 


PEERS. 


Or. 


Sol. 


Topaz. 


Argent. 


Luna. 


Pearl. 


Gules. 


Mars. 


Ruby. 


Azure. 


Jupiter. 


Sapphire. 


Sable. 


Saturn. 


Diamond. 


Vert. 


Venus. 


Emerald. 


Purpure. 


Mercury. 


Amethyst. 


Sanguine. 


Dragon's head. 


Jacinth. 


Tenne. 


Dragon's tail. 


Sardonyx. 



It has been said generally that a coat of arms consists 
of a charge or charges, placed upon a field ; but while 
this is the general rule there are numerous exceptions ; 
there are coats which consist only of a field ; a single 
metal, tincture, or fur being alone employed. These are 
comparatively rarely met with, though in foreign Heral- 
dry their frequency has been much underrated by 
previous writers ; and there is a very large number of 
coats, both at home and abroad, in which, while the field 
is divided by partition lines into surfaces of two or more 
colours, there is nothing which can technically be called 
a charge. Many of these simple coats are of great 
antiquity. 

FIELDS OF A SINGLE METAL, TINCTURE, OR FUR. 

I have been able, in the course of a good many years' 
study, to collect examples in which each of the heraldic 
tinctures, furs, and metals has been used as the sole 

F 



( 66 ) 

bearing of the shield. A plain golden coat (d Or plein} 
is borne in France by the families of BlSE, BORDEAUX, 
DE PUY-PAULIN, and PAERNON ; in Spain by MENESEZ 
of Andalucia ; in Germany and Switzerland by BOSSEN- 
STEIN (if we may credit SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, iii. 
1 1 8 ; Or, an eagle displayed gules, being the more usual 
coat) ; and by VON LAHR of Rhenish Prussia. It is also 
the coat of the Italian family of BANDINELLI, to which 
Pope ALEXANDER III. belonged. In this case (as upon 
his monument in the church of St. John Lateran at 
Rome) I have noticed that the plain gold field is 
diapered. Other coats hereafter blazoned were similarly 
treated. (See Diaper, pp. 114, 115.) 

U Argent plein : The plain silver shield which we 
have been accustomed to think of as an ecu d'attente, 
borne by the youthful esquire who had as yet performed 
no deeds of valour entitling him to the knightly rank 
and emblazoned shield, turns out to be the ordinary 
bearing of the French families of MAIGRET, or MEGRET ; 
of BOCQUET, or BOQUET ; of PELLEZAY ; and of the 
Polish ZGRAIA. 

The plain coat of Azure (d'Azur pleiri) is attributed to 
BERINGTON of Chester, in HARL. MS., 1535 ; to DE LA 
BARGE DE VTLLE, in Lorraine ; to FlZEAUX of France 
and Holland ; to the Swiss family of MAIENTHAL ; and 
to the CONTRIZAKIS of Greece. 

Plain Gules (de Gueules plein} occurs more frequently ; 
it is the well-known coat of the house of D'ALBRET, of 
the Kings of NAVARRE ; and of the Dues de NARBONNE. 
It was borne as a canting coat by BONVINO, and by the 
Florentine Rossi, and RUBEI ; by the French SARRANTE ; 
DU VIVIER DE LANSAC ; and the MARCHANDS of Liege. 
The FORTUNATI of Trieste (possibly as a canting re- 
miniscence of " rouge et noir" f), and the German Counts 
von HERTENSTEIN, XIMENEZ in Spain, and CZER- 
WNIA of Poland, all bore de Gueules plein. 



( 67 ) 

There is another use of a plain red shield which must 
not be omitted. In the full quartered coat of some 
high sovereign princes of Germany SAXONY (duchies), 
BRANDENBURG (PRUSSIA), BAVARIA, ANHALT appears 
a plain red quartering ; this is known as the Blut Fahne, 
or Regalien quarter, and is indicative of royal preroga- 
tives. It usually occupies the base of the shield, and is 
often diapered. 

The sombre Sable shield (de Sable pleiri] is borne, not 
only by the " unknown knight " of the mediaeval tales of 
chivalry, but by the families of DESGABETS D'OMBALE, 
and by a branch of the Norman and English house of 
GOURNAY. 

The French families of BARBOTTE, PUPELLIN, and 
TRIBLE, all bear de Sinople plein ; and even the com- 
paratively rarely used tincture Purpure is also the plain 
coat of the French AUBERTS. 

I venture to affirm that there is no subject on which 
so many books have been published with so little original 
research as Heraldry ; and I may be allowed to express 
a hope that the list above given, which is much more 
complete than any which has appeared in preceding 
Heraldic treatises, and which (with other portions of this 
book) will hardly escape the hands of future freebooting 
" compilers," may be useful as saving them from writing 
nonsense as to coats of a single metal or colour being 
" almost unknown." If to the forty, or thereby, coats of 
plain metal or colour given above there be added the 
many coats in which a single fur (ermine or vair, with 
their variations) is the sole charge, there will be I dare 
to say at least a hundred examples of a use, which is 
certainly curious and infrequent, but which is not of such 
extreme rarity as is often ignorantly asserted. A 
parallel, but even worse case, is that of " arines fausses" 
metal on metal, and colour on colour (see Appendix, 
infra). 



( 68 ) 

Besides the two furs ermine and vair, and their varia- 
tions, we may notice that not only is the ermine spot, or 
tail, used as an independent charge, either alone or in 
specified numbers, but that in Foreign Heraldry it is 
also used of various tinctures, and on various fields. 

ERMINE plain (dHermine) is not, I think, the coat of 
any family of Great Britain or Ireland. It was borne on 
the Continent by the Dukes of BRITTANY, and by the 
families of BouRGHiELLES, LE BRET, COIGNE, GUIL- 

LAND, PlERREFORT, ST. MARTIN, QUINSON, etc. 

Ermines plain (Contre-hermine] is borne in France by 
LAVAL, Roux, MAUBLANC, and ROUSSELET. 

Of the use of Erminois (d^Or seme de mouchetures d'Jier- 
mine de sable), without a charge, I only remember one 
instance, that of VANDER EZE of Guelders. 

Other variations are : 

Gules, seme of ermine spots or, the arms of VAN 
LEEFVELT. 

Gules, seme of ermine spots argent, with a fleur de Us of 
the same, are those of BEUVILLE. 

Azure, seme of ermine spots or, over all a lion argent, is 
the coat of SCHLEIDEN, in Prussia. LE REVEREND DU 
MESNIL bears Ecartele, aux I and 4 ; de Sinople, a trois 
mouchetures d'hermine d'or ; au 2 and 3 ; de Gueules. 
(Vert, three ermine spots or; quartering Gules plaint] 

Ermine spots are not unfrequently borne as distinct 
charges, thus : 

Argent, a single spot of ermine (d Argent, a une mou- 
cheture dhermine] is borne by the families of BCEUVRES, 
Bois, CHAI, DRUAYS, etc. 

Argent, three ermine spots sable, by FlRMAS, BARTELLE- 
LA MOIGNON, and the Barons DUROY ; d Argent, au 
chevron d'azur, accompagne de trois mouchetures determine 
de sable, are the arms of COLLONGUE. 

Gules, six ermine spots or, is the coat of BAYSSE. 

VAIR is usually represented as composed of alternate 



( 69 ) 

cups, or panes, of argent and azure, arranged in 
horizontal rows (as in Plate IV., fig. 7). In early 
Heraldry the panes were formed by undulating lines, 
as in Plate IV., fig. 6, and Vair is usually thus repre- 
sented in our early Rolls of Arms. (It is usual to describe 
this form as Vair ancient. The Vair in the Wappenrolle 
von ZiiricJi of the fourteenth century, is thus drawn.) 

This form is still occasionally met with in foreign 
Heraldry, where it is blazoned as Vair onde or Vair 
ancien. The family of MARGENS in Spain bears : Vair 
onde, on a bend gules three griffons or ; and TARRAGON E 
of Spain : Vaire onde, or and gules. 

In modern times the white panes are generally 
depicted as of silver, not of white fur. The verbal blazon 
nearly always commences with the metal, but in the 
arrangement of the panes there is a difference between 
French and English usage. In the former the white 
panes are generally (and I think more correctly) repre- 
sented as forming the first, or upper, line ; in British 
Heraldry the reverse is the case. The Vair of Heraldry, 
as of commerce, was formerly of three sizes, and the 
distinction is continued in foreign armory. The middle, 
or ordinary size, is known as Vair ; a smaller size as 
Menu-vair (whence our word miniver) ; the largest as 
Beffroi, a term derived from the bell-shaped cups, or 
panes. In French Armory, Beffroi should consist of 
three horizontal rows ; Vair, of four ; Menu-vair, of six ; 
this rule is not strictly observed, but in French blazon 
if the rows are more than four it is usual to specify the 
number ; thus VARROUX bears, de Vair de cinq traits. 
Menu-vair is still the blazon of some families ; BANVILLE 
DE TRUTEMNE bears : de Menu-vair de six tires ; the 
Barons van HOUTHEM bore : de Menu-vair, au franc 
quartier de gueules charge" de trois maillets d'or. 

In British Armory Vair is only of one size, but from 
the bell-shaped cups or panes the English families of 



( 70 ) 

BELSCHES and BELCHER use Vair as part of their arms 
{Paly of six or and gules, a chief v air]. The great family 
of the Dues de BEAUFFREMONT in France use Vairc 
d'or et de gueules for a like reason. 

When the Vair is so arranged that in two horizontal 
rows taken together, either the points or the bases of 
two panes of the same tincture are in apposition, the fur 
is known as COUNTER VAIR (Contre Vair\ Plate IV., 
fig. 8. Another variation, but an infrequent one, is 
known as VAIR IN PALE ( Vair appoint^ or Vair en pal ; 
but if of other colours than the usual ones Vaire en pal}. 
In this all panes of the same colour are arranged in 
vertical, or palar, rows (Plate IV., fig. 9). VAIR IN 
BEND (or in bend-sinister) is occasionally met with in 
foreign coats ; thus MlGNlANELLl in Italy bears : Vairt 
d^or et d'azur en bande ; while Vaire en barre(faz\. is, in bend 
sinister) a" or et de sable is the coat of PlCHON of Geneva. 

POTENT, and its less common variant COUNTER 
POTENT, are usually ranked in British Heraldic works as 
separate furs. This has arisen from the writers being 
ignorant that in early times Vair was frequently 
depicted in the form now known as Potent. (By many 
heraldic writers Potent is styled Potent-counter-potent ; 
but in my opinion tautologically. When drawn in the 
ordinary way, as in Plate IV., fig. 1 1, Potent alone suffices.) 
An example of Vair in the form now known as Potent 
(or, as above, Potent-counter -potent) is afforded by the 
seal of JEANNE DE FLANDRE, wife of ENGUERRAND IV. 
DE COUCY ; here the well-known arms of COUCY, 
Barry of six vair and gules, are depicted as if the bars of 
vair were composed of a row of potent. (VREE, Gene- 
alogie des Comtes de Flandre, plate 112.) In the Roll 
of Anns of the time of EDWARD I. the Vair resembles 
Potent (-counter-potent), which Dr PERCEVAL errone- 
ously terms an "invention of later date." (^ztArchaologia, 
xxxix., p. 390.) In the First Nobility Roll of the year 



1297, tne arms f No. 8 > ROBERT DE BRUIS, Baron of 
Brecknock, are : Barry of six, Vairt ermine and gules, 
and azure. Here the vair is potent ; so is it also in 
No. 19, where the coat of INGELRAM DE GHISNES, or 
GYNES, is : Gules, a chief vair. The same coat is thus 
drawn in the Second Nobility Roll, 1299, No. 57. 

POTENT (-counter-potent) does not occur with great 
frequency in modern British Armory. Like its original 
Vair, it is always of argent and azure, unless other 
tinctures are specified in the blazon. (The true counter- 
potent, if ever used, is drawn as in Plate IV., fig. 12.) 

A considerable number of British and foreign families 
bear Vair only ; such are VARANO, Dukes de CAMERINO ; 
VAIRE, and VAIRIERE, in France ; VERET, in Switzer- 
land ; Gouvis, FRESNAY (Brittany) ; DE VERA, in Spain ; 
LOHEAC (Brittany) ; VARENCHON (Savoy) ; SOLDANI- 
ERI (Florence). Counter vair is borne by LOFFREDO 
of Naples ; by BOUCHAGE, DU PLESSIS ANGERS, and 
BROTIN, of France. HELLEMMES of Tourney uses : de 
Contre vair, a la cot ice de gueules brocJiante sur le tout. 

When the panes of vair are not of argent and azure 
but of different tinctures the fur is known as Verry, 
vairy, or vaire of such colours, as in the arms of DE 
BEAUFFREMONT, and MIGNIANELLI, given above, 
p. 70. Plate IV., fig. 13, Vaire Or and gules is the 
canting coat in England of FERRERS, Earls of Derby ; 
and by connection with them, Vaire gules and ermine 
was borne by GRESLEY ; and Vaire argent and sable by 
MEYNELL. Abroad : Vairy or and azure was the coat 
of the Counts of GuiNES; of BONNIERES, Dues de 
GuiNES ; of ROCHEFORT (Salle des Croises]. Vaire 
d argent et de pourpre is borne by GRUTEL ; Vaire d "or 
et de sable by DE LA JARDINE of Provence. 

Two curious forms of Vair occasionally met with in 
Italian or French coats are known as " Plumete" and 
" Papelonne" 



( 72 ) 

In Plumete \\\e field is apparently covered with feathers. 
Plumete d argent et cTazur, is the coat of CEBA (note that 
these are the tinctures of Vair). SOLDONIERI of Udine, 
Plumete aii naturel (but the SOLDONIERI of Florence 
bore : Vaire argent and sable with a bordure cJiequy or 
and azure], TENREMONDE of Brabant : Plumete or and 
sable. (Plate VIII., fig. 7.) In the arms of the SCALTE- 
NIGHI of Padua ; the BENZONI of Milan ; the GlOLFlNi, 
CATANEI, and NUVOLONI of Verona, each feather of the 
plumete is said to be charged with an ermine spot sable. 

The bearing Papelonne is more frequently found ; and 
I have collected a good many French and Italian 
examples, of which a few are here blazoned. 

In it the field is covered with what appear to be scales ; 
the heraldic term papelonne is derived from a supposed 
resemblance of these scales to the wings of butterflies. 
Plate VIII., fig. 6 is the coat of MONTI, Gules, papelonne 
argent. 

DONZEL at Besangon bears : Papelonne d'or et de sable. 
(It is worthy of note that DONZE of Lorraine used : 
Gules, three bars wavy or. The two families, in fact, 
both bore variations of Vair, or Vaire^] The FRAN- 
CONIS of Lausanne are said to bear de Gueules papelonne 
d? argent, and on a chief of the last a rose of the first, but 
the coat is otherwise blazoned : Vaire gules and or, etc. 
The coat of ARQUINVILLIERS, or HARGENVILLERS, in 
Picardy is dHermine papelonne de gueules (not being 
understood, this has been blazoned " seme of caltraps "). 
So also the coat of CHEMILLE appears in French books 
of Blazon indifferently as: d' Or papelonne de gueules ; and 
d'Or seme de cJiaussetrapes de gueules. GlIETTEyiLLE DE 
GUENONVILLE is said to bear: d "Argent seme de chausse- 
trapes de sable, which I believe to be simply d' Argent 
papelonne de sable]. The BARISONI of Padua bear: Or, 
a bend of scales, bendways argent, on each scale an ermine 
spot sable, the bend bordered sable ; this is only a round- 



( 73 ) 

about way of saying Or, a bend argent, bordered and 
papelonnc sable. 

The ALBERICI of Bologna bear : Papelonne of seven 
rows, four of argent, three of or ; but the ALBERGHI of 
the same city, Papelonnc of six roivs, three of argent, as 
many of gules. The connection with vaire is much 
clearer in the latter than in the former. CAMBI (called 
FlGLIAMBUCHl), at Florence, carried d Argent, papelonnc 
de gueules ; MONTI of Florence and Sicily, and RON- 
QUEROLLES of France the reverse. 

No one who is familiar with the licence given to them- 
selves by armorial painters and sculptors in Italy, who 
were often quite ignorant of the meaning of the blazons 
they depicted, will doubt for a moment the statement 
that Papelonne is simply ill drawn Vair. 

The seal of MICHAEL DE CANTELU, circa 1200, is an 
ancient example in which Vair is represented in the 
manner now known as Papelonne. (ELLIS, Antiquities of 
Heraldry, plate xvii. from ArchcBologia Cantiana,v\.,2\6.^ 

Besides the conventional representations of the fur of 
animals, their actual fur, or skin, is occasionally found 
represented in the wide range of Continental Armory, 
though such examples are of the greatest rarity. 

One of the most interesting of these examples is 
afforded by the Arms of BREGENZ. In the fourteenth 
century MS. the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 127, the coat 
is evidently Vair, a pale ermine, both being au naturel ; 
but in a modern German blazon of the Austrian arms 
it is said that the quarter " enthalt im blauen, mit einem 
goldenen Gilter bedeckten Felde einen Pfahl von 
Hermelin mit drei iibereinander stehenden schwarzen 
Hermelinflammen wegen der Graffschaft Bregenz." 
(SCHMIDT, Die Wappen aller Filrsten und Staaten, 1869.) 
This writer was evidently ignorant of the fact that 
the whole bearings are of fur. 

In SlEBMACHER's Wappenbuch, ii., plate 44, the Coat 



( 74 ) 

of STORCK VON PLANCKENBERG in Styria is, Fur au 
naturel, a pale gules. This is almost papelonne in appear- 
ance. The Franconian family of JARSDORFF bears : 
Quarterly, I and 4, Fur au naturel in the form of 
scales (vair-shaped pieces); and 2 and 3, gules plain. 
Vert, an ox skin stretched out, paleways proper is the 
coat of DE LA NAYE of Liege ; and SCHEURLER of the 
Hague bears Gules, a similar skin or (sometimes, but 
mistakenly, blazoned an escucheon or}. 

Furs are common in the Armory of England, Nor- 
mandy, and naturally in Brittany, Ermine plain being 
the arms of the ancient Sovereigns of that land. Con- 
trary to ordinary expectation the furs are not used with 
any frequency in the arms of the more northern nations 
of Europe ; on the contrary, they are there seldom met 
with. For example, I do not remember a single instance 
in the Heraldry of Poland, while on the other hand they 
are frequently found in the blazons of Spain and Italy. 

PARTED COATS, ETC. 

Having now seen what colours and furs are employed 
in Armory, the next matter which requires our considera- 
tion is the division of the shield by partition lines. 
Under the subject of the division of a field by partition 
lines there falls to be considered : 

1. The Species of Partition Line; which is either 

(a) straight ; or () composed of curves, or 
indentations. 

2. The Mode of Partition, i.e., the various directions in 

which the field is divided by these partition lines. 
The chief forms of these lines whose names form 
part of the technicology of Heraldry are shown 
in the accompanying cut, and it will be shown 
later by examples (Chap. IV.) that these lines 
have a further use as the boundaries of the class 
of charges which are known as the Ordinaries 



( 75 ) 

(seep. 1 1 6). The straight line is of course that 
most commonly employed, but of the other 
forms of line, engrailed, indented, and wavy, are 
the most in use, as well as the oldest ; the others, 
the last four of which are seldom seen, belong to 
the later developments of armory. (See the 
Glossary of English Terms, infra.') 

I. 
ENGRAILED. Fig. 17. 

EMBATTLED. Fig. 18. 
INDENTED. Fig. 19. /\/V\A/vVvVV\ 

INVECKED. Fig. 20. 



IAA/VXAAA 



WAVY, or UNDY. Fig. 21. 

NEBULY. Fig. 22. 
DANCETTY. Fig. 23. 

RAGULY. Fig. 24. 

POTENTE. Fig. 25. 

DOVETAILED. Fig. 26. 

1^. Fig. 27. /yvuvxn; 

PARTITION LINES. 

PARTITION LINES. 

ENGRAILED (engreli) ; this line is formed by a row 
of small semi-circles, or concave indentations, the 
points being turned outwards. (The French use 




( 76 ) 

the term ^chancre to denote a larger form of 
engrailure consisting of only three or four concave 
indentations.) (Fig. 17.) 

EMBATTLED ; having the form of rectangular em- 
battlements. For this term the French have 
two equivalents ; crenele and bretesse. Crenele is 
used when the upper, bretesse when the lower, edge 
of an ordinary is embattled. (Fig. 18.) 

INDENTED (dentele, danche, dencJie, or endente) with regular 
indentations like the teeth of a saw. (Fig. 19.) 

Some French Armorists, such as PALLIOT, make 
the teeth shorter and smaller for dentele than for 
endente, in which they are longer and more acute. 
There is really no such distinction practically 
employed in modern blazons. 

INVECKED (cannele) is the converse of engrailed, the 
only difference being that the convex part of the 
indentation is turned outwards/ (Fig. 20.) 

WAVY, UNDY ; (onde) formed by a wavy line. (Fig. 21.) 

NEBULY (nebulee or nuage}. The wavy conventional 
representation of clouds. (The old nebuly was 
like the second line of No. 5. In French this is 
known as ente.) (Fig. 22.) 

DANCETTY (vivre). This is similar in character to 
indented, but there is a real distinction be- 
tween them as the teeth in dancetty are much 
broader, much less acute, and are usually not 
more than three in number. BOUTELL (in 
his Heraldry, Historical and Popular, p. 80), 
indeed says : " Dancettee : deeply indented," but 
this definition is not in accord with his cut on 
p. 1 8. (Fig. 23.) 

RAGULY (ecote), with inclined battlements or crenelures ; 
now regular in form but originally suggestive of 
the trunk of a tree from which the branches had 
been lopped off. (Fig. 24.) 



( 77 ) 

POTENTE (potenci), in the form of potences, crutches, 
or of the panes in the fur potent (Plate IV., fig. 1 1). 
(Fig. 25.) 

DOVETAILED (mortais/) t requires no explanation. 
(Fig. 26.) 

URDY (palisse\ is very rarely seen. In French 
blazon the pieces are taller, like palisades, and 
there is no indentation at the bottom. (Fig. 27.) 




FIG. 28. Per pale. 






FIG. 31. Per bend. FIG. 32. Per bend-sinister. FIG. 33. Per saltire. 





FIG. 34. Per chevron. FIG. 35. Ente en point. FIG. 36. Champagne. 
MODES OF PARTITION; OR DIVISIONS OF THE SHIELD. 



THE MODES OF PARTITION. 

The modes of partition fall next to be considered, and 
will be best understood by reference to the examples 
given. These are taken by preference from the class of 



( 78 ) 

simple uncharged coats whose simplicity is usually an 
indication of their antiquity. As the nomenclature of 
this part of the subject is, particularly in English blazon, 
greatly connected with some of the charges which are 
known as the " ORDINARIES " and " SUB-ORDINARIES " 
it is desirable that the student should have such a 
knowledge of these as may be needful for his under- 
standing of what a pale, bend, fess, chevron, etc., are, 
which will be fully explained in the succeeding chapter, 
and are set out in the accompanying figure. 

The simplest forms of partition are those in which the 
field is divided into two equal parts by a perpendicular, 
horizontal, or diagonal line. Usually one of these parts is 
occupied by a metal or fur, the other by a colour ; though 
there are exceptional cases (vide infra]. When the divid- 
ing line is perpendicular the field is said to be Parted per 
pale ; or more succinctly, Per pale. The French denote 
this by the one word Parti. The tincture first named 
is that on the dexter side of the shield. The families of 
WALDEGRAVE (Plate V., fig. i) ; the Counts RANTZAU 
in Denmark ; the Principality, formerly Bishopric, of 
HALBERSTADT ; the Counts VON JULBACH, and 
ROCKENHAUS in Germany all bear ; Per pale argent 
and gules. (Parti dargent et de gueulesl) The like 
coat, but with reversed tinctures, is borne for the Bishop- 
ric, now Principality, of HlLDESHElM ; by the Barons 
von URBACH; the families of WANGELIN of Mecklenburg, 
and BONI of Venice. Per pale or and sable is borne by 
the English family of SERLE ; and the reverse by the 
Counts von ROST of Tirol, and the baronial families of 
WATZDORFF in Saxony; and STECKBORN, The ancient 
family of BAILLEUL in France bears : Parti determine et 
de gueules. The Venetian family of NANI : Per pale 
argent and vert. Per pale argent and sable is the coat of 
the Counts of TRAUN ; Per pale or and gules is that of 
the Barons DORNBERG DE HERTZBERG. Exceptional 



( 79 ) 

coats are those of the Counts VON WRATISLAW (Bohemia), 
Per pale gules and sable ; and CHAN AC, Parti de gueules 
et dazur. So are those of BONVILLE, Per pale argent 
and or ; and FORTIGUIERRE, Parti a" or et de vair (a 
combination of metal and fur which is not frequent). 

The division of the shield may be composed of any of 
the lines of partition described above, but instances of 
their use in this manner are much less frequently found 
abroad than among ourselves. Per pale indented argent 
and azure (Plate V., fig. 2) is the coat of the HlCKMANS, 
Earls of PLYMOUTH ; and Per pale dancetty argent and 
gules, that of AMAURI D'EVREUX, Earl of GLOUCESTER, 
temp. HENRY III. 

When the dividing line is horizontal the shield is said 
to be Parted per fess (i.e. in the direction of the 
ordinary called a fess). This division is known in 
French blazon by the single word Coupe. Plate V., fig. 
3 is the coat of the Venetian familes of GlUSTI, and 
TROTTI : Per fess or and azure (Coupe d'or et d'azur ; or 
a" Or coupe a" azur\ The families of DONATI at Florence ; 
FRANCHI at Genoa ; LANFRANCHI at Pisa ; POPEL in 
Bohemia ; and the Duchy, formerly Bishopric, of 
MAGDEBURG ; all bear: Per fess gules and argent (de 
Gueules coupe cTargenf). The County of SCHWERIN 
(which is the surtout of the arms of the Princes of 
MECKLENBURG) ; the Counts of STOCKAU ; the Counts 
of MuNTZENBERG ; and the LOMELLINI, at Genoa ; 
bear : Per fess gules and or (Coupe de gueules et (Tor). 
It will be noticed that the tincture first mentioned is 
that which stands in the chief, or upper, part of the 
shield. 

Per fess indented ermine and gules are the arms of 
BROME (Coupe endente determine sur gueules) ; Per fess 
ivavy or and gules, those of DRUMMOND of Concraig, 
and Per fess embattled gules and argent, those of VON 
PREYSING (the Barons of the name bear or and azure}. 



When the partition is made by a line drawn from the 
dexter point in chief to the sinister base, the shield is 
said to be divided Per bend (for which the French 
equivalent is Tranche. Per bend Or and azure (Tranche 
dor et d'azur) are the arms of CRANE ; Per bend Or and 
vert, those of HAWLE or HAWLEY. The Venetian 
family of NANI bear: Per bend Or and gules (Tranche 
d'or et de gueules ; otherwise, d'Or tranche de gueules ; 
or Tranche d'or sur gueules]. The Florentine CAPPONI 
use : Per bend sable and argent ( TrancJie de sable sur 
argenf). 

In Plate V., figs. 4 and 5 are instances where the 
dividing line is not the straight one. Fig. 4, Per bend 
embattled argent and gules (in French, Tranche enclave 
d argent sur gueules] are the arms of the Irish family of 
BOYLE. Here the sides of the embattlements are drawn 
at right angles to the line of partition. In Foreign 
Heraldry they are often drawn parallel to the sides of 
the escucheon (a plomb] ; thus the VON SCHELDORFER 
of Bavaria bear : Per bend embattled a plomb argent and 
gules (TrancJie enclave a plomb de deux pieces d' argent sur 
gueules} (Plate V., fig. 5). 

The Piedmontese GUASCHI ; and the English families 
of GOSNOLD, MARKINGTON, and WHISTLEFORD bear : 
Per bend indented azure and or ( TrancJie endente d'or et 
d'azur}. 

If the partition line run from the sinister chief to the 
dexter base the division is known as Per bend-sinister, 
in French blazon Taille. Per bend-sinister or and argent 
(Taille (Tor sur argenf}, are the arms of Lo'WEL in 
Bavaria (Plate V., fig. 6) ; while the GRIFFONI of Rome 
bear the reverse : Per bend-sinister argent and or. These 
last are examples of coats which are exceptional as 
being composed of metal only (vide p. 78) no colour 
being employed. The arms of the Swiss canton of 
ZURICH are : Tailld d argent et d'azur. The curious 



PLATE V. 






1. Per pale. 2. Per pale indented. 3. Per f ess. 

( Waldegrave. ) (Hickman . ) (Giusto or Zusto. ) 






4. Per bend embattled. 5. Per bend embattled a plomb. 6. Per bend sinister. 
(Boyle.) (Scheldorfer.) (Lowel.) 






1. Per bend sinister fitch^e. 8. Per chevron. 
(Kunigl.) (Aston.) 



9. Quarterly. 
(Stanhope.) 






10. Quarterly per f ess indented. 11. Quarterly en e"querre. 12. Per saltire. 
(Sandford.) (Tale.) (Hartzheim.) 



( 8i ) 

coat of the Counts von KiJNiGL in Tirol is given in 
Plate V., fig. 7, Per bend-sinister argent and gules, the 
gules fitchee in the argent (Tailti d argent sur gueules 
le gueules fiche sur V argent}. In modern blazons this 
coat is as frequently drawn per bend, as per bend- 
sinister. 

If the field is divided into two parts by two diagonal 
lines, drawn from near the dexter and sinister base, and 
meeting like a gable in the fess point, or in the honour 
point of the escucheon, it is said to be Parted per chev- 
ron (Divise en chevron}. Thus ASTON bears: Per chevron 
sable and argent (Divise en chevron de sable et d 'argent), 
Plate V., fig. 8. Per chevron nebuly gules and argent is 
the coat of COVERDALE. This is not a common partition 
abroad. The French Chape, though somewhat similar, 
is not the same (see that word, p. 88). 

A coat divided by two lines, the one per pale, and the 
other per fess, is blazoned Quarterly (Ecartele]. The 
STANHOPES, Earls of CHESTERFIELD, bear : Quarterly 
ermine and gules (Ecartele determine et de gueules], Plate 
V., fig. 9. Quarterly vert and or is the coat of the 
OMODEI of Italy. Quarterly or and sable are the arms 
of Bo VILE ; Quarterly or and vert those of BERNERS. 
The families of CALDORA of Naples ; MANFREDI of 
Faenza ; the Counts de MONTREVEL ; and the Marquises 
de CANDOLLE in France, all bear : Quarterly or and 
azure (Ecartele d'or et dazur). The house of HOHEN- 
ZOLLERN bears, Quarterly argent and sable^Ecarteled* argent 
et de sable]. The arms of the Princes of COLLALTO, and 
of the Lords Hoo, are the reverse. GONTAUT, Due de 
BlRON in France ; and the Lords SAY in England (by 
descent from the MANDEVILLES, Earls of ESSEX), bear : 
Quarterly or and gules. The same coat is that of the 
Counts WALDERSEE in Prussia, and of LE BOUTEILLER 
DE SENLIS. The families of CREVANT, Marquis d'Hu- 
MIERES in France ; the families of COURCELLES in France ; 



( 82 ) 

LUCIANO in Italy ; and the Counts WORACZICSKY- 
BlSINGEN in Bohemia, all bear : Quarterly argent and 
azur (cT Argent, ecartele cTazur). The Marquises dc 
SEVIGNE used Quarterly sable and argent. 

As an example in which the quartering is effected 
both by a straight line, and in combination with one of 
the more complicated ones, we may take the arms of 
the family of SANDFORD, which are (Plate V., fig. 10) 
Quarterly per fess indented azure and ermine. Quarterly 
per pale dovetail gules and or, are the arms of BROMLEY, 
Barons MONTFORD. Quarterly indented (both lines) 
argent and sable ; argent and gules ; gules and ermine : 
are all FlTZ-WARINE coats. Quarterly wavy or and 
sable is the coat of SAN DON. 

A shield divided into four by the intersection of the 
two diagonal lines (the bend, and the bend-sinister) is said 
to be : Quarterly per saltire, but the first word is usually 
omitted in English Blazon (Ecartele en sautoir}. Per 
saltire or and azure, is borne by the families REDING- 
HURST ; of HERSTRATEN in the Netherlands ; BALNEO, 
or BAIGNI, in Italy. Per saltire gules and argent, is the 
coat of VON PAULSDORF, and of VON ESENDORF, and 
BENSTEDT. So also the VON HARTZHEIM in West- 
phalia, bear : Per saltire gules and or (Plate V., fig. 12) ; 
while the coat of the GANGALANDI in Tuscany, and 
LANGEN in Westphalia, is Per saltire argent and sable 
{Ecartele en sautoir d'argent et de sable]. Per saltire 
wavy gules and argent is borne by ELTERSHOFEN. 

Continental Heraldry has other modes of quartering 
unknown to English blazon. Of these one of the most 
curious is shown in Plate V., fig. n. It is the coat of 
VON TALE in Brunswick. Here each piece takes the 
form of the mystic fylfot, or gammadion. This coat is 
blazoned by the French Heralds : Ecartele en equerre 
de gueules et d' argent ; because the shape of the pieces 
suggests the carpenter's square. 



83 



GYRONNY. 

When the field is divided into eight sections by a 
vertical, a horizontal, and the two diagonal lines (the 
bend, and the bend-sinister) all intersecting in the fess 
point, the coat is blazoned Gyronny (gironnf) ; because 
each of the eight pieces has the form of the Sub-Ordinary 
known as a gyron, or giron (see page 167). We some- 
times meet with coats in which the girons number six, 
ten, twelve, or sixteen, equal pieces. In such cases, 
i.e. when the number is not eight, it must be specified 
of how many pieces the Gyronny consists. 

The well known coat of the Clan CAMPBELL (whose 
chief is the Duke of ARGYLL) is represented on Plate 
VI., fig. I. It is blazoned : Gyronny or and sable. Well 
known as this coat is, and one than which it would seem 
few could be easier to draw correctly, it is surprising to 
find how frequently it is inaccurately represented, and 
how great a diversity of opinion exists among Heraldic 
authorities as to which is its correct form. The question 
is, Which is to be accounted the first giron? or, the coat 
being drawn in outline, which is the first segment to be 
coloured or, that which is partly formed by the dexter 
half of the top line of the shield ; or that which lies 
immediately below it, and is formed by the upper half 
of the bend, and the dexter half of the fess line ? This 
is a point on which in Scotland itself there is no general 
consensus of opinion. The plates in NlSBET's Heraldry 
show the coat sometimes after one fashion, sometimes 
after the other. In FOSTER'S Peerage and Baronetage, 
and other similar works, there is the same diversity of 
treatment. Perhaps it may be useful to point out the 
authorities for each of the modes. 

It may be first of all mentioned that though the 
common blazon is that already given (Gyronny or and 
sable), yet CRAUFURD in his Peerage blazons the arms, 



( 84 ) 

both of the Duke of ARGYLL and of the Earl of BREAD- 
ALB AN E, as Gyronny sable and or. A reference to 
STODART'S Scottish Anns, vol. ii., will show that WORK- 
MAN'S MS., circa 1565, is said to give the tinctures of the 
Earl of ARGYLL'S coat as sable and argent, though or is 
added in a later hand (p. 102) ; while LINDSAY II. gives 
sable and or tor t}\t arms of CAMPBELL of Strachur (p. 332). 
I imagine that in all these and other cases in 
which the tincture precedes the metal, the blazon 
has been made to fit the idea entertained by 
the writer as to the answer which should be 
given to the enquiry suggested above : Which is the 
first giron of the shield ; or which is the one in which 
the metal should first appear? Sir DAVID LINDSAY'S 
MS., plate 40 c, places the metal in that giron which is 
formed by the dexter half of the top line of the shield. 
It is tinctured argent, not or; and it also appears thus 
on the ceiling of St. Machar's in Aberdeen. (See The 
Heraldic Ceiling of the Cathedral of St. Machar, Old 
Aberdeen, No. 28, p. 114. New Spalding Club, 1888. 
LINDSAY II. gives : Gyronny of eight argent and sable, 
for CAMPBELL of Glenorchy. See STODART, Scottish 
Arms, ii., 286, 323. WORKMAN'S blazon has been 
already noticed.) I have already referred to the 
discrepancy which exists in NISBET'S plates, but in both 
of his volumes the greater number of examples show the 
metal in the position which it occupies in our plate. 
FOSTER in his Peerage adopts the same disposition in 
the cuts of the arms of three CAMPBELL peers ; BREAD- 
ALBANE, CAWDOR, and STRATHEDEN. In the ARGYLL 
arms he takes the other course. In his Baronetage the 
CAMPBELL coats are drawn, some in one way, some in 
the other. Particular attention is due to the opinion 
expressed by SETON in The Law and Practice of Heraldry 
in Scotland. At pages 96 and 105 the coat is drawn as 
in our example ; but in a note at page 453 he speaks of 



PLATE VI. 






1. Gyronny of eight. 2. Gyronny of twelve. 
( Campbell. ) (Bassingbourne. ) 



3. Gyronny of six. 
(Maugiron.) 






4. Tierced in fess. 
(Franchi. ) 



5. Tierced in bend. 
(Amid.) 



6. Tierced in pairle. 
(Briesen. ) 






7. Tierced in pairle reversed. 8. Chape. 

(Haldermanstcten.) (ffautin.) 



9. Chausse-ploye. 
(Schleich.) 





10. Chapo-ploye. 
(Absperg.) 



11. Vetu. 
(Schwerin.) 



12. Embrasse. 
(Ruchstein.} 



this as a " mistake which has unfortunately been made." 
And in the text above the note he indicates his opinion 
thus : " The gyron upon which the tinctures ought to 
begin is the uppermost on the dexter side, i.e., the first of 
the four triangles above the horizontal line which crosses 
the fess point of the escucheon." On the other hand the 
opinion of the late LYON, who made the sketch for Plate 
VI., is sufficiently indicated by it. In that opinion I most 
unreservedly agree ; and I am fortified in my adhesion 
by the fact that the French and German Heralds arc 
unanimous in counting the first giron to be that which 
occupies the first and most honourable position, 
depending from the dexter half of the uppermost edge 
of the shield, and bounded by it, by the upper half of 
the palar line, and the upper half of the bend. 

The CAMPBELLS, Earls of LOUDOUN, bore : Gyronny 
ermine and gules, and in this case the ermine should 
occupy that which we have indicated as the first giron of 
the shield. (Compare STODART, Scottish Arms, vol. ii., 
plate 5.) 

The coat of the French DE BELLEVILLES is : Gyronny 
of six gules and vair (Gironne de gueules et de vair de 
six pieces). 

The MAUGIRONS of Dauphiny bear : Gyronny of six 
argent and sable (Gironne d' argent et de sable de six pieces], 
These are armes parlantes inasmuch as being of only six 
pieces, instead of eight, the coat is mal-gironne ; and, more- 
over, in this coat the division is made by the palar line, 
and by two diagonal lines which do not start as in the 
preceding instance from the extremities of the top line of 
the shield, but commence some way lower down (Plate 
VI., fig. 3). 

A similar instance of a coat mal-gironne is afforded by 
the arms of the MONTANGONS which are : Mal-gironne 
d'or etd'azur. In the coat of MUDERSBACH the dividing 
lines are indented : Gironne-denche de gueules et d' argent. 



( 86 ) 

A variation of the ordinary gyronny of eight is that 
of BERANGER which is : Gironne en croix cTor et de 
gueules (the four girons of gules taking the form of a 
cross, patee-throughout) MAZINGHEM has the same, 
but of or and azure. The seal of JEANNE, Dame de 
CAROUGES, of the twelfth century, has a shield with this 
bearing. (ELLIS, Antiquities of Heraldry, Plate XV., 
p. 189.) D'ENGHIEN bears, Gyronny of ten argent and 
sable, each piece of the last charged with three crosslets 
fitchees of the first. 

The BASSINGBURNE coat (Plate VI., fig. 2) is Gyronny 
of twelve, vair and gules. 

Gyronny is sometimes composed of more than two 
tinctures, thus a branch of the Milanese family of ORIGO 
bears : Gyronny, sable, argent, vert, sable, argent, vert, 
sable, vert. This is an arrangement which appears more 
curious than commendable. 

A curious form of gyrons is found in German Armory, 
in it the gyrons are formed, not by straight lines but 
by curves. The family VON ALDENBURG bear: Gyronny- 
curved of eight, sable and argent (Gironne de sable et 
d' argent de huit pieces gironnantes) ; and the family of 
ROCHAUSEN have a similar coat of six pieces gules 
and argent (Mal-gironne de six pieces gironnantes de 
gueules et d' argent). 

In Continental Heraldry, and especially in that of 
Germany and Italy, we frequently meet with a tripartite 
division of the shield. This is most commonly effected 
by two horizontal lines ; but very frequently by two 
lines in pale, or in bend, or bend-sinister. In these cases 
the shield is said to be Tierced (tierce) in fess, pale, bend, 
or bend-sinister, as the case may be. In Plate VI., fig. 4 
is the coat of the Venetian family of FRANCHI : Tierced in 
fess vert, argent, and gules. The VENDRAMINI bear this of 
azure, or, and gules. The POLANI, also of Venice, bear 
Tierce 1 en fasce d'or,d'azur,et d 'argent. PFUHLINGEN bears 



the reverse. Tierced in f ess, gules, sable, and argent, is borne 
by the Counts von SCHWEIDNITZ in Prussia ; of argent, 
gules, and sable, by the Counts von ZEDWITZ of 
Bohemia. Tierced in fess, sable, argent, and gules, is the 
coat of ELTERSHOFEN ; Or, argent, and gules of RECHT- 
HALER ; Sable, azure, and or, of the Counts von WESTER- 
REICH ; Or, gules, and argent of SATTELBOGEN. 

Tierced in bend or, gules, and azure, are the canting 
arms of the family of NOMPAR in Guyenne ; here the 
arms are allusive to the name the divisions being non 
pair, unequal in number. The Italian family of AMICI 
bear : Tierced in bend, or, gules, and argent (tierce en bande 
d'or, de gueules, et d" argent). (Plate VI., fig. 5.) The 
GIUDICI have the same coat but tinctured azure, argent, 
and gules ; while the Barons von DORNBERG reverse 
these tinctures. UCKERMAN uses : Tierce en bande 
d'argent, d'azur, et d'or. By the German family of 
TURLING is borne the coat : Tierced in bend (sinister), 
or, sable, and argent. ( Tiered en barre d'or, de sable, et 
d' argent.} MENDEL bears the same, but the tinctures 
are vert, or, and sable : (a family of the same name bears : 
Tierced in bend, argent, vert, and sable). 

A very curious German partition is that of Tierced in 
gyron gyronnant ; in it the whole field is occupied by 
three spiral girons ; VON MEGENZER bears this gules, 
sable, and argent. (Plate VIII., fig. 4.) A variation of the 
same is, Tierced in pale gironnant ; which (with the same 
tinctures) is borne by the VON TEUFEL. 

Parted coats are much more varied among the Germans 
than among ourselves. 

Other German partitions are unknown to British or 
French Armory, and, though formed by straight lines, 
are difficult to blazon succinctly in the heraldic phrase- 
ology of either country. One is the partition per fess 
with a right or left step (" mit einer rechten stufe, or mit 
einer lincken stufe "). In Plate VIII., fig. 3 represents the 



Bavarian coat of AURBERG. This is blasoned by DE LA 
COLOMBIERE : " Coupe a senestre parti en cceur et recoupc 
a dextre, tout d'un trait d'argent^ By RlETSTAP the 
same coat is thus blazoned: Mi-coupe failli en partant, 
et re coupe vers senestre d' argent sur sable. 

Another tripartite division is made in the form of the 
letter Y, or the same reversed ; this is known as Tierce" en 
pairle, or Tierce en pairle renversee ; examples of both are 
given in Plate VI. Fig. 6 is the coat of the Saxon family 
of VON BRIESEN, Tierced in pairle sable, argent, and 
gules. Fig. 7 is that of the VON HALDERMANSTETEN : 
Tierced in pairle reversed, argent, or, and azure. 

There are also certain other bipartite, or tripartite, divi- 
sions used in Continental heraldry in which the field is 
described as " mantled " (mantele} " coped " (chape) or 
" shod " (chausse). 

These are " partitions " not " charges ; " but they differ 
from other parted-fields in this respect, that any charges 
which appear on the field are confined to it ; and do not 
usually extend beyond its unmantled, or unshod, portion. 

Mantele nearly corresponds to our partition : Parti per 
chevron. The Venetian GHISI bear: Argent, mantele 
gules. The field is according to rule, named first, the 
mantele, which descends from the chief, follows. 

Chape is formed by two lines which start from the 
centre of the top line of the shield and descend to the 
dexter and sinister base. We might blazon it " per pile 
reversed throughout." Plate VL, fig. 8, d Argent, chape de 
pourpre, is the coat of the Burgundian family DE HAUTEN. 

Another Burgundian family, DE MONTBAR, bears : 
Quarterly argent and gules chape counterchanged. 
Chausse is the reverse of chape. When the chape, or 
chausse, is formed by arched or concave lines it is said 
to be ploye, as in the Bavarian coat of VON SCHXEICH 
(Plate VI., fig. 9) ; de Gueules chausse-ploye d' argent. 

When a shield is chausse"-ploye, or mantele, three 



( 89 ) 

tinctures are sometimes employed ; the field being of 
one, and each of the side pieces of the enchaussure, or 
mantel, being of another. 

The Danish family of MOST bore: Argent, chap^ of 
sable to the dexter, and of gules to the sinister; and in 
Plate VI., fig. 10 the coat of the Franconian VON 
ABSPERG is, d' Argent, chape-ploy e a dextre de gueules, et 
a senestre d'azur. 

CJiaperonnt is the term applied to a reduced form 
of chape, which does not extend below the fess line. 

When both chape and chausse are found in one field 
the size of each is somewhat restricted ; and the shield, 
of which the four corners are cut off by diagonal lines, 
has the appearance of being charged with a lozenge 
throughout (i.e. one whose points touch the borders of 
the escucheon) as in the coat of SCHWEREN (Plate VI., 
fig. 11). The French equivalent for chape-chausse is 
vetu. (See page 182, where the same coat with other 
tinctures, that of the Venetian CORRARO, is blazoned by 
both terms.) Gules, vetu argent, is the coat of EUBING. 
The Spanish ABARIA bear : Argent, a letter B sable, the 
field vetu gules. 

The coat of the Sicilian family of SANTAPAU, Princes 
de BUTERA, Gules, three bars argent, chape and chausse 
d'or, is, however, drawn differently in MORICE, Le Blason 
des Chevaliers de la Toison d'Or, No. CCLXXIX., here 
as none of the pieces of the cJiape or chausse come into 
contact with each other the central space of the field is 
not a lozenge-throughout but a lozenge truncated. A 
single enchaussure is very rare. VON ROSDORFF bears: 
Lozengy argent and gules, an enchaussure to the sinister 
or. There are a few German coats in which this 
enckaussure is conjoined with a large fleur de lis in 
bend, or in bend-sinister. The Augsburg VON SCHROTT 
bear : Sable, a fleur de lis conjoined with an enchaus- 
sure or. When the chape, or chausse, is placed in a hori- 



( 9) 

zontal instead of in a vertical direction (that is when the 
apex of the pile is on either the dexter or the sinister 
flank of the escucheon) the field is said to be embrasse 
(a dextre, or a senestre}. Thus the VON VOLCKER of 
Frankfurt bear : Argent, a rose gules, the field embrasse 
a senestre of the second. We should blazon this : Gules, 
a pile throughout issuing from the dexter flank, charged 
with a rose of the field. Exceptionally the embrasse' is 
formed by a compound line, thus the Austrian Barons 
von RUCHSTEIN bear : de Gueules, embrassc-vivre a 
dextre d' argent. (Plate VI., fig. 12.) 

A large class of parted fields, often classed by French 
writers under the general term of Rebattements, consist 
of regular divisions of alternate tinctures formed by 
parallel lines, either arranged to follow one direction 
only ; or intersecting another set parallel in another 
direction. 

PALY (J>alle or pali] is the term used when the field is 
divided into an even number of equal stripes by palar, 
or perpendicular lines. If the number of divisions is not 
specified it is understood to be of six pieces, but it is 
better to specify the number. Plate VII., fig. I is the 
feudal coat of the Earldom of ATHOLE, and would be 
blazoned : Paly or and sable; Pale d'or et de sable ; or 
Paly of six or and sable. 

Paly of four is seldom met with in English Armory, 
but is more frequent in Germany. Paly of four or and 
vert is the coat of MARSHALL ; and Paly of four argent 
and vair was borne by WILLIAM DE LONGCHAMP, 
Bishop of ELY (i 189-1 197). 

Paly of four sable and argent was the coat of the old 
Counts von CAPLENDORF (SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch ii., 
22), of VoiT of Nuremburg ; MEPPEN (Prussia), and 
STUBNER of Austria (sometimes or and sable}. 

Paly of four gules and argent, was borne by the 
Barons von STARCKENBERG (Wappenbuch, ii., 32); of 



PLATE VII. 




1. Paly. 

(Athole.) 




2. Barry. 

(Couci.) 




3. Barry nebuly. 
(Blount.) 




4. Bendy wavy. 
(Playter.) 




5. Chevronny. 
(Egmond.) 




6. Checquy. 
(Warren.) 




7. Checquy. 
(Portocarrero. ) 




8. Equipolle. 
(VandenHecke) 




9. Lozengy. 
(Fitzwilliam.) 




10. FusiUy. 




11. Fusilly in bend. 
(Bavaria.) 




12. Paly bendy. 
(Buck.) 



Argent and azure, by VON BERCHOLTSHOFEN of Bavaria; 
and the reverse by GUNDRICHING of Tirol. 

(NOTE. Paly of five, argent and sable, is the same as 
Argent, two pallets sable; but would be thought a 
shockingly incorrect blazon by heraldic purists, whose 
extreme attention to these trivialities often has to stand 
them instead of a real knowledge of the subject.) 

Paly of six is a frequent bearing at home and abroad. 

Paly of six, argent and azure, was the original coat of 
ANNESLEY (now borne with a bend gules over all); it 
was the coat of the Marquises of ROSMADEC, and of 
BERTRAND ; ESTISSAC ; FONTENAI ; and others. 

Paly of six or and gules, was the coat of AMBOISE ; of 
FAUCIGNY, Princes de LuciNGE ; of BRIQUEVILLE, in 
the First Crusade ; of BEAUMONT, and ST. BRICE, etc. 

Paly of six ermine and vair, is the canting coat of 
PALVERT in France (notice that there is fur only in 
this coat, as an exception to the rule stated on p. 78). 

The city of RENNES bears : Paly of six argent and 
sable, but adds thereto a chief of BRETAGNE ; Ermine 
plain. 

Paly of six or and vert is now borne by ERQUERRER 
of Spain, and by the Italian TRIVULZI (originally these 
bore Or, three pallets vert). 

Occasionally the paly is formed by compound (i.e., not 
straight) lines. Paly wavy of six argent and gules, is 
one form of the coat of VALOINES (DE VALONIIS). Pale 
onde d'or et de gueules is that of MOULINS. 

(NOTE. Paly of seven is incorrect ; the coat would be 
a field charged with three pallets.) 

Paly of eight is not a frequent bearing. Paly 
of eight argent and azure is, however, borne by 
the Princes of SCHWARZENBERG, in Austria. Paly 
of ei ght or and gules is used by LIMA of Por- 
tugal ; and of azure and argent by JUYA of Spain. 
Paly of eight gules and argent is the coat of VON 



GOTSCHEN, or G6SCHEN, in Silesia (SlEBMACHER, 
Wappenbuch, i., 161), and of WALLENSTEIN of Hesse. 

If in addition to the pales the shield is cut by a 
line per fess, or per bend, the tinctures are so arranged 
that in the lower part of the shield the metal corres- 
ponds with the tincture in the upper, and the coat is 
then said to be : Paly per fess counterchanged {Pale 
contre-pale}. ROSENBERG in Franconia bears : Pale 
contre-pale de gueules et d argent de six pieces ; DE REVEST 
in France, Pale contre-pale d'argent et d'azur de huit 
pieces. 

BARRY (Fasct)* This is the term used when the 
field is divided by horizontal lines into an even number 
of equal portions, as in the coat of the " Sires " or Sieurs 
de COUCY (Plate VII., fig. 2), Barry of six vair and 
gules ; Fasce de vair et de gueules. To this family 
belonged Queen MARIE (DE COUCY), second wife of 
King ALEXANDER II. She was the daughter of INGEL- 
RAM DE COUCY, who died in 1242. The old boastful 
motto of the family is well known : Je ne suis roi ni 
due ni compte aussi ; Je suis le Sire de Coucy. (French 
heralds, as in the corresponding case of Paly, do not 
express the number if the bars are six.) The Barry 
may be formed of compound lines. Barry of four is 
not often seen in English or French blazons, but is not 
unusual in Germany. Barry of four, vert and argent, 
is the coat of the Counts MANIAGO of Venice ; Or and 
gules, of SlGINOLFl of Sicily. Barry of four or and azure 
was borne by the Counts von SPITZENBERG in Austria. 

Barry of six is one of the most common of parted 
coats, being found, both with straight and compound 
lines, in the armory of all countries, and is borne by 
many great houses. 

Barry of six argent and azure is the coat of the 
GREYS, Earls of STAMFORD. It was also the coat of 
the Counts von TRUHENDIN (SlEBMACHER, Wappen- 



( 93 ) 

buck y ii., 12), the Barons von LAHER in Austria; the 
families of ALTSTETEN (Zurich Wappenrolle, 276) ; VlL- 
LIERS; CASTANEDA; LANVAON; VAUDETAR; MICHELI; 
GRIENENSTEIN, etc., etc. 

Barry wavy of six argent and azure was one of the 
BASSETT coats ; and was also used by SANDFORD and 
BROWNING, at home ; and abroad by BOROLLA, LE 
GAL, etc. (this coat was often drawn nebuly in early 
Rolls of Anns). Barry of six argent and gules were the 
arms of the BARRYS, Earls of BARRYMORE in Ireland ; 
the Counts von ARNSTEIN ; the Counts von BEUCH- 
LINGEN ; the Princes of POLIGNAC ; the Counts of 
BOULAINVILLIERS, the families of BARONCELLI ; As- 
LOWSKI ( Poland ), BOUDOYER ; YOENS ; MALEMORT 
(Salle des Croises, 1096); the ARMANES, Marquises of 
BLACONS ; Mizou, etc. 

Barry nebuly of six argent and gules (Fasce nebule 
d' argent et de gueules) is the coat of BASSET, BLOUNT, 
and D'AMORI, in England ; of the ROCHECHOUART, 
Dues de MORTEM AR, in France (early coats are Fasce 
onde). Barry nebuly of or and sable (Plate VII., fig. 3) 
is the coat of BLOUNT, Earl of DEVON. Barry of six 
argent and sable is borne by RtJDBERG (Zurich Wappen- 
rolle, No. 316), PALLANDT ; and RAAPHORST, of the 
Netherlands; AMIRATO of Florence; LouviLLE; ORTE- 
LART of France. Barry of six ermine and gules is the 
coat of HUSSEY. Barry of six or and azure was borne by 
the CONSTABLES of England ; the Counts of SLAW ATA 
(Poland) ; GREYSPACH ; REINFELDEN ; RODEMACHER ; 
and CH AMBON, Marquis d'ARBOUVILLE. Barry of six or 
and gules, by the Princes of LOOS-CORSWAREN ; TURRE- 
TINI of Lucca ; CAMPORELLS; and AMPURIAS of Spain ; 
ODENKIRCHEN; RUFFELAERT; KERLECH, etc. Barry 
nebuly or and gules was another BASSET coat. Barry or 
and sable (Fasti d'or et de sable) is the coat of PEM- 
BRIDGE; the Barons CEVA (Piedmont); COETIVY, Princes 



( 94 ) 

de MORTAGNE; FLECHIN, Marquis de WAMIN ; VAN- 
DER AA. Fasce cTor et de sinople is the coat of CRUSSOL, 
Due d'USEZ. 

(NOTE. Barry of seven does not exist ; being blazoned 
as a field charged with three bars.) 

Barry of eight is not nearly as frequently found as Barry 
of six. Barry of eight or and sable is the coat of the GON- 
ZAGAS, Dukes of MANTUA. Barry of eight or and gules 
that of FITZ ALAN ; and POYNTZ ; the Comtes de GRAND- 
PRE ; the Roman RINALDI ; the Counts of REINECK, etc. 
Barry of nine only exists exceptionally, the proper blazon 
being a field charged with four bars ; but the coat of 
DE BART of France is properly : Barry of nine or, azure, 
and argent ; each tincture being thrice repeated. 

Barry of ten or more pieces (French burele} is occasion- 
ally found. Burele d argent et de sable, VAUDEMONT (Salle 
des Croises, 1 147), CLERAMBAULT ; WARNBACH, etc. The 
following use Burele dor et de sable, THYNNE, Marquess 
of BATH ; BOTVILLE ; Counts von BALLENSTEDT (i.e., 
B ALCKEN STADT, armes parlantes]. Burele argent and azure 
is carried sometimes by DE VALENCE and LUSIGNAN ; 
of argent and gules by ESTOUTEVILLE, or STUTEVILLE, 
etc. Burele or and gules is the coat of TOMASI of 
Naples. Sometimes this coat is varied by counter- 
changing, the field being divided by a palar line ; Barry 
per pale counter-changed or and gules. 

BENDY (Bande]. This is similarly formed, but by 
diagonal lines from the dexter chief to the sinister base, 
dividing the shield into (usually) six bends, or pieces of 
equal width. If the number be six it need not be expressed. 

Bendy of four is a not uncommon Continental bearing. 
Bande de gueules et d argent de quatre pieces is the coat 
of the Venetian family of EMO ; EGBRET (Zurich Wap- 
penrolle, No. 390); the Austrian Princes of SCHONBURG; 
the families of SCHLEGEL ; and VAN WYL. The reverse 
is borne by Barons von AUTENRIED; and by the Counts 



( 95 ) 

von LANDAU. The Princes of CALERGI in Greece bear : 
Bendy of four azure and argent; the Italian ALAMANI, 
the reverse. 

Bendy (of six) is much more common. Bendy of six or 
and azure is the coat of ST. PHILIBERT in England ; of 
the Tuscan BlANCHETTl ; of the Genoese FlESCHI, and 
the Marquises BONELLI. Plate VII., fig. 4, is the arms of 
PLAYTER of Suffolk, Bendy wavy of six argent and azure. 

Bande d' argent et de gueules is borne by BERG, Counts 
von SCHELKLINGEN ; and by the family of COETQUEN 
(Counts d'UzEL, and COMBOURG ; Marquises de RoiSlN, 
and DE COETQUEN). Bendy wavy gules and argent is the 
coat of the Venetian SALONISI. 

Bande d'or et de gueules is used by the Lom- 
bard Counts MlLLESlMO ; MlOLANS (the Neapolitan 
family of AQUINO, Dues de CASOLI, quarter with it : 
Per f ess gules and argent, a lion rampant counter-changed}. 
The LONGUEVAL, Princes de BUCQUOY, use Bendy of 'six 
vair and gules. 

Bendy-sinister of six is occasionally found. Bendy- 
sinister argent and gules, was used by DAMIGLIA of Italy ; 
the same of azure and argent, by the Austrian Barons 
BARR DE BAREY, where it is of course an instance of 
armes parlantes ; as also by the family of BARRUEL DE 
ST. VINCENT (Barre d'or etd'azur}. 

Bendy of seven occurs once ; the family of ESCHEL- 
BACH in Bavaria bears it : azure, argent, gules, argent, 
gules, argent, azure. 

Bendy -sinister of eight gules and argent was the coat of 
VON SEUBERSDORFF (SIEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, i. ; 82). 
The bends are now usually dexter. 

Bendy of eight azure and argent is used by the Vene- 
tian family of ZENO ; and is also borne by the ATAIDES 
of Portugal. 

Usually Bendy of nine would not be a proper blazon for 
a field charged with four bendlets, but there is an excep- 



( 96 ) 

tional case in which it is correct. The French family of 
BORSAN bear Bendy of nine, but it is composed of three 
tinctures or, gules, and argent, each three times repeated. 

BENDY OF TEN (Coticf). 

Bendy of ten or and azure was the coat of the MONT- 
FORTS, or MOUNTFORDS ; or and gules was borne by the 
Vicomtes de TURENNE (Salle des Croises, 1096). 

When the coat is divided by a palar line, the bends on 
either side are counter-changed and the coat is blazoned, 
Bendy per pale counter-changed ; as in the coat of 
KORBLER of Styria : Parti et contre-bande de gueules 
et (Tor. 

When the field is covered by an interlacement of 
small bendlets and bendlets - sinister, it is said to be 
fretty. The fretwork is supposed to be in relief on the 
field, not a mere painted pattern, and it is shaded accord- 
ingly. Or, fretty azure (Plate VI 1 1., fig. 5) is the coat of 
the family of WiLLOUGHBY in England ; and of LA 
MOUSSAYE, Vicomtes de ST. DENOUAL in France. 

Azure, fretty argent is borne by CAVE; and ETCHING- 
HAM (or ICHINGHAM) in early Rolls of Arms ; as canting 
arms by FRESTEL. FRETEL of Normandy also bore : 
d 'Argent frette ' de gueules ; which is thecoat of SANCOURT ; 
St. DIDIER; DOMAIGNE ; and MARCHALCKVON BIBER- 
STEIN. Argent, fretty sable is an old coat of TOLLEMACHE 
in England ; and of HUMIERES in France. Sable, fretty or 
is borne by BELLEW ; BRACKENBURY ; and M ALTRAVERS ; 
LlNIERES DE MOTTEROUGE ; PONTON ; SAILLY, etc. 
Gules, fretty vair, is the coat of SURGERES, and MAIN- 
GOT in France. Gules, fretty or, is the well known coat 
of AUDELEY ; and its reverse, Or, fretty gules, is borne 
by the Counts of DAUN ; by VILLA in Italy ; MONT- 
JEAN, andNEUFVILLEin France ; as well as by VERDON 
in England ; with a canton ermine it is the coat of NOEL, 
Earls of GAINSBOROUGH, etc. The fretty is rarely 
formed by a compound line, but Gules, fretty -engrailed 



( 97 ) 

ermine is a coat of GlFFARD and of VALOYNES ; and 
Azure, fretty of eigJit pieces raguly or, is borne by BROAD- 
HURST. 

In Continental Armory the number of pieces of which 
the fretty is composed is usually limited to six ; three 
in bend, as many in bend-sinister. The intermediate 
spaces, through which the field appears, are called claire- 
voies, and these are frequently charged, so that the field 
is both seme and fretty. 

Gules, fretty and flory or, is the coat of HAMELYN in 
England ; and of ALZON in Auvergne. Sable, fretty and 
fleury argent (de Sable, fretty d* argent, les clairevoies seme'es 
de fleurs-de-lis du mcme] are the arms of DE LA CHAPELLE 
in Belgium. Occasionally the fretty itself is found 
charged, usually with roundles ; of these the best known 
example is the coat of TRUSSELL, Argent, fretty gules 
besanty : here the besants are placed at the intersection 
of the pieces of the fretty. A similar coat, Or, fretty 
gules platy, is an old coat of VERDON ; and Or, fretty 
sable platy is the canting coat of PLATT. 

These coats should be carefully distinguished from 
those which have the analogous bearing of a trellis. 

A Trellis (treillis) is properly composed of bendlets 
dexter and sinister which are not interlaced, but are 
usually nailed (clones) at the crossings. In these cases the 
head of the nail is very much smaller than the bezant, or 
plate, which appears in the coats blazoned above. 

In Sir JOHN FERNE'S Blason of Centric, there is an 
amusing passage in which the distinction between %.fret 
and a trellis is pointed out ; and of which Sir WALTER 
SCOTT makes use in Quentin Durward. The coat is 
Sable, a musion (i.e. a mouser, or domestic cat) or, 
oppressed with a trellis gules nailed argent ; which 
has been wrongly described by one of the interlocutors 
as &fre(. (The comic man of the company describes it 
as "a cat in the dairy window.") But the Herald inquires 



( 98 ) 

" Did you ever see a fret thus formed before (I mean 
nayled)? To correct your blazon learne by this: Hee 
beareth Sable, a Musion Or, oppressed with a Troillis 
G. cloue dargent ; for this which you call a fret, is a 
lattice, a thing- well known to poor prisoners," etc. 
(The passage is given at length in LOWER'S Curiosities 
of Heraldry, pages 254, 255.) 

A grillage in which the interlacements are composed 
of pallets and barrulets, in other words of vertical and 
horizontal pieces, may occasionally be met with, as in the 
coat of the Lombard family of the GENICEI, who use : 
Gules, a grille, or lattice, composed of four vertical pieces 
interlaced with as many horizontal ones, argent. 

CHEVRONNY (Chevronne\ that is the field divided into 
equal portions by lines in the direction of a chevron, 
occurs but rarely in Armory of Britain. 

CJievronny of four argent and gules is attributed to 
WHITHORSE, and is I believe a solitary instance of this 
division. The reverse is borne by VON WERDENSTEIN 
(Wappenbuch, i., in), and VON SPARNECK (ibid., i., 105). 
Chevronny of four azure and or is the coat of GRIESEN- 
BERG (in the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 144) ; the 
reverse was borne by the Barons von BUSSNANG. The 
coat is rarely seen reversed so that the points of the 
chevrons are to the base, but I know of one example, 
the coat of the Barons von WlTZLEBEN. This is Chevronnc 
renverse de quatre pieces d 1 argent et de gueules. CJievronny 
of six argent and gules are the arms of the Counts of 
EPPSTEIN (now quartered by the Counts zu STOL- 
BERG), and are borne also by the Genoese family of 
FORNARA. Chevronny of six or and sable is the early 
coat of the Counts of HAINAULT. 

Chevronny of twelve pieces, or and gules (Plate VII., fig. 
5) is the coat of the Counts of EGMOND, or EGMONT, 
in the Netherlands. 

The full arms of LAMORAL, Count EGMOND, executed 



( 99 ) 

with the Count of HORN by order of the Duke of ALVA, 
are as follows : 

Quarterly ; I. and IV. Per pale (a) EGMOND,as above : 
(b) Argent, two bars embattled - counter - embattled gules 
(ARKEL). 

II. and III. Duchy of GUELDERS. Per pale (a] Azure, 
a lion rampant contourne (i.e. facing to the sinister) 
crowned or (Gu ELDERS): (b) Or, a lion rampant sable 
(County of JULIERS). 

Over all an escucheon en surtout, Quarterly I and 4. 
Argent, a lion rampant sable (FlENNES) ; 2 and 3. Gules 
an estoile of eight rays argent (BAUX). 

CHEQUY (Echiquete). When the field is divided by 
horizontal and perpendicular lines into at least twenty 
square or oblong pieces the bearing is known as chequy ; 
if there are fewer panes or points the number must be 
expressed. 

Plate VII., fig. 6 is the ancient coat of the WARRENS, 
Earls of SURREY (still quartered by the Dukes of 
NORFOLK), Chequy or and azure. The adoption of the 
chequy coat at a very early period by cognate families 
in England and in France, some generations removed 
from a supposed common ancestor, is much founded on 
by Mr ELLIS in support of his contention that hereditary 
armorial bearings are of greater antiquity than we have 
been able to assign to them. 

Chequy of nine panes only, occurs in some important 
foreign coats, as in that of VAN DEN HECKE (Plate VII., 
fig. 8) which is thus blazoned, de Cinq points degueules fyui- 
polles a quatre dhermine (sometimes azure and ermine). 
The Counts of GENEVA bore : Cinq points dor equipolles 
a quatre d'azur. SAINT PRIEST bore the same. 

Cinq points d argent Equipolles a quatre de gueules, was 
the coat of the Portuguese navigator MAGALHAENS ; 
and the Venetian CETRACINI. The same, but of Or and 
sable, is the coat of the Italian GRIFONI. 



In Spanish Heraldry Chequy of fifteen panes (arranged 
in five horizontal and three vertical rows) is often met 
with. Plate VII., fig. 7, is the coat of PORTOCARRERO, 
CJiequy of fifteen or and azure. ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO, 
Duke of ALVA, so celebrated in the history of the Nether- 
lands, bore : Cliequy of fifteen, azure and argent. 

The arms of the Portuguese discoverer VASCO DA 
GAM A were : CJiequy of fifteen, Or and gules, on each 
point of the last two bars gemels argent. On an escucheon 
en surtout the Royal Arms of PORTUGAL, as an augmen- 
tation. 

LOZENGY (losange}. If the field is divided into panes 
of a diamond shape by lines in bend and bend-sinister, it 
is said to be Lozengy (an early term in the Rolls of 
Anns was Masculy, now used for seme of Mascles). 

Plate VIL, fig. 9., Lozengy argent and gules belongs to 
the FlTZWlLLIAMS, Earls of SOUTHAMPTON and FlTZ- 
WILLIAM ; and to the family of DU BEC-CREPIN ; as 
well as to the SALAMONI of Venice, and the Neapolitan 
family of LATRI. 

A considerable number of foreign families bear Lozengy. 
Lozengy gules and or is the coat of CENTELLES in Spain ; 
and the reverse was the coat of CRAON in France. 

(In blazoning begin with the tincture of the first whole 
lozenge.) 

FUSILLY (fusele). When the lozenges are elongated 
the term used is Fusilly. Fusilly argent and gules is the 
coat of the GRIMALDI, Sovereign Princes of MONACO, and 
Dukes of VALENTINOIS in France. (Plate VIL, fig. 10.) 

The arms of BAVARIA are generally drawn as Fusilly 
in bend argent and azure, though they are often blazoned 
Lozengy in bend. It will be seen from Plate VIL, fig. 1 1, 
that the lozenges, or fusils, do not stand vertically over 
each other but are in bend. 

Analogous to this coat are the variations known 
as Paly-bendy and Barry-bendy, these are composed 



PLATE VIII. 




1. Lozengy couped. 

(Gise.) 




2. Barry pily. 
(Holland.) 




Mit linker stufe." 
(Aurberg.) 




4. "Schneckenweise.' 
(Megenzer.) 




5. Fretty. 
(Willoughby.) 




6. Papelonne. 
(Monti.) 




7. Plumete. 
(Tenremonde. ) 




fleurs de lis. 
(France, ancient.) 




). Seme of hearts. 
(Denmark.) 




10. Seme. 
(Simiane. ) 





11. Billetty. 
(Nassau. ) 



12. Gutte" d'eau. 
(Cornwallis.) 



respectively of lines in pale intersecting lines in bend ; 
and of lines in fess intersecting those in bend. 

Paly-bendy or a)id azure (Plate VII., fig. 1 2) is the coat of 
BUCK, Baronets of Lincolnshire. 

With this section we may group the French Triangle, 
in which the field is divided by three series of parallel lines 
into triangles. Plate VIII., fig. I represents the coat of 
the family of GISE in Gloucestershire ; which is blazoned 
Lozengy couped in fess argent and sable (otherwise Barry 
of six indented). The Counts SCHIZZI, of Cremona, bear 
Triangle de gneules et d 1 argent. The Swedish family of 
CARLSSON bear Triangle azure and or ; the shield being 
divided by two lines fessways, and by three in bend and 
bend-sinister. In the coat of VON TOLNZ, which is also 
given as an example by RlETSTAP, the partition is made 
by two horizontal, two palar, and five diagonal lines, so 
that, as he observes, the coat might be blazoned : Cheqtiy 
of nine panes, each per bend sable and argent. 

Barry-pily is the name given to the field when it is 
divided by long, narrow, pile-shaped indentations lying 
horizontally, or barwise, across it. It does not greatly 
differ from the French ^nianckd en pal. Plate VIII., fig. 2 
is the coat of HOLLAND of Lincoln, Barry-pily of eight 
gules and or. 

The French emanche is formed by two or three 
triangular or wedge-shaped pieces united at their base 
and issuing from one or other of the flanks of the shield. 
The number of its points requires to be specified, as well 
as its position issuing from the dexter or the sinister flank. 

DIFFERENT KINDS OF CHARGES. 

RULES OE BLAZON, ETC. 

Armorial Charges are supposed to stand out somewhat 
in relief upon the field, and so to cast a slight shadow 
upon it. It is therefore usual, particularly in uncoloured 
drawings, to make the outline a little thicker on the 



( 102 ) 

lower and sinister sides of an " Ordinary," or other charge. 
Charges are of two kinds : I. Those of simple outline 
and geometrical form, which have predominated since 
the earliest ages of coat-armour, and in the oldest coats 
are often the only charge on the shield. These are called 
by the French Pieces keraldiques ; and are subdivided 
by us into "ORDINARIES" and " SUB-ORDINARIES." 
II. COMMON CHARGES, which are the representations 
of objects of all kinds, including animals, flowers, and 
the whole range of things natural or artificial. 

These charges, whether Ordinaries or Common Charges, 
may be depicted of any of the recognised metals, colours, 
or fur. COMMON CHARGES, such as birds, beasts, and 
fishes, flowers, trees, and many other things, are frequently 
depicted of their natural colours, and are then blazoned 
"proper." The blazon, "a fir tree proper ;" or "a 
salmon naiant proper" would imply that the fir tree, or 
the salmon were to be depicted, not merely by the 
heraldic colours, but by those which belong to them in 
nature. In the case of roses which might be red or 
white, and yet " proper," it is usual to specify the tincture, 
in order that ambiguity may be avoided. The ORDIN- 
ARIES (and even the COMMON CHARGES to some extent) 
may be composed and divided by partition lines of the 
same kind as those which are used to divide the field. 

It is a primary fundamental canon of Heraldry that 
metal is not to be placed upon metal, or colour on colour. 
This is the one heraldic rule with which all persons seem 
to be acquainted, and which has become almost a pro- 
verbial saying : " Metal on metal is false heraldry," etc. 
This rule no doubt originated in the necessity for 
securing distinctness in the days when arms were actually 
borne on the military shield, surcoat, and banner ; and 
when it was of the utmost importance that they should 
be easily distinguishable from afar off. But the inter- 
diction is far from absolute. The arms of the KINGDOM 



OF JERUSALEM (Plate IX., fig. i), which are: Argent, 
a cross potent between four crosses or, are the best known 
instance (sometimes even it is asserted the only instance) 
of a permitted violation of the rule. In this, and a few 
other cases, the arms are styled anna inquirenda or 
armes pour cnquerir, and it is asserted that they were 
originally composed for the express purpose of causing 
the beholder to enquire the reason of such an infraction 
of heraldic usage, and so to stamp them on his memory. 
When a limited view is taken of Heraldry, and the 
investigation is confined to the Armory of a single 
country, such assertions seem capable of easy justification. 
In our own country, for instance, distinct violations of 
the law in question are of great rarity. But when the 
student extends his view over the much larger field of 
Continental Heraldry he finds such assertions are quite 
unwarrantable. The general law, indeed, remains in 
force ; but the exceptions which the present writer has 
collected may be counted by the hundred rather than by 
the dozen ; and, in the great majority of these cases, the 
idea that they were intended as armes pour enquerir is 
one which cannot be entertained. The families are often 
of no very special note, and the arms do not commemorate 
any special circumstance as is the case in the Arms of 
JERUSALEM. They are simply coats assumed either 
anterior to the formulation of the law, or in disregard of it 
when formulated. A sufficient number of such coats will 
be noted as we proceed, or be placed in the Appendix. 

There are some coats in which an apparent violation 
of the law has arisen from the fact that the metals 
employed in depicting them have become tarnished. 
What was supposed to be fine gold has become dim. 
Or has become purpure ; and argent deteriorated into 
sable ! Errors have thus arisen, and have been perpetu- 
ated by the ignorance of painters, although the cases I 
have referred to above are not so to be accounted for. 



( 104 ) 

There are recognised exceptions to the general rule : 
when the " field " is a composite one, of metal (or fur) 
and colour, it is not considered an infraction of the law 
if the charge is of either metal, or colour, or fur. For 
instance, the old arms of the Counts of VENDOME are : 
Gules, a chief argent ^ over all a lion rampant azure crowned 
or. (See U Armorial de Geldre ; and PLANCHE's Roll. 
The later coat was: Argent, a chief gules,' etc.) Here, 
though the greater part of the azure lion appears on the 
red field, the fact that the field is a composite one of 
metal and of colour saves it from the imputation of 
violating the law. 

Again, the rule does not apply to the mere accessories 
of a charge. For instance, in the arms of MARIA 
THERESA on Plate XXXIV., the red lion rampant in the 
quarter of LEON is crowned or, a golden crown upon a 
silver ground, without this being considered any viola- 
tion of the law. So also when teeth, tongue, claws, etc., 
are specified to be of another tincture than the animal 
to which they belong, it is no breach of the law if, for 
example, the lion's red tongue is projected on an azure 
field. 

Again, bordures (which are used by way of difference) 
and the other marks of cadency, are legitimate excep- 
tions to the rule. Thus, the Dues d'ANjOU differenced 
by placing a bordure gules around the arms of FRANCE 
(Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or) and, though the red colour 
impinges on the blue, the law is not considered to be 
broken thereby. 

There are also many instances in which chiefs, can- 
tons, etc., have been added to a coat by way of augmen- 
tation, as in the cases referred to later in the Chapters 
on MARSHALLING and AUGMENTATIONS. These are 
also counted lawful exceptions. A chief of this descrip- 
tion is by no means infrequent in Foreign Heraldry ; 
and is known in French blazon as a " chef cousu" sewed, 



or tacked on, to the original coat. (The term cousu, 
however, is sometimes employed by French heralds 
when there is no apparent violation of the law.) 

As a general rule metal is laid upon colour, colour 
upon metal. The furs are ordinarily used with colour ; 
their use with metal is comparatively so rare as to 
be exceptional. But there are cases in which metals 
alone, colours alone, and furs alone, are employed ; 
and instances will be recorded of each as we pro- 
ceed. 

To " blazon " a Coat of Arms is to describe it in 
heraldic phraseology so exactly that any one acquainted 
with the language of armory may be able accurately to 
depict it from its concise description. The probable 
derivation of the word " blazon " is from the German 
blasen, to blow a horn. A flourish of trumpets was used 
to attract the attention of the bystanders when before a 
tournament a formal announcement was made of the 
armorial coat of each combatant. Glossaries of the 
technical terms of British and of French Armory are 
contained in Chapters towards the close of this present 
work. 

It is desirable at this stage to lay down with more 
precision than has yet been done the principal rules of 
blazon. 

RULES OF BLAZON. 

I. The field should be first named, whether it be of 
one tincture, or a composite one (either by reason of 
the division of the field, or by being seme or strewn 
with small charges). 

II. After the field the charges follow, beginning with 
those of most importance, or occupying the centre of the 
field. If the charge is an ordinary or its diminutive 
(unless it be a chief, bordure, or canton), it usually 
claims precedence over other charges in the field ; as 



( 106 ) 

in the blazon of Plate IX., fig. 5, the coat of 
HAIG of Bemersyde, Azure, a saltire between two 
stars in chief and base and as many crescents in flanks 
argent. 

An exception to the rule above stated as to an Ordi- 
nary being first mentioned after the field, occurs when 
that Ordinary debruises, or surmounts (i.e., is placed 
upon), another charge, as in the Scottish coat of ABER- 
NETHY (Plate IX., fig. 6), Or, a lion rampant gules, 
debruised by a ribbon, or bendlet, sable. 

III. If the Ordinary itself be charged, its charges are 
named next. 

Thus in Plate IX., fig. 4, the arms of WlLMOT, 
Earl of ROCHESTER, are thus blazoned : Argent, on a 
fess gules between three eagle's heads erased sable, as many 
escallops or. 

(Here, according to the previous rules, we name 
1st, the field ; 2nd, the charges, beginning with the 
ordinary ; then 3rd, the charges placed upon the ordi- 
nary. The French custom is a little different : the 
charges upon the ordinary are named before those on 
the field. Thus the arms of the poet CORNEILLE are : 
d'Azur, a la fasce dor, chargee de trois tetes de lion de 
gueules, et accompagnee de trois etoiles d argent, posees deux 
en chef et une en pointed) 

In both the British examples it will be noticed that 
the words " as many " are used to avoid the repetition 
of the number two. 

In the HAIG coat the blazon also illustrates the usage 
by which when two or more charges of the same tinc- 
ture are named consecutively, the tincture applying to 
them all is only named once. The terms used to 
denote the position of a charge in chief, base, or flanks, 
are also here to be observed. It is scarcely needful to 
point out the distinction between " in chief," and " on a 
chief." 



The words " over all " are sometimes used to express 
the fact that a charge is placed upon other charges. As 
in Plate IX., fig. 7 FAIRFAX bears : Argent, three bars 
gemels gules, over all a lion rampant sable crowned or. 

IV. If the coat also contain a chief, canton, or bordure, 
it with its charges should be mentioned last. In some 
overloaded coats, most of which are posterior to the 
times of HENRY VII., the term "charged with" is 
sometimes applied to the Ordinary, instead of the charges 
being blazoned as " on " it. 

In Plate IX., fig. 8 RUSSELL, Duke of BEDFORD, 
bears ; A rgent, a lion rampant gules, on a chief sable three 
escallops of the field. Here the last three words exemplify 
that avoidance of needless repetition and tautology 
which is a characteristic feature of the language of 
blazon. 

It is a rule that the same tincture should not be twice 
named in the description of a coat. To avoid this the 
phrases " of the field," " of the same," " of the second," " of 
the third," "of the last," are made use of; while, as has 
been already pointed out, the name of a tincture 
coming after several charges applies to all. So also, as 
in the above blazoned coat of WlLMOT, the use of the 
expression " as many " obviates the repetition of the 
name of the same number. It must, however, never be 
forgotten that, while succinctness in blazon is to be aimed 
at, and tautology to be avoided, it is far better to err 
on the safe side. The avoidance of ambiguity is far 
more important than the avoidance of tautology. Many 
a young (and for that matter, many an old) herald might 
say in the familiar words of the Latin accidence, Brevis 
esse laboro, fio obscurus. Foreign heralds are more 
sensible than our pedants in this respect. 

There are, however, many things practically taken for 
granted in modern blazon. For instance ; when the 
coat contains two or three repetitions of the same charge 



it is understood, that, unless otherwise specified, the two 
charges are placed in pale ; i.e. one above the other ; 
thus DE MONTESQUIOU bears : Or, two torteaux. Here 
we should understand, what the French blazon expresses, 
"d'Or, a deux torteaux de gueules, Fun sur Vautre en 

pair 

Or again, in the case of three repetitions of the same 
charge, either with or without an Ordinary interposed, 
it is understood that, unless otherwise expressed, two 
are placed in the upper part of the shield, and one in the 
lower part. (If the number be six they will usually be 
arranged 3, 2, i.) 

In other cases the disposition of the charges requires 
specification ; they may be " in chief," " in pale," " in 
bend," or " in cross," " saltire," " orle," etc. Thus BABING- 
TON (Plate IX., fig. 9) bears: Argent ten torteaux ; but 
it is desirable to add that they are arranged 4, 3, 2, i. 

In connection with this subject it is needful to point 
out the difference between the expressions " paleways," 
" fessways," bendways," etc. ; and the expressions " in 
pale," " in fess," " in bend ; " phrases sometimes used 
loosely as synonymous with them. 

" Paleways," " bendways," etc. mean that the charge or 
charges are individually placed in the direction of a pale, 
bend, etc. Thus a sword erect is " a sword paleways." 
Three such erect swords would still be " paleways " if 
they were placed two and one ; or in fess ; in bend, etc. ; 
these latter words only explain the relation in which two 
or more charges stand to each other. 

The three lions passant-gardant in the arms of 
ENGLAND are blazoned " in pale ; " else they might be 
arranged two and one. On Plate IX., fig. 10, is the coat 
of NORTHCOTE, Lord IDDESLEIGH : Argent, three crosses 
botonne (or trefli) in bend sable. Here the three crosses 
are relatively to each other " in bend," though each is pale- 
ways, or upright, if correctly drawn. 



PLATE IX. 






1. Jerusalem. 2. De Vere. 3. De Grey. 






4. Wilmot. 



5. Haig. 6. Abernethy. 






7. Fairfax. 



8. Russell. 9. Babington. 






10. Northcote. 11. Alexander. 12. Chetwode. 



The arms of NEILSON are : Argent, three sinister 
hands bend-sinisterways couped at the wrist gules. Here 
each hand is placed diagonally in the direction of a bend- 
sinister ; while, agreeably to the rule as understood, they 
are ranged 2 and I, in the shield. 

The expression " counter-changed," of frequent use in 
blazon, requires explanation. When the field is of a 
metal and colour separated by any partition line, the 
charge or charges are said to be counter-changed when 
the charge or portion of a charge which lies on the 
metal is of the colour, and vice versa. Thus in Plate IX., 
fig. n, for ALEXANDER, Earl of STIRLING, Per pale 
argent and sable, a chevron, and in base a crescent, all 
counter-changed. Here on the argent the charges are 
sable ; on the sable they are argent. 

Again in Plate IX., fig. 12, CHETWODE bears : Quarterly 
argent and gules four crosses patee counter- changed. 

The French blazon of these coats is, of ALEXANDER, 
Parti d' argent et de sable, au chevron accompagne en 
pointe d'un croissant, le tout de Vun en Vautre ; and of 
CHETWODE, Ecartele d'argent et de gueules, a quatre 
croisettes pattees de I'un a 1'autre. 

It will be seen by the examples just given that French 
blazon differs in some prominent respects from our own. 
The preposition de is prefixed to the tincture, or tinctures 
of the field, while the preposition a as invariably precedes 
the charges. Where we should say that an Ordinary is 
" between " such and such charges, the French say that 
it is accompanied by them ; " accompagne de" etc. (But 
see the Glossary of French terms for the distinction 
between accompagntf and accosted] Brochant sur le tout 
is the French equivalent for our " over all." Pose 
en pal or en sautoir, etc., stand for " paleways " or 
" saltireways ; " ranges en pal, ranges en sautoir, etc., 
are the equivalents for our " in pale," " in saltire," etc. 

For counter-changed, as in the CHETWODE and ALEX- 



ANDER coats given above, the French say, run a Vautre, 
or de Pun en fautre. In very many of the French coats 
which I have used as examples in the pages following 
I have thought it might be useful to the student who 
wishes to extend his studies beyond the Heraldry of 
his own country, to find here the French blazon of the 
coat cited ; by attention to these, and with the aid of 
a Glossary of French terms of blazon hereafter to be 
given in these pages, I think the student will have 
no difficulty in acquiring such a knowledge of French 
blazon as will enable him to use with facility the many 
valuable Armorials and Heraldic treatises which exist 
in the French language. 

There used to be much looseness, variety, and unskilful- 
ness in the printing and punctuation of English armorial 
blazon. Some writers loaded it with unnecessary 
commas and semicolons, some left out points altogether, 
and there was often an embarrassing mixture of Roman 
and Italic characters, and no rule was observed as to 
where figures and where letters should be used. In 
1863 the late Mr J. GOUGH NICHOLS in Vol. I. of the 
Herald and Genealogist laid down, after much considera- 
tion of the subject, the following rules, whose excellence 
is so patent that they have since come into very general 
use. They are here reproduced almost in his words : 

1. Begin the blazon of every coat or quartering with 
a capital letter. 

2. Use no other capitals except on the occasional 
occurrence of a proper name (we mean such as a 
Katharine wheel, a Moor's head or Turkey cock, though 
some of these may be reduced at will, to moors or turkeys, 
etc., as the French and Germans do with all adjectival 
proper names). 

3. Introduce no more points than are absolutely 
necessary, and seldom any stronger than a comma, 
unless in very long and complicated coats. [A comma 



( III ) 

in Mr NICHOLS'S practice always follows the tincture of the 
field, and this is also the case in the blazons of this book.] 
Exception. A comma (not otherwise required) may 
be occasionally requisite after the metal " or," if there is 
any danger of its being mistaken for the conjunction. 

4. The metals and tinctures may be either printed at 
length ; or abbreviated, as arg., az., sa., etc., being equally 
clear either way if not encumbered with commas. 

5. Print always " three wolfs heads, three lion's jambs, 
three palmer's staves," etc., not " three wolves' heads, 
three lions' jambs, and three palmers' staves ; " the charges 
being each the head of one wolf, the jamb of one lion, 
the staff of one palmer, etc. ; and it is grammatically 
sufficient that the nominative cases " heads," etc., should 
agree with the numeral three. 

6. For 3, 2, i ; 2 and I ; etc., use the words three, two, 
one, as the figures may produce confusion with the 
numbering of quarterings. 

7. Where there are complicated quarterings, clearness 
may sometimes be produced where two coats only are 
quartered by the expression Quarterly; as, "Quarterly of 
FRANCE and ENGLAND," "of HASTINGS and VALENCE," 
etc., or, " Quarterly of I and 4 Azure, a bend or, SCROPE;" 
and 2 and 3, Or, a chevron gules, STAFFORD. Other- 
wise the term " Grand Quarterings " is sometimes 
employed, and then numerals of different characters 
may be used to distinguish the grand and the sub- 
ordinate quarterings, as thus : 

Quarterly of four Grand Quarters : 

I. Quarterly : i and 4, Or, a pale gules. 

2 and 3, Azure, a cross argent. 
II. Ermine, a pale vert. 

III. Per pale : (a) Gules a chief ermine. 

(b) Vert, a lion rampant or. 

IV. Azure, three bars argent. 

To this rule of Mr NICHOLS we may add that, in very 



complicated coats of Grand Quarterings, letters of the 
alphabet are often employed instead of, or in addition to, 
the numerals he recommends. 

SEMfi. 

When the field is strewed with an indefinite number 
of small charges (fleurs-de-lis, crosslets, hearts, and 
cinquefoils being the most commonly used for this 
purpose) it is said to be seme, or powdered, with the 
charge. Small charges, as will be shown elsewhere, 
were thus used in early times as a mode of " gerating," or 
" differencing," the arms of persons of the same family. 

A field thus seme appears as if it were cut out of a 
larger surface, as the external rows of the charges are 
divided by the outline of the escucheon. 

In some ancient coats there is no other charge in the 
escucheon but those with which the field is seme. Azure, 
seme of fleurs-de-lis or is the early form of the Royal 
Arms of FRANCE ; and is blazoned as " FRANCE- 
ANCIENT." The term Fleury, or flory, is often used 
instead of Seme of fleurs-de-lis. Thus, Azure, fleury 
argent, is the coat of HARLEWIN ; of MALAPERT DE 
NEUFVILLE ; of HERVILLY DE MALAPERT ; MONTAU- 
BAN, etc. Argent, fleury gules, was borne by MONTJOY 
in England ; the Barons de HAUTPENNE ; and the Low 
Country families of OUPEY, and KERCKEM, Barons de 
WlJER. Or, fleury azure, was used in England by 
MORTIMER. Gules, fleury or, are the arms of CHATEAU- 
BRIAND ; and are the original coat of ALEGRE, Marquis 
de TOURZEL. 

Billetty and crusily are, similarly, terms used for seme 
of billets or cross-crosslets. Or, billetty azure, is found 
for the coat of GASCELIN ; and Gules billetty or, for that 
of COWDREY, in early Rolls of Arms ; so also, Or, 
crusily azure, is borne by PETMORE ; and Gules, crusily 
or, by FERNLAND. 



( H3 ) 

In Foreign Armory charges not so employed in 
British Heraldry are frequently met with as powder- 
ings. 

The Spanish family of C LAYER bears the canting 
coat, Or, seme of keys azure. The Florentine FORA- 
BOSCHI use, Sable, seme of balls argent. The French 
GODEFROI bear, Azure, seme of acorns or ; and GuiLLOU 
DE LA LARDAIS, Argent, seme of sage leaves vert. Or, 
trefle vert, is the coat of HOETIMA. Sometimes the 
field is sem/ with more than one charge. Thus 
the arms of the French Marquises de SlMlANE 
(Plate VI I L, fig. 10) are Or, seme alternately of castles 
and fleurs-de-lis azure; and those of ANGLURE, 
Counts de BOURLEMONT and ESTOGES, Princes d'AM- 
BLISE, Dues d'ABRY, etc.: are, Or, seme of hawk's 
bells, each supported by a crescent gules (d'Or, seme' 
de grelots dargent, soutenus chacun d'un croissant de 
gueules). These crescents were originally " angles" 
[See an account of these arms in the paper on " Les 
Saladins d'Anglure," which is appended to the valuable 
Armorial of GlLLES LE BOUVIER, dit "BERRY," Roi 
d'Armes de France de CHARLES VII., published by 
M. VALLET (DE VIRIVILLE), Paris, 1866.] Usually a 
field sem/ of small charges also bears a more important 
one. Or, seme of hearts gules, over all three lions passant 
gardant in pale azure, crowned of the field, are the arms 
of DENMARK (Plate VIII., fig. 9). The coat of the 
Duchy of LtJNEBURG, which forms the second quarter- 
ing in the arms of our Hanoverian Sovereigns, has a 
similar seme field, but it is charged with a lion rampant 
azure, crowned gold. Plate VIII., fig. II, is the coat of 
the House of NASSAU, Princes of ORANGE, which ap- 
peared en surtout on the Royal Escucheon during the 
reigns of WILLIAM III. and MARY II.; it is, Azure, 
billetty and a lion rampant or. A field seme, or be- 
strewed with an indefinite number of drops, or " gouttes" 



( H4 ) 

is said to be goutte, or gutty ; in French blazon goutte 
d* argent, dazur, etc. ; but the usual pedantry of English 
heralds has invented a specific name for the drops of 
each metal or tincture, except gold, which remains 
goutte dor. Accordingly seme of drops argent has be- 
come goutti deau ; of gules, goutte de sang ; of azure, 
goutte de larmes ; of sable, goutte de poix ; and of vert, 
goutte de Vhuile ! Sable, goutte d'eau, on a fess argent 
tJiree Cornish cJ toughs proper (Plate VIII., fig. 12) was the 
canting coat of the Marquesses of CORNWALLIS. The 
choughs are legitimate enough as charges of armes par- 
lantes, but the tears, or wails, are surely far-fetched ! 

DIAPERING is a mode of ornamenting the surface of 
the field and its " Ordinaries " with arabesque patterns, 
and was early practised. Many beautiful and tasteful 
examples of it remain on early glass, sculptures, and 
enamels. There are some fine instances of it in West- 
minster Abbey, among the most remarkable of which is 
the enamelled shield of WILLIAM DE VALENCE, Earl 
of PEMBROKE (which, reduced in size, forms the frontis- 
piece to BOUTELL'S Heraldry, Historical and Popular} ; 
and the monument of EDMUND " Crouchback," Earl of 
LANCASTER. Early specimens of diaper are also to be 
seen at Beverley Minster and at Hatfield. Diaper was 
largely used in the armorial glass of Germany in the 
fourteenth and later centuries. Often the patterns, 
which are usually indicated by lighter or darker shades 
of the tincture employed, are exceedingly tasteful and 
artistic. 

In the tasteless times of the i8th century, German 
Heraldic engravings suffered much from a profusion 
of diaper, which obscured the actual bearings. The 
coats added in the later editions of SlEBMACHER's great 
Wappenbuch will show the decadence of true artistic 
feeling in this respect, as well as in the general treat- 
ment of the escucheons and of the charges delineated. 



( "5 ) 

An example of early English diaper is to be found 
on the shield of the sepulchral effigy in the Temple 
Church, which was for so long a time erroneously 
attributed to GEOFFREY DE MAGNAVILLE, Earl of 
ESSEX ; and to which allusion has already been made 
at p. 45. 

In a few foreign coats diaper was so constantly and 
uniformly used that in process of time it has become 
a regular charge, and appears as an integral part of the 
blazon. 



FIG. 37. 
The Pale. 



FIG. 
The! 



FIG. 39. FIG. 40. FIG. 41. 

The Bend. The Bend-Sinister. The Chevron. 




FIG. 42. 
The Saltire. 



FIG. 43. 
The Pile. 



FIG. 44. FIG. 45. FIG. 46. 

The Gyron. The Lozenge. The Fusil. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ORDINARIES. 

ARMORIAL writers, as has been already said, divide the 
conventional figures of Heraldry into two classes, 
HONOURABLE ORDINARIES ; and SUBORDINATE ORDI- 
NARIES, or SUB-ORDINARIES, though they are not at all 
agreed as to whether some of them should be placed in 
the first, or in the second class ; their arrangement in the 
one or the other is a matter of no practical consequence. 
The Chief, and the Quarter, or Canton, may seem to be 
respectively entitled to some precedence over others of 
their class, as being those which have been most fre- 
quently used for the reception of Honourable Augmenta- 
tions to the shield ; but beyond this there is really no 
order of precedency, and their arrangement and classifi- 
cation is simply a matter of taste and convenience. 

The Honourable Ordinaries are : I. The CHIEF ; 
II. The PALE; III. The FESS ; IV. The BEND (and 
BEND-SINISTER) ; V. The CHEVRON ; VI. The CROSS ; 
VII. The SALTIRE; VIII. The PILE; and IX. The 
PALL or PAIRLE ; some of these are figured above. 
Several of these have diminutives of the same shape. 

The Sub-Ordinaries are the QUARTER (now generally 
of a smaller size and called a CANTON); the GYRON; the 
INESCUCHEON ; the BORDURE ; the ORLE ; the TRES- 
SURE ; the FRET ; the LOZENGE (with its variations the 



FUSIL, MASCLE, and RUSTRE); the FLAUNCH and 
FLASQUE ; the BILLET ; and the LABEL. 

Various explanations are given of the origin of 
the Ordinaries, by heraldic writers. LOWER is inclined 
to derive them from the stripes, and bands or 
belts, of military costume. PLANCHE, with greater 
probability, traces them to the various bands of wood, 
or metal, by which the shield was strengthened. This 
derivation would seem to me almost certain did we not 
remember that, as a matter of fact, these Ordinaries do 
not figure to any very great extent in early Heraldry ; 
certainly they are not so frequently found as we should 
expect to be the case if they had taken their rise from 
the bands and borders which appeared on so many of 
the early shields before the rise of systematic heraldry. 
We should expect, then, that a multitude, perhaps the 
majority, of the earliest coats would bear a fess, or bor- 
dure, a cross, or bars, or pales. Yet an examination 
of a list of early arms, for example those given in the 
earliest Rolls of Arms, or exposed in the Salle des Crois- 
ades at Versailles, will show how far this is from being the 
case. The Ordinaries are there, indeed ; but there is no 
preponderance of them over other charges, animate or in- 
animate. The preponderance is all in the other direction. 

Some have sought the origin of the Ordinaries in the 
strips of wood of which the barriers, or lists, for tourna- 
ments were composed. The Cross is really the only 
Ordinary of whose origin we can be quite certain. 

I propose now to take these Ordinaries singly ; premis- 
ing that each of them may be formed not only by the 
right line but by any of the varying lines which have been 
described and figured under PARTITIONS. 

All the Ordinaries are frequently charged ; and two or 
more may be combined in a coat of arms. 

I. THE CHIEF (CHEF) is a charge formed by a hori- 
zontal line, which includes in theory the upper third part 



( "8) 

of the shield. This may be the case when the chief is 
itself charged ; but, practically, the rule has never been 
strictly observed either with regard to this or the theo- 
retical allotments of space in the case of other Ordinaries. 
It is much more frequently depicted as including about 
a fourth part of the shield. 

The following examples of early coats bearing chiefs as 
the sole charge are from the Salle des Croises at Versailles. 

(2) EUSTACHE D'AGRAIN, Prince of SIDON and 
C^ESAREA (uoo) Azure, a chief or (cTAzur, au chef cT or). 

(10) GARNIER, Comte de GRAY (iioo) and (77), 
BAUDOIN DE GAND, Seigneur d'ALOST (1096) Sable, a 
chief argent (de Sable, au chef d' argent. 

(95) RAYMOND II., Comte de SUBSTANTION et de 
MELGUEIL (i 109) Argent, a chief sable (d* Argent, au chef 
de sable]. 

(157) GuiLLAUME D'AUNOY (1204) Or, a chief gules 
(d'Or, au chef de gueules). 

Argent, a chief gules, is the coat of the Duchy of 
MONTFERRAT, and of the families of D'AVAUGOUR ; 
SOLIGNAC ; CHAUMONT (Burgundy) ; MENZIES in Scot- 
land ; and WORSLEY in England. Argent, a chief azure 
was borne by the Marquises of GAMACHES in France ; 
and SALUCES (Piedmont), as well as by the families of 
FITZALAN ; CLUN ; VAN DE WEERDE, etc. 

In Plate X., fig. i, Vair, a chief or (de Vair, au chef d* or) 
is the coat of the TlCHBORNE family ; while fig. 2 is an 
example of a chief formed by a different partition line 
and charged. Ermine, on a chief indented gules three 
estoiles or (determine, au chef endente de gueules, charge" 
de trots Voiles d'or); the arms of the family of ESTCOURT. 
. Argent, a chief indented (or dancetty), sable was borne 
by JEAN DE ST. SIMON in the Third Crusade, and by 
the families of HARSICK and LE POER. Or, a chief 
indented azure, is the well known coat of the great Irish 
family of BUTLER. 



PLATE X. 



1 





1. Chief. 

(Tichborne.) 



2. Chief indented. 3. Napoleonic Ducal Chief. 
(Estcourt.} (Soult.) 





4. Knight of St. John. 
(Estampes. ) 



5. Chief arched. 
( Von Dienheim). 




6. Divise. 
(Orsini or Ursins.) 




7. Pale. 
(Erskine.) 




Pale rayonne. 
(O'Hara.) 




9. Pallets. 
(Arragon.) 




10. Pallets. 
(Keith.) 





11. Pale cotised. 12. Pallets humetty and fitche. 
(Belasyse.) (Briey.) 



The Ordinary of the Chief has been very generally 
used as an " Augmentation," or addition granted by a 
Sovereign as a reward for services (See Chapter XVI.); 
and it was also customary for Cardinals, and other mem- 
bers of Ecclesiastical Regular Orders ; as well as the 
members of certain Military and Religious Orders, e.g., 
ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM, ST. STEFANO in Tuscany, etc., 
to place the arms of the Order to which they belonged, 
on a chief above their personal arms, which might also 
possibly themselves contain a chief among charges. 

In Plate X., fig. 4, are the arms of the Chevalier 
d'EsTAMPES, Bailli de VALENCE in the ORDER OF ST. 
JOHN, who bears his paternal coat : Azure, two girons 
chevronways or ; on a chief argent, three ducal coronets 
gules ; the whole abaisse under a chief of the arms of the 
ORDER OF ST. JOHN, Gules, a cross argent. 

There are a few instances in Continental Heraldry in 
which for other reasons two chiefs are borne in the same 
coat, one abaisse beneath the other. 

The " chiefs " assumed respectively by the partisans of 
the Guelphic and Ghibbeline factions in Italy were 
sometimes carried in coats which already had a chief. 
Thus the BONVICINI of Bologna used : Gules, a tree 
eradicated argent, on a chief cousu azure three letters B of 
the second ; the chief abaisse beneath the Guelphic chief: 
Or, an eagle displayed sable crowned or. The Marquises 
RANGONI bear : Barry argent and azure, on a chief gules 
and escallop argent ; the chief abaisse under another 
argent, thereon an eagle displayed gules crowned or. The 
Barons von HAEFTEN bear : Gules, three pallets vair, a 
chief or, charged with a label sable, and abaisse under 
another chief or, thereon a crane sable. 

Some writers assign to the chief a diminutive called a 
"fillet." Of this charge there are few, if any, certain 
examples in English Armory. The charge in French 
Armory is called a divise, and should rather be regarded as 



a barrulet haussc, or elevated, above its ordinary position. 
The arms of DE POISIEU in Dauphin e are : Gules, two 
chevrons argent, in chief a divise of tJie last (de Gueules, a 
deux chevrons d' argent, sommcs d'une divise dn mhne]. 
Sometimes the divise is placed immediately beneath 
a chief, which is then said to be " supported " (soutenu] 
thereby, as in the case of the arms of the ORSINI family 
in Rome, who bore : Bendy of six argent and gules, on a 
chief of the first supported by a divise or, a rose of the 
second (Bande d^ argent et de gueules, de six pieces, au chef 
d' argent charge dune rose de gueules et soutenu d'une 
divise d'or). Of this family were the French DES URSINS, 
Marquises of TRAINEE, etc. The Roman family charge 
the divise with an eel (une anguille naiante or ondoyante) 
azure for ANGUILLARA. (Plate X., fig. 6.) 

A Chief is sometimes used united to another Ordinary ; 
Thus, FAHRBECK in Bavaria bears : Argent, a chief -pale 
sable ; that is, the charge is a chief and pale united. 
ESQUIROU DE PARIEU, in France, bore : Sable, a pairle 
and chief argent. Occasionally the chief is formed by a 
concave line, and is then called a chefvoute; as in the coat 
of DlENHElM in Bavaria : Gules, a lion rampant argent 
crowned or, a chief voute of the second. (Plate X., fig. 5.) 

II. THE PALE (French/^/) is a vertical band in the 
middle of the shield ; its capacity was fixed by old 
writers at one-third of the field, but it is usually some- t 
what smaller, even when charged. 

Argent, a pale sable (d' Argent, au pal de sable], are the 
well known arms of the ERSKINES, Earls of MAR 
(Plate X., fig. 7). The same coat is borne by the 
Counts KREYTSEN in Prussia ; the Barons SKRBEN- 
SKY DE HRZISTIC (Silesia) ; the Danish family of 
ANDERSEN; RICHTERSWYL (Zurich Wappenrolle, No. 
259) ; SPANOFFSKY DE LISSAU ; VON KETTENHEIM ; 
etc., etc. The Swedish family of BRAHE bears the 
reverse. 



Azure, a pale argent (cTAzur, au pal a" argent) is the 
coat of the family of LEYEN, Counts and Princes of the 
Holy Roman Empire ; and of the Florentine ABBATI. 
The following families (among others), bear : Gules, a 
pale argent (de Gueules, au pal a" argent); the Venetian 
VIARO; CANALI; CANABRI; the Counts HAAG; Barons 
FRAUNBERG ; and FRAUNHOFEN ; the family of 
BuLOW in Denmark ; and the Barons MlTTROWSKI in 
Austrian Silesia. 

The Dues des CARS, Princes de CARENCY ; and the 
Italian PITTI, both bear, Gules, a pale vair. 

Gules, a pale or, were the arms of the family of GRANT- 
MESNIL, Lord High Steward of England temp. HENRY 
I. Or, a pale azure, is borne by SCHONSTEIN of Bavaria ; 
Or, a pale gules, by BlEDMA of Spain \ Sable, a pale or, 
by VON DER ALM. 

The Pale has the usual variations ; being also formed 
with the external lines indented, engrailed, etc. Argent 
(sometimes Or), a pale dancetty (sometimes indented} gules, 
is the coat of STRANSHAM, or STRAYNSHAM, of Kent. 
Argent, a pale wavy sable, is borne by BOTON. Azure, 
a pale rayonnt or, by LlGHTFORD. This last bearing 
(which is very rarely seen) is also used by the Irish 
O'HARAS, Lords TYRAWLEY ; Vert, on a pale radiant or, 
a lion rampant sable (Plate X., fig. 8). The "chef-pal" 
has already been noticed on p. 1 20, ante. Occasionally the 
pale, or rather a portion of it, is combined with another 
Ordinary. KETHEL in Holland uses, Azure, a pale retrait 
in chief (i.e., a demi-pal) soutenu by a chevron between 
three cauldrons or. (See also p. 123, infra.) 

If there be given to the Pale its stated size of one- 
third of the field the following coats may be blazoned 
either " Per pale . . . and ... a pale . . . ; " 
or (which avoids any mistake) " Tierced in pale " (vide 
pp. 86-87 for " TIERCED COATS "). 

Per pale sable and azure, a pale vair ; is borne by 



( 122 ) 

DAGUET DE BEAUVOIR ; and is the same as Tierce en 
pal de sable, d'azur, et de vair. Tierced in pale gules, 
argent, and azure is the coat of RAINIER: and, with the 
colours inverted, of VON PONDORFFER. 

The English blazon only allows one pale in the shield ; 
though of its diminutive the pallet several may be borne. 
French blazon has no distinctive name for this 
diminutive. 

The coat borne by ELEANOR of PROVENCE, Queen of 
HENRY III. of England, given on Plate X., fig. 9, Or, 
four pallets gules (d'Or, a quatre pals de gueules), are the 
arms of PROVENCE, and of the Counts of BARCELONA, 
and Kings of ARRAGON. At the time of their assump- 
tion the barras longas made a fitting coat ; canting or 
allusive to the name of BARCELONA. Argent, on a 
chief or three pallets gules, are the arms of the KEITHS, 
Earls MARISCHAL of Scotland. (Plate X., fig. 10.) 
A family of the name settled in Prussia, bore 
the same but with the field vert. Argent, two pallets 
sable (d 'Argent, a deux pals de sable}; are the coat of the 
Counts von WITTGENSTEIN, and of the English family of 
HARLEY. Sable, two pallets wavy ermine, are the arms 
of CLARKE of Kent. 

A coat charged with three pallets is a frequent bearing 
both at home and abroad. Or, three pallets gules, are 
the well known arms of the Counts of Foix (later they 
quartered therewith those of the County of BEARN ; 
Or, two cows in pale gules, collared, horned, and belled 
azure). Gules, three pallets or, were borne by the 
FAUCIGNY, Princes de LUCINGE. Argent (also gules], 
three pallets ermine, is a coat of QuESADA in Spain ; 
Vair, three pallets gules, was borne by AMUNDEVILLE 
in England ; and by the family of YVE in Flanders, 
Counts de RUYSBROEK, and Barons d'OSTlCHE, etc. 
Argent, three pallets vert, is the coat of ZAVALA in 
Spain. Or, three pallets wavy azure is borne by 



ROGIER ; Argent, three pallets wavy gules by VALOINES 
(DE VALONHS), a coat quartered in Scotland by the 
MAULES, Earls of DALHOUSIE, etc. Gules, five pallets 
raguly argent is a coat of SOMERVILL. 

A narrower diminutive of the pale is the endorse 
(in French vergette}. A pale placed between two of 
them is said to be endorsed. The family of BELASYSE, 
Earls of FAUCONBERG, bore: Argent, a pale engrailed, 
endorsed sable (Plate X., fig. 11). 

In accordance with its supposed derivation from a 
piece of palisading, the pale (with its diminutives), is 
sometimes found pointed (aiguise, or fitche*} at its lower 
end ; if it is cut short it is said to be coupe, or 
hummetty. Or, three pallets couped and pointed gules 
is the coat of the Counts de BRIEY (Plate X., fig. 12). 
Occasionally the pales or pallets are cut short before 
reaching half-way down the shield ; they are then said 
to be pals retraits (v. ante. p. 121). The arms of VAN 
HAMBROEK are : Or, three pallets sable, retraits en chef. 
VAN EYCK bears the same coat, but with the field argent. 

III. THE FESS (in French fasce} is a horizontal bar 
stretching across the centre of the shield ; like the pale 
it theoretically (only) contains the third part thereof. 
A multitude of coats have this as their sole charge. 
Gules, a fess argent, are the well known arms of the 
House of AUSTRIA; the Dues de BOUILLON ; the Counts 
of VlANDEN, etc. Plate XL, fig. i, Gules, a fess or is 
the old coat of BEAUCHAMP. Argent, a fess azure 
(cT Argent, a la fasce de sable] are the arms of the Canton 
of ZUG, in Switzerland ; BAROZZI, in Venice ; the Dukes 
of LEUCHTENBERG in Russia ; of CHARTERS in 
Scotland ; and, with the fess wavy, of BELLAFILLA 
of Spain. 

Argent, a fe,ss gules is the coat of several illustrious 
houses, those of BETHUNE, Dues de SULLY, 1606 ; the 
Counts von MANTEUFFEL in Prussia and Russia; the 



ST. MAUR, Dues de MONTAUSIER, Pairs de France, 
1664 ; the Dues de SAN SEVERING, and the Counts de 
MARSI of Naples ; VAN DE WERE, and the Barons TAETS 
D'AMERONGEN in the Netherlands. A D'AUBIGNY bore 
it in the Crusade of 1205. 

Gules, a fess engrailed argent, is used by the Counts 
von NESSELRODE ; and was the original coat in England 
of the family of DAUBIGNY or DAUBENEY, who after- 
wards (as in other instances) enlarged the engrailment 
into a fess of fusils conjoined. Gules, a fess ermine, are 
the arms of CRAWFURD. 

Argent, a fess dancette sable, belongs to the WESTS, 
Earls of DELAWARR (Plate XL, fig. 2). The fess 
dancette has three points only. A somewhat unusual 
form of it is borne by the PLOWDENS of Shropshire 
(the family to which EDMUND PLOWDEN, the distin- 
guished lawyer of the i6th century belonged) ; it is 
given on Plate XL, fig 3, and is Azure, a fess dancett^ the 
two upper points flory (terminating in fleurs-de-lis) or. 
The like coat, but with the field sable, is borne by 
DORAND, Yorkshire. Somewhat analogous to this are 
the coats of CAVILL, Argent, a fess flory counter-flory 
gules ; and A rgent, a fess sable flory counter-flory gules, 
DUSSEAUX. 

Of other variations the following are examples : 
Azure, a fess indented ermine (cTAzur, a la fasce endente 
determine}; the same but nebulee is borne for ALLEN. 
Gules, a fess wavy argent is the coat of DRYLAND. 

When a fess is blazoned as " embattled " (crenele\ only 
the upper line is cut into battlements (Plate XL, fig. 4). 
ABERBURY or ADDERBURY bears : Or, a fess embattled 
sable. If both lines are embattled with the battlements 
opposite each other, the fess is known as bretesse" ; if the 
battlements on the one side correspond to the indenta- 
tions of the other, it is styled " embattled counter- 
embattled." (See hereafter, page 1 27 ; the arms of ARKEL 



PLATE XL 





\ 



1. Fess. 
(Beauchamp.] 



2. Fess dancettee. 
(Weif.) 




3. Fess dancettee. 
(Plowden.) 




4. Fess embattled. 
(Aberbury.) 




5. Fess checquy. 
(Stewart.) 




G. Fess tortille". 
(Carmichael.) 




7. Fess arched. 
(BcUbi- Porto.) 





8. Bars. 
(Har court.) 



9. Bars counter-embattled. 

(ArM. ) 




10. Bars wavy. 
( Drummond. ) 





11. Bars gemelles. 
(Hunter combe.) 



12. Fesscotised. 

(Harleston. ) 



quartered by EGMONT, p. 99, and the Glossary of English 
Terms.) 

Plate XL, fig. 5, is the well-known coat of STEWART, 
or STUART, in Scotland : Or, a fess chequy azure and 
argent. (It may here be remarked parenthetically that 
three is the proper number of rows of " panes " on a 
fess, bend, chief, or other Ordinary blazoned as "chequy.") 
Mr ELLIS combats the popular idea that this coat was 
allusive to the office of Steward, and represented the 
chequers formerly used in keeping accounts. The 
cognate family of BOTELER descended from CHRISTIAN, 
grand-daughter and heir of WALTER FlTZALAN, elder 
brother of the first Steward of Scotland, certainly bore 
the same fess chequy between six crosslets. CHRIS- 
TIAN'S father and grandfather, however, seem to have 
borne a different coat ; and in any case there is no 
evidence of a descent which has been suggested from 
the early bearers of a chequy field the WARRENS, and 
the House of VERMANDOIS, who bore Chequy or and 
azure. Or, a fess chequy argent and gules is the coat of 
the Westphalian Counts de la MARCK, now borne in the 
6cu Coinplet of the Kingdom of PRUSSIA. 

A curious variety of the fess is shown in the coat of 
CARMICHAEL : Argent, a fess wreathed (cablee, or tortillee] 
azure and gules (Plate XL, fig. 6). Sable, a fess wreathed 
or and azure, between three crescents argent, is a coat of 
WlLKIE. In Italian coats the fess seems often voutee, or 
curved upwards ; and less frequently downwards (affaisse'e). 
Plate XL, fig. 7, are the arms of the Venetian family of 
BALBI-PORTO : Gules, a fess arched, per pale or and azure 
(de Gueules, a la fasce voutee d'or et d'azur) ; but in most 
cases 'this arises simply from the fashion of painting the 
arms on the convex surface of a shield, or cartouche. 
The convexity of the surface gives the fess an arched 
appearance. 

The diminutive of the Fess is called a "bar" (in 



French, divise} with further diminutions known as the 
"closet," and the "barrulet." In English Armory the bar is 
never borne singly (the " bar sinister " is an ignorant 
vulgarism, and an entire misnomer for something totally 
different, as will be shown hereafter). In France under 
the title of Fasce en divise, abbreviated into divise, the 
bar is occasionally seen (two coats in which it appears in 
chief have been already blazoned on p. 120). M. GUIZOT, 
the eminent French statesman, bore : d'Azur, a la divise 
d'argent. The Prince of Poets, DANTE ALIGHIERI 
bore : Per pale or and sable, over all a fess diminished, or 
bar, argent (Parti d'or et de sable a la divise d' argent 
brochante sur le tout). 

Plate XL, fig. 8, Gules, two bars or (de Gueules, a deux 
fasces d'or) is the coat of the ancient family of HAR- 
COURT, both in England and in France ; in the latter 
country they attained the ducal title in 1700. 

Ermine, two bars gules, are the arms of the Irish 
family of NUGENT, Marquises of WESTMEATH. A 
branch of this family has reached the highest dignities 
of the Austrian Empire with the title of Prince. 

Argent, two bars gules, is the coat of the Barons 
DERVAL (Brittany) ; LORENZ ; and MASSOW in Saxony ; 
NEIMANS in Bavaria ; VON BRAUNBERG ; the Counts 
von ROTENBURG ; the Lordships of ISENBURG (quar- 
tered by the Princes von WIED) ; and of BREUBURG 
(quartered by the Counts of LOWENSTEIN and ERBACH) ; 
and of many other noble families. 

Argent, two bars sable, are the arms of the house of 
ISENBURG, Princes and Counts of the Holy Roman 
Empire ; LE BARBIER, Marquises de KERJAN in Brittany. 

Gules, two bars argent, are the arms of MARTIN ; 
SERVATI of Genoa ; the Counts ARNIM of Prussia ; the 
Barons von ERTHAL in Franconia, and OCHSENSTEIN 
in Rhenish Prussia. Or, two bars gules, is the coat of 
the Counts of BERLO (Prussia), and FtjRSTENBURG ; the 



Princes of OLDENBURG ; MAUVOISIN and ROSNY in 
France ; VALLGORNERA in Spain ; WALLONCAPELLE, 
or WAELSCAPPEL, VAN SCHOONVELT, and WESTCAPPEL 
in the Low Countries. 

Sable, two bars argent, was the coat of Admiral de 
RUYTER, and engrailed of ROUSE of Norfolk. 

Vert, two bars dancetty argent, are the arms of the 
Barons SPIEGEL. 

Or, two bars counter-embattled sable, is borne by 
VAN BRONKHORST, in the Netherlands. 

Argent, two bars dancetty sable, by the Counts REEDE 
(Guelders), and the REEDE-GlNKELS, Earls of 
ATHLONE. 

As a pendant to the CARMICHAEL coat, referred to 
above, we may give the arms of WAVE of Devon ; Sable, 
two bars wreathed argent and gules. 

A curious example is the coat of MONTCONIS in 
Burgundy : Gules, two bars, that in chief wavy or, the 
one in base plain argent. (In later times the field is 
azure.) 

Plate XL, fig. 9, Argent, two bars battled counter- 
embattled gules (cT Argent, a deux fasces bretessees et 
contre bretessees de gueules), are the arms of ARKEL. 

Of coats with three bars there are a greater number still. 

Argent three bars gules, are the arms of CAMERON ; of 
MULTON ; of the Counts BOULAINVILLIERS ; of the 
great family of CROY (Comtes de CHIMAY, Marquises 
d'ARSCHOT, Princes de CHIMAY and de CROY of the 
Holy Roman Empire, Grandees of Spain) ; of FROIS- 
SART; VAN BEERVELT; CHATEAU MELIAND (Bannerets 
of Touraine) ; of LEITOENS of Portugal ; etc., etc. 

Argent, three bars sable (d 'Argent, a trois fasces de sable) 
is the coat of AFFLECK or AUCHENLECK ; HOUGHTON ; 
ST. AMAND in France, etc. 

Gules, three bars or, is carried by BEAUMONT ; MAS- 
CARENHAS (Portugal) ; L6VENICH (Westphalia) ; and 



( 128 ) 

the reverse by MUSCHAMP ; GROUCHES, Marquises of 
CHEPY and GRIBAUVAL; the Barons HEINBURG ; 
LOBENSTEIN (dit VOLKEL), etc. ; CORDOVA of Spain ; and 
the BONACOLSI of Italy (who also use Or, three bars gules). 

Gules, three bars vair was the coat of GHERARDINI of 
Venice, and MERCCEUR of France. 

The DE COMBAUT, Dues de COISLIN, in France, used 
Gules, three bars cJiequy argent and azure. 

Or, three bars wavy gules (Plate XL, fig. 10) are the 
arms of DRUMMOND in Scotland, and BASSET in 
England. 

Argent, tJiree bars wavy azure are borne by PARDAIL- 
LAN ( 1 270, last Crusade) ; GALEOTTI (Naples) ; FERRERA ; 
TOLEDO (Spain) ; PODEN AS, Princes de CANTALUPO ; Six ; 
and VAN LUCHTENBURG, or LUYTENBURG, of Holland. 

Argent, four bars azure, were the arms of Sir JOHN 
HORBURY (temp. EDW. I.), and are borne by MAILLART 
(Liege) ; and MOLEMBAIS (France) ; and wavy by VAN 
SABBINGEN (Zealand) ; and FlEFVET (Artois). Ermine, 
four bars gules, was the coat of Sir JOHN SULBY, or 
SULLY, K.G., ob. 1338. 

Barrulets are often borne in pairs, and are then called 
BARS - GEMELS ( French jumelles ) as in the coat of 
HUNTERCOMBE (Plate XL, fig. n), Ermine, two bars- 
gemels gules (sometimes sable]. Gules, two bars-gemels 
or, are the coat of RICHMOND ; and the reverse that of 
FlTZ-ALURED. 

As in the case of the bend, hereafter referred to, the 
fess is "coticed," thus, in Plate XL, fig. 12, HARLESTON 
of Essex bears : A rgent, a fess ermine coticed sable. 
BADLESMERE in England, summoned to Parliament as 
Baron, 3rd. EDW. II. ; and MONESTAY in France bear: 
Argent, a fess between two bars-gemels gules. By ELIOT, 
Earl of ST. GERMAN'S the same coat is borne, except 
that the gemels are wavy azure. FlNCHFlELD, again, 
bears the fess wavy and the gemels straight : A rgent, a 



( "9 ) 

fess wary between two gemels sable. With regard to 
u tiercing," as in the case of the Pale so is it with the 
Fess. A shield divided per fess and also charged with 
a fess, is commonly blazoned Tierce, or Tierced per 
fess ; a third part of the field being occupied by each 
tincture. Of this simple bearing, particularly in Ger- 
many, examples are very numerous, and many are given 
in the section on " Parted Coats " (See pp. 86, 87). 

IV. THE BEND (Bande] is a piece crossing the shield 
diagonally from the dexter chief to the sinister base. 
For it, as for the preceding Ordinaries, the old heralds 
claimed the third part of the shield ; but, even if charged, 
it seldom covers more than the fourth part of the field in 
modern usage. 

In Plate XII., fig. I, Azure, a bend or, is the simple 
coat which formed the subject of the memorable contro- 
versy between the families of SCROPE and GROSVENOR 
(See Chapter XIV.), and which was adjudged to the former. 
It is also borne by the Counts TliUN DE HOHENSTEIN 
(Bohemia) ; CASSAGNET, Marquis de FIMARCON ; the 
Marquis de LENTILHAC (Salle des Croises, 1248), 
the families of HUMIERES ; HERIPONT (Belgium) ; 
DURFORT ; BlRON ; DE MOLAY ; ZOTRA, etc. Its 
reverse, d'Or, a la bande d'azurvizs borne by GuiLLAUME 
DE TRIE in 1 147 (Second Crusade), and by the English 
family of TRYE, of Leckhampton in Gloucestershire ; as 
also by LA BAUME, Counts de ST. AMOUR ; and the 
Venetian family of MOROSINI. 

Or, a bend gules, are the arms of the Grand-duchy of 
BADEN ; of the Principality of LIGNE ; of DE SALINS 
(First Crusade) ; of CLEMENT (Marechal de France in 
1248), etc. Its reverse: Gules, a bend or, is the coat of 
CHALON (1096, in First Crusade, quartered by the Princes 
of ORANGE); HENNIN, Comte de Bossu ; ofNoAiLLEs 
(Dues de NOAILLES, Dues de MOUCHY, Princes de Foix, 
etc.) ; of DE SALINS ; TONNERRE ; LA RODE ; etc. 



( 130 ) 

Or, a bend sable is borne by MAWLEY (or DE MALO- 
LACU) ; SANDOVAL ; and So, of Spain ; GONNELIEU ; 
COMPAGNI (Tuscany); and GERARD DE BRIORDE (First 
Crusade, 1112). 

The original coat of the family of DENNLSTOUN of 
that Ilk in Scotland was Argent, a bend sable, which is 
also borne by several Barons STEIN, or STAIN ; the 
Counts HEERDT in Holland, etc. 

The WARDS of Bexley bore : Chequy, or and azure, a 
bend ermine (Plate XII., fig. 2), the ermine spots on a bend 
are placed bendways, as is also the case with the panes 
of chequy and vair. Thus, the arms of MENTEITH in Scot- 
land are : Or, a bend chequy azure and sable (cTOr, a la bande 
ecliiquete d' argent et de sable]. Here the three rows of the 
chequy are arranged to follow the direction of the bend. 

Considerations of space seem to have established 
the rule regarding the position of charges placed 
upon a bend ; if their height is greater than their 
breadth they follow the line of the bend, if not the 
charges are placed in the bend paleways. This will be 
understood by the examples given in Plate XII., figs. 
3 and 4. BUNBURY bears : Argent, on a bend sable three 
chessrooks of the field; and SAVILE,Earl of MEXBOROUGH ; 
Argent, on a bend sable three owls of the field. Coats 
Tierced in bend, or in bend-sinister, are given on p. 87. 

Like the other Ordinaries the bend is varied by indent- 
ing, engrailing, etc., a few examples will suffice. 

Azure, a bend engrailed or, is the coat of BERMINGHAM. 
That of BATURLE DU CASTEL, in Lorraine, is d'Azur, a 
la bande cannelee d' argent. The poet SCARRON bore : 
Azure, a bend counter-embattled or (d'Azur, a la bande 
bretessce d'or}. Azure, a bend wavy or, is the coat of 
ALDAM ; Gules, a bend flory count er-flory or, is borne by 
GOLDINGTON ; and in another coat for the same name 
the tinctures are changed to or and azure. Sable, a bend 
raguly, is the coat of MASTON ; Vert, a bend dancetty 



PLATE XII. 



m 



1. Bend. 

(Scrope.) 




2. Bend ermine. 
(Ward.) 




3. Charges on a bend. 
(Bunbury. ) 





4. Charges on a bend. 5. Bend engoulee. 
(Savile.) (Sanchez.) 




6. Rauten-kranz. 





7. Bendlets wavy. 8. Bendlets enhanced. 

( Wilbraham. ) (Byron. ) 




9. Bendways. 
(Knatchbull.) 





10. Bendcotised. 
(Hurley.) 



11. Bend sinister. 
(Loreyn.) 




12. Baton sinister. 
(Duke of Grafton.) 



ermine, that of SOMERV ; and Argent, a bend count er- 
flory gules, that of BkOMFIELD. 

Two foreign varieties of the bend deserve notice. In 
the bend engoulce, a characteristic bearing of Spain, each 
extremity of it issues from the mouth of a dragon, lion, 
or leopard. Thus in Plate XII., fig. 5, SANCHEZ, Argent, 
a bend vert, engoulee of dragons heads or. (See my 
paper on the " Heraldry of Spain" in the Genealogist, VQ\. v.) 
The other is that arched and modified bend called in 
Germany the Rauten Kranz (Kranzlein), or " crown of 
rue." This forms the charge upon the barry coat of 
SAXONY ; Barry of ten sable and or, over all a crancelin 
vert. It is given in Plate XII., fig. 6, and is already 
familiar to us both as quartered with the Royal Arms 
of the United Kingdom by the late Prince Consort, and 
as borne en surtout by H.R.H. the PRINCE OF WALES, 
and his other descendants. The French call this bearing 
a Crancelin, and blazon Saxony thus : Burele de sable et 
d'or de dix pieces ; au crancelin de sinople. The origin of 
this bearing is still somewhat a matter of doubt ; the 
legend usually put forth to account for it has no proba- 
bility at all. The Crancelin though usually borne vert is 
not so always. RuniCKHEIM uses Or, a crancelin in 
bend gules. FANCHON of Liege bears the arms of Saxony, 
but with the crancelin gules. 

Like other Ordinaries the Bend has its diminutives ; 
the Bendlet, the Cotice, and the Riband. The bendlet 
is seldom borne singly. The French call the charge by 
the name of bande up to the number of four. 

A rgent, two bendlets sable (cTA rgent, a deux bandes de 
sable), is the coat of BRADSHAW ; of the Barons STEIN 
zu LEIBENSTEIN ; and of PEPPENBERG (Zurich Wappen- 
rolle, No. 332), etc. The same with the bendlets engrailed 
is borne by RADCLYFFE ; with the bendlets nebuly by 
STAPLETON. A curious coat is that assigned to WlGMUR 
in Scotland, Argent, two bendlets, the inner sides alone 



wavy sable. Or, two bendlets gules (d'Or, a deux bandes 
de gueules), are the arms of D'OYLY; GUALTERI (Italy); 
WOUTERS; and VAN MORSLEDE (Netherlands). Argent, 
two bends azure is borne by the Marquises SPOLVERINI. 
Argent, two bendlets wavy azure (d* Argent, a unejumelle 
ondte d'azur en bande] ; is the coat of the Italian 
CAETANI, or GAETANI, to which Pope BONIFACE VIII. 
belonged. In Plate XII., fig. 7, is the coat of WlLBRAHAM. 
The arms of DELAMERE in Cheshire, are: Argent, three 
bends wavy azure. Or, three bendlets ermine, are the 
arms of the Spanish family of GUEVARA. Or, three 
bendlets azure, are those of the CONTARINI of Venice, 
etc. ; ADHEMAR DE MONTEIL, Comte de GRIGNAN, in 
France bears : d'Or, a trois bandes d'azur. (The letters of 
Mme. DE SEVIGNE were addressed to her daughter, the 
Comtesse de GRIGNAN.) 

What appears to have been the original coat of BlRON 
viz., Argent, three bendlets gules, is now borne with the 
bendlets enhanced (Fr. hausse's) i.e. placed higher in the 
shield, as in the arms of the poet, Lord BYRON. (Plate 
XII., fig. 8.) Gules, three bendlets enhanced or, are the coat 
of DE GREILLY, Lords of Manchester ; and now figure 
in the arms of that city. The coat of KNATCHBULL 
(Plate XII., fig. 9), Azure, three crosslets fitMes bendways 
between two bendlets or, may be compared with that of 
NORTHCOTE (Plate IX., fig. 10), to exemplify the 
difference between " in bend " and " bendways." 

The Cotice (cotice} is the name applied by the French 
to bendlets when more than four are placed in the shield ; 
it is also the name given to the bendlets which often 
accompany a bend, as the endorses do a pale (v. ante 
p. 123). Thus Plate XII., fig. 10 is the coat of HARLEY, 
Earl of OXFORD : Or, a bend cotised sable (d'Or, a la 
bande de sable accompagne'e de deux cotices du meme]. 
D' Argent a la bande de sable, accostee de deux cotices du 
nieme is the coat of the French Marquises de CUSTINE. 



( 133 ) 

ViLLEPROUVEE in France bears : de Gueules, a la bande 
d' argent accostee de deux cotices d'or ; a coat borne in the 
early Rolls of Arms for COUE, or COWE ; and for DAW- 
TREY. The cotices are often borne engrailed, indented, 
wavy, etc., while the bend is plain ; or vice versa. Azure, 
a bend engrailed argent plain coticed or, is the coat of the 
Earls FORTESCUE. Sable, a bend ermine between two 
cotices flory counterflory or is the coat of KECK, or KELK. 

A single example of the cotice as a sole charge occurs 
to me in the rather remarkable coat of the family of DES 
BAILLETS, who bore Argent, a cotice purpure. Another 
curious coat is that of DIAZ in Spain : Argent, two 
cotices, the upper one sable, the lower one vert. 

The bend is sometimes borne doubly coticed ; Ermine, a 
bend doubly coticed gules is the coat of CELLES in Belgium ; 
Argent, a bend engrailed between four cotices gules is borne 
by LAYFORTH (GLOVER'S Ordinary]. Gules, a bend vair 
between four cotices or, is the coat of GARDNER. 

A still narrower diminutive, the riband or fillet, has 
been already represented in Plate IX., fig. 6 as debruising 
the lion of the arms of ABERNETHY. 

The BEND-SINISTER (Barre) differs from the Bend 
only by its position. It runs from the sinister chief to 
the dexter base. Examples of its use formerly existed 
in Britain ; but in most cases the charge has come to be 
turned into the Bend (dexter), from an idea that in its 
original form it suggested illegitimacy. This is a popular 
error. No such association originally attached to it, and 
in many countries none such attaches to it still. Plate 
XII., fig. 1 1, is the coat of the family of LOREYN in the 
Netherlands ; Or, on a bend sinister azure three stars of 
the field (d'Or, a la barre d'azur chargee de trois ttoiles 
du champ}. The BENIGNI of Rome bear : Argent, a 
bend-sinister sable. Argent, a bend-sinister gules, were 
the arms of BlSSET ; they are those of ZERRES in Bavaria ; 
of the Barons HASENBERG; of HERDA in Westphalia; 



( 134 ) 

of LA TANIERE of Cambray ; of RAPPACH ; etc. Azure, 
a bend-sinister embattled or, is the coat of RONCHIVECCHI 
in Tuscany ; Azure, a bend sinister or, that of FETZER 
(SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch,\\., 164, and many others). 

Azure, a bend-sinister v air e gules and argent, is borne by 
HUNNENWEILER. Per fess gules and or, a bend-sinister 
vair, by BERN. Ermine, a bend-sinister gules (d'Hermine, 
a la barre de gueules) were the canting arms of BARRE in 
France. Gules, a bend-sinister argent, are the arms of 
RAUCH in Wiirttemberg. Sable, a bend-sinister or, is 
borne by HERWEGH ; and, with the charge argent, by 
SULMETINGEN. To this list, large additions might be 
made, but these are quite sufficient to prove that the use 
of the bend-sinister has no necessary connection with 
illegitimacy, or dishonour. France was the original 
birth-place of an idea which was altogether erroneous : it 
was thought, quite without reason, that illegitimacy was 
denoted if the charges (for instance a lion rampant) faced 
to the sinister, whereas it was customary in early times 
for the escucheons on monuments, etc., in churches to have 
the arms so painted as that the charges faced to the High 
Altar. (Thus, in the Chapel of the CHEVALIERS DE LA 
ToiSON D'OR at Dijon, the arms of the Knights whose 
stalls were on the north side are all arranged in this way.) 

FAWN, who describes them, in the Theatre d'Honneur 
et de Chevalerie, pp. 956-959, says " Le peintre ignorant 
a faict tous les Tymbres tournez a gauche pour regarder le 
Grand Autel, et mesmes quelques Armes, ce qui est 
bastardise" He was of course utterly wrong in the last 
assertion. In our own Chapel of ST. GEORGE at Windsor, 
the stall-plates of the early Knights of the GARTER have 
the helmets and shields of those on the north side, thus 
arranged. So are also the coats emblazoned on the stalls 
upon the north side of the Choir in the Cathedral at 
Haarlem, which I have described in Notes and Queries, 
5th Series, vol. ix., pp. 61, 101, etc. 



The Burgundian Heralds naturally followed the 
German use, which still prevails. In it charges, animate 
and inanimate, are freely turned to the sinister whenever 
symmetry or artistic effect appear to require it, and this 
without conveying to the intelligent observer the smallest 
suggestion of illegitimate descent (For Bendy-sinister, 
v. p. 95.) 

For fuller treatment of this subject, and an explanation 
of the use of the Bendlet, Baton, etc., as marks of 
bastardy, see the Chapter on ILLEGITIMACY. 

V. THE CHEVRON. The Chevron or Cheveron (a word 
said to be derived from an old name for the barge-couples 
of the gable of a house), is a figure composed of two 
bands issuing from the dexter and sinister base of the 
shield, and conjoined at or about the honour point. 

This Ordinary is probably the one most in use in 
English Armory ; and is certainly that which, interposed 
between three other charges, is employed most largely 
in the Armory of France. In German Heraldry it is not 
of frequent occurrence, and it is extremely rare in that 
of the Peninsula. (See my paper on the "Heraldry of 
Spain and Portugal.") In French Armory the limbs of 
the chevron are for the most part drawn so as to meet 
at a more acute angle than among ourselves, and the 
point is somewhat higher in the field ; indeed, sometimes 
it is drawn so as actually to touch the top line of the 
escucheon. But the necessity of finding room for charges 
above and below the chevron has caused it to be not only 
diminished in bulk but drawn with a very obtuse angle. 
By far the best and most elegant examples are those in 
which the angle does not at most exceed a right angle. 

A Chevron occurs as armes parlantes for the families of 
TEYES, and TEYEYES (Argent, a chevron gules) in the 
letter of the Barons to the Pope in 1301 : Or, a chevron 
gules (d'Or, au chevron de gueules) is the coat of STAFFORD, 
Duke of BUCKINGHAM (Plate XIII., fig. i). 



( '36 ) 

Argent, a chevron azure, is borne by the Venetian 
Counts CANALl; the Barons von POLLNITZ; the Danish 
ERIKSENS ; the families of METSCH ; BEAUREPAIRE ; 
BROUILLART ; ASBACH, etc.: its reverse is used by the 
English families of LADBROOKE (or LODBROKE) ; GUR- 
WOOD ; STANGATE, etc. ; and by those of BRUHL ; 
MALMONT ; LA PORTE ; COLOMBIER ; CIOLI, etc., 
abroad. Argent, a chevron sable is borne by the 
TRELAWNEYS, and PRIDE AUX (in the latter case the 
label gules, originally borne for difference, has become 
a regular portion of the charges). HOLBEACH bears the 
same, but with the chevron engrailed. 

Azure, a chevron or, is in England borne by the Norman 
D'ABERNONS ; in France, by the family of GoRREVOD, 
Dues de PONT DE VAUX, Princes of the Holy 
Roman Empire, etc. It is borne by the VENDELINI of 
Venice ; by DuiVEN or DuiNEN ; and by VERREYCHEN, 
Counts de SART, in the Low Countries; by MONTCLAR; 
HERAUT ; CHAMPSDIVERS ; and others in France ; by 
the Counts GOTTER of Prussia and as canting arms by 
the families of SPARRE in Sweden ; and MYPONT in 
Burgundy. With the field billetty or it is the coat of the 
Counts de CRUYCKENBERG ; with the field flory argent, 
by BLANCHAERT in the Netherlands ; and with the 
field bezantce, by DU CHESNEAU. Azure, a chevron per 
pale or and argent is the coat of the SALIGNONS in 
France. 

The families of TOUCHET, Lords AUDLEY ; KYN- 
ASTON ; VAN DRIESCHE in Holland, etc., bear Ermine, 
a chevron gules. Gules, a chevron argent was the original 
coat of the great House of BERKELEY ; and is also 
borne by the Counts of HERBESTEIN ; and the Prussian 
Barons LEDEBUR. Gules, a chevron argent (often ermine} 
is the coat of the great family of GHISTELLES in Flanders ; 
Gules, a clievron or is the coat of the CHAMPERNONS, 
and COBHAMS; HERZEELE, Marquises of FAULQUEZ; 



PLATE XIII. 




1. Chevron. 

(Stafford.) 






2. Chevron checquy. 3. Charges on a chevron. 
(Sempill.) (Pringle.) 




4. Chevron ploye". 
(Mott.) 





5. Chevron reversed. 6. Fess between chevrons. 
(JB-ulgarini. ) (Fitzwalter. ) 




7. Chevronels. 
(Clare.) 









8. Chevron cotised. 9. Chevron ecime". 

(Glutton.) (La Rochefoucauld). 






10. Chevron fracted. 11. Chevron romyu. 12. Chevrons interlaced. 
(Hazier de Linage.) (Beaumont.) (Wyvill.) 



( 137 ) 

and NETTANCOURT : SPARRE, Barons de CRONENBURG ; 
the families of MONTAUBAN ; SWART ; and VAN VEEN, 
(Holland) ; HARELBEKE (Flanders) ; HERBESTEIN, etc. 
Sable, a chevron ermine is borne by BAYNARD ; and Gules, 
a chevron vair by BLAKET. 

When the chevron is of fur, the spots and panes do 
not follow the lines of the Ordinary, but are placed 
paleways ; a chevron chequy follows the same rule, as in 
Plate XIII., fig. 2, the coat of the Lords SEMPILL: Argent, 
a chevron cJiequy gules and of the field, between three 
hunting horns sable garnished and stringed of the second 
(d 'Argent, au chevron echiquete de gueules et d' argent, 
accompagne de trois cors de chasse de sable lies de gueules). 
In like manner when a chevron is charged the charges 
are placed paleways, unless it is specified that they are 
to follow the direction of the chevron, thus in Plate XIII., 
fig. 3, the arms of PRINGLE are : Azure, on a chevron 
argent three escallops of the field. In the coat of 
HEPBURN : Gules, on a chevron argent a rose between two 
lions combatant of the first : the lions of necessity follow 
the lines of the chevron. 

In foreign coats the chevron is often drawn ploye, 
i.e., with its limbs curved inwards. I believe this has 
arisen simply, as in the analogous case of the fess voutee 
(page 125), from the surface of the escucheon having 
been convex ; but in course of time, it has become the 
ordinary use of some families, even when the escucheon 
affords a plane surface, and it is accordingly so specified 
in many foreign blazons. Thus, Argent, a chevron ploye 
gules (d 'Argent, au chevron ploye de gueules) is the coat of 
the Danish AuGUSTlNS or OWSTINS; the reverse is that 
of the RODENEGGS, Counts WOLKENSTEIN. The 
Barons von NEYDECK bear : Or, a chevron ploye gules. 
Plate XIII., fig. 4 gives the coat of VON MOLL in Tirol : 
Azure, a chevron ploye between three estoiles or. 

This Ordinary sometimes assumes an abnormal position, 



( 133 ) 

springing not from the base but from one of the sides of 
the escucheon (in which case it is said to be couche} or 
from the chief, when it is blazoned as " reversed." Gules, 
a chevron reversed argent, is the coat of the Bavarian 
Barons RUMLINGEN DE BERG; and of the Tyrolese 
family of M ALGOL ; and Plate XI 1 1., fig. 5, shows the arms 
of the Tuscan Counts BULGARINI : Gules, a cross argent 
surmounted by a chevron reversed gules. Or, a chevron 
couched azure, is the coat of DOUBLET. 

The chevron is often borne engrailed, embattled, wavy, 
indented, etc. When its top is blunted it is said in French 
blazon to be borne crime. In the arms of LA ROCHE- 
FOUCAULD, Plate XIIL, fig. 9, the uppermost chevron is 
thus treated. Barry of ten argent and azure three 
chevronels gules, the first ecime (Burele d' argent et d'azur 
a trois chevrons de gueules brochants sur le tout le premier 
ecime}. 

In the coat of the family of ZUR SUNNEN in Basel 
(given in the Zurich Wappenrolle, No. 548) the chevron 
or is terminated by a fleur-de-lis argent the field is 
gules. A rare example of a chevron invecked (cannele') 
is that of VAN HEYLBROUCK of Flanders : d 'Argent, au 
chevron cannele de sable. 

The chevron occasionally appears in chief; thus the 
arms of the Earls of STRATHERN were those of STUART 
(Or, a fess chequy azure and argent) with in chief a chev- 
ron gules. (Or, two chevrons gules, STRATHERNE ancient.) 

Similar coats are those of the English families of 
KlRTON, who bear : Argent, a fess, and in chief a chevron 
gules ; STRELLS, the same but with the charges sable ; 
and SPRINGHOSE, Gules, a fess and in chief a chevron 
argent. 

The chevron is "broken" or "fracted," brise, when each 
limb is broken across, as in Plate XIIL, fig. 10, which is 
the coat of the Counts de LINAGE in France (d'Azur, au 
chevron brise dor, accompagne de trois roses d argent). A 



( '39 ) 

solitary example of a chevron thus treated is the 
Scottish coat of JOHN ALEXANDER of Kinglassie, Per 
pale argent and sable a cJievron brise at the summit ; and 
in base a crescent, all counter-changed. In a chevron 
rompu, or failli, there is a lack of continuity in one of 
the limbs, and the position of the failure must be speci- 
fied ; thus the Provencal family of MAYNIER, Barons 
d'OPPEDE, bears : d'Azur, a deux chevrons d 'argent \ Vune 
failli d de.vtre, I'autre a senestre. I n the coat of BEAU MONT 
in Maine (Plate XIII., fig. n) five chevrons are thus 
faillis, or roinpus, alternately : " d 'Argent, a cinq chevrons 
de gueules rompus, les I, 2, 3, a dextre, les autres a senestre" 

In the last two examples more than one chevron 
occurs in the field ; when this is the case English heraldic 
writers often call them " chevronels," as if they were 
diminutives of the chevron. French blazon knows no 
such distinction ; and it is one for which there is no 
reason but the desire to complicate matters. 

Argent, two chevrons azure, is a coat of BAGOT, and 
TYRREL in England ; of RENNEBURG, or RAIMBERT in 
Westphalia ; of LlNDENPALM in Denmark. The Counts 
de PERCHE, in the First Crusade (noo), bore : Argent, 
two chevrons gules ; BELESME; KENDENICH; BREITEN- 
BACH, etc., do the same. Argent, two chevrons sable, is 
the coat of the family of M'LAREN ; Azure, two chevrons 
or, is borne by CHAWORTH in England ; SARTIGES in 
France ; TOLLENS in Holland, etc. 

Three chevrons appear in several coats of great 
families Or, three chevrons gules (d'Or, a trois chevrons 
de gueules) are the arms of the DE CLARES, Earls 
of GLOUCESTER, etc. ; and were also borne by 
the Counts of HANAU (Holy Roman Empire) ; the 
Barons* VOORST, or VOERST ; by CREVECOZUR ; and 
wavy gules by the VAN DER RYTS of Flanders. The 
Counts of MERAVIGLIA bore them azure. 

Or, three cJievrons sable (d'Or, a trois chevrons de sable) 



is the coat of Sir WALTER DE MANNY (founder of the 
Charterhouse) ; of the LEVIS, Dues de MIREPOIX and 
DE VENTADOUR in France ; the Barons van HAER- 
SOLTE ; and MULERT ; the ARMELLINI of Italy ; VAN 
ALKMAAR of Holland, etc. 

Argent, three chevrons gules, is the coat of the family 
of DU PLESSIS RICHELIEU, of which the great Cardinal 
Due de RICHELIEU was a member ; of the Marquis de 
BASSOMPIERRE ; of the County of RAVENSBERG (now 
quartered in the Royal Arms of Prussia) ; it was borne 
also by PHILIPPE DE BELESME, Comte d'ALENgoN 
(First Crusade) ; by the families of CHATEAU-GONTIER ; 
BOLS-YvON ; DE GORTERE dit SOMBEKE ; and by that 
of SETTIMO, Princes de FlLlOLA in Sicily. 

The reverse (Gules, three chevrons argent) is borne by 
JESTYN AP GWRGANT (one of the ancient Welsh 
princes) ; BANESTER ; MANCICOURT (who also bore 
the reverse) ; FAVERGES, etc. GALLOT in France has 
a rather peculiar coat Ermine, tliree chevrons, the centre 
one gules, the others sable (d'Hermine, a trois chevrons, le 
premier et le dernier de sable, le second de gueules]. 

The Chevron, like the pale and the fess, is not in- 
frequently borne coticed, and even double coticed though 
rarely ; the diminutive chevrons employed for this pur- 
pose are called " couplecloses," but are not used 
singly. Three chevronels are borne "interlaced" or 
"braced" in base, in a few English coats. Argent, three 
chevrons braced sable are the coat of HEDWORTH; and 
BRACKENBURY ; Azure, three chevrons braced or, is that 
of FlTZHuGH. [Most frequently this bearing is found 
in combination with a chief as in the arms of WYVILL : 
Or, three chevronels braced vair, a chief gules (Plate 
XIII., fig. 12.)] The French coat of LA GRENEE in 
Picardy, is : de Gueules, a deux chevrons entrelaces, I'un 
de I'argent renversc et mouvant du chef, Vautre d*or. 
The G AN NAY in Berry bore : de Gueules, a trois chevrons 



PLATE XIV. 




1. Cross. 

(St. George.) 





2. Cross raguly. 3. Cross quarter pierced. 

( Laurence. ) ( Whitgreave. ) 






4. Cross wavy voided. 5. Cross patee checquy. 6. Cross moline square pierced. 
(Duckinfield.) (Lawley.) (Colvile.) 






7. Cross potent quadrat. 8. Cross patonce voided. 
( LichfiM ) (Pilkington. ) 



9. Cross flory. 
(Lamplowe.) ' 






10. Cross fleur de lise\ 11. Cross botonnee. 12. Cross retranchee and pommette>!. 
(Pereira.) (Winwood.) (Manfredi). 



renverses (for, an cJief d' argent, cJiarge de trots etoiles 
cT argent. 

VI. THE CROSS. The CROSS as an Ordinary occupies 
the space of a pale and a fess united. Its many varieties 
as a heraldic charge will find separate treatment in 
a supplement to this Chapter, page 151. In this place 
we shall only deal with the plain Cross as an Ordinary. 

As might be expected, this form is frequently found as 
a sole charge. Argent, a cross gules (Plate XIV., fig. i) 
is the " CROSS OF ST. GEORGE," and forms the ancient 
banner of ENGLAND ; is also borne as the Arms of the 
ORDER OF THE GARTER; and of the Republic of GENOA, 
of which ST. GEORGE was the patron saint; by the Prince- 
Archbishops, Electors of TRIER, or TREVES ; by the 
City of PADUA ; and by some families named ST. 
GEORGES in France, of whom one family bore the title 
of Marquises de VERAC. The families of IBANEZ DE 
SEGOVIA in Spain ; of the Florentine POPOLESCHI ; 
of BlORNSEN in Denmark ; of VAN BOUCHOUT in 
the Netherlands ; all used the same. The reverse 
(Gules, a cross argenf) is the arms of the great ORDER 
OF THE KNIGHTS HOSPITALLERS OF ST. JOHN OF 
JERUSALEM, Sovereigns of RHODES and MALTA ; of the 
Dukes of SAVOY ; of the Lordship of ASPREMONT ; and 
of the cities of VICENZA and ToURNAY, etc. 

A rgent, a cross sable (d'A rgent, a la croix de sable} was the 
coat of the Prince- Archbishops, Electors of COLOGNE. 

Azure, a cross argent, was the coat of the Byzantine 
family of DUCAS ; with the cross or, of LA CROIX, Due 
de CASTRIES ; of the city of .VERONA ; of the families 
of TEIXEIRA in Portugal ; and OLUJA in Spain. Or, a 
cross gules, is the coat of DE BURGH, Earl of ULSTER ; 
of BIGOT ; of the principality of ANTIOCH ; of FABERT 
(Marcchal de France]; of the Barons ANDLAU ; the 
Counts of RECHTEREN ; and the Barons HEECKEREN, 
etc. It is also borne (for CORSBY) en surtout by the 



( 142 ) 

CARLYLES, Lords TORTHORWALD, in Scotland (Plate 
XXXV., fig. 5). 

A large number of families bear the cross formed by 
the varying partition lines. Argent, a cross engrailed 
sable (cT Argent, a la croix engrelee de sable), belongs to the 
SlNCLAIRS, Earls of ROSSLYN. (See, too, the arms of 
the Earls of CAITHNESS, etc., in Plate XXXVL, figs. I, 2.) 
It was also the coat of the family of MOHUN, and FlTZ- 
HENRY in England ; DU GuE, Vicomtes de MEJUS- 
SUAUME in Brittany; FEUQUERAY, etc. 

Argent, a cross embattled sable, is the bearing of 
BALMANNO ; and AUCHINLECK in Scotland ; with the 
cross gules it was borne in early times by DALING- 
RIDGE; DRAYTON; and GOURNEY (or GURNEY); DE LA 
LYNDE ; and TIPTOT, in England ; by CROVILLE ; LANCY; 
and the Cardinal de LENONCOURT, in France. Argent, 
a cross raguly sable (d 'Argent, a la croix ecotee de sable}, 
was the coat of SANDYS. Gules, a cross engrailed argent, 
was borne by the INGLETHORPES of Norfolk, of whom one 
was Bishop of ROCHESTER 1283-1291 ; and the reverse 
is the coat of LAWRENCE. Or, a cross engrailed gules 
were the arms of the family of DE LA HACHE ; and 
of several families in the Low Countries, e.g. HAYNIN ; 
WARCOING ; WAMBRECHIES ; VAN DUDZEELE, etc. 
Or, a cross engrailed vert, is borne as a differenced coat 
for HUSSEY, the original coat being the plain cross. 
Sable, a cross engrailed or, is the well known bearing of 
the Suffolk family of D'UFFORD (or D'OFFORD) of which 
JOHN was Archbishop of CANTERBURY, in 1348. 

VII. THE SALTIRE (Sautoir}. This Ordinary takes 
up the space occupied by a bend and a bend-sinister 
combined in the form of the letter X. Its name is of 
uncertain etymology, but it seems to be derived in some 
way from the verb sauter, to leap. My own idea is that 
it may have originated in the strengthening stays of a 
palisade, such as that by which the lists and their 



( -43 ) 

enclosures were formed, and that the upper angle 
formed a convenient place for the foot of one who 
desired to leap the barrier. The tradition that the 
apostle ST. ANDREW suffered martyrdom upon a cross 
of that shape led to the prevalence of the saltire as 
a heraldic charge in Scotland, Burgundy, and other 
countries where ST. ANDREW is a popular saint ; 
more particularly in Scotland, where the adoption of 
ST. ANDREW as the national patron goes back to a date 
before the introduction of armorial bearings. ST. 
ANDREW was as stated above also the patron saint of 
Burgundy ; and in Spain the capture of Baeza from the 
Moors, on St. Andrew's Day in 1227, gave an impulse 
to the adoption of the saltire by some of the families who 
figured thereat (" Heraldry of Spain and Portugal," p. 5.) 
The CROSS OF ST. ANDREW, of silver on an azure field, 
the banner of Scotland, is represented on Plate XV., fig. 8. 
The cross known as that of ST. PATRICK is Argent, a 
saltire gules. It occurs as the arms of the FlTZGERALDS, 
Dukes of LEINSTER, Earls of TYRCONNEL, KILDARE, 
etc. ; but I am not aware of its appearance in any way as 
a national ensign until it was made part of the insignia 
of the Order of ST. PATRICK upon its foundation in 1783. 
Gules, a saltire argent (de Gueules, au sautoir d' argent), is 
the coat of the great house of NEVILLE, Earls of WAR- 
WICK, WESTMORELAND, etc. It was also borne by 
VANDER AA, in Flanders ; VAN EYCK ; VAN JUTPHAAS ; 
BORGHARTS ; OULTRE, and other Low Country families. 
The reverse is the coat of GERARD, and WINDSOR in 
England ; of FLEMAL ; BENTHEM ; OOSTDIJK ; GOHAING ; 
VAN DEN EECKHOUT ; and others in the Netherlands. 
LA GuiCHE in France bears : Vert, a saltire or (de 
Sinople au sautoir d'or*). The family of MAXWELL in 
Scotland bears: Argent, a saltire sable; and the same 
coat, but with the Ordinary engrailed (cT Argent, au 
sautoir engrclc] is the coat of the COLQUHOUNS. The 



( 144 ) 

old coat of the house of LENNOX is Argent, a saltire 
between two roses gules ; (d Argent, au sautoir de gueules 
accompagne de quatre roses du champ]. They later bore 
the saltire engrailed ; a coat which is also that of the 
NAPIERS, and MACFARLANES. 

When a saltire is charged, it is the rule in Scotland 
that the charges should slope with its limbs, the central 
charge, if any, being upright, thus in Plate XV., fig. 9 the 
DALRYMPLE coat is Or, on a saltire azure nine lozenges 
of the field. 

The old rule was that the width of the arms of the saltire 
if uncharged was one fifth of the field, but if charged 
one third. The latter part of the rule was not observed 
in the old examples which remain to us. In Scottish 
Heraldry the saltire is often used in combination with 
the chief, this of course does not encroach upon, or 
cover any part of, the saltire, which is accommodated to 
the diminished space of the field. The Arms of the 
ANNANDS, the old Lords of ANNANDALE : Or (some- 
times argent), a saltire and a chief gules (Plate XV., 
fig. 10), were adopted by the BRUGES when that lordship 
was acquired ; apparently first by the fourth Lord of 
ANNANDALE, the father of ROBERT BRUCE the com- 
petitor for the throne ; whose son charged the chief with 
a lion passant gardant or, perhaps as a souvenir of the 
original arms of BRUCE. The BRUCE coat was differ- 
ertced, both chief and saltire being made wavy, by the 
BRUCES of Balcaskie and Kinross. 

The combined saltire and chief of the ANNANDS were 
not only adopted by the different branches of the family 
of BRUCE, but by the KlRKPATRICKS ; JOHNSTONS ; 
JARDINES; MOFFATS; and other families feudally con- 
nected with the Lords of ANNANDALE, or belonging to 
that district. 

The KlRKPATRlCK coat was : Argent, a saltire and 
cJiief azure, the last charged with three cushions or. 



PLATE XV. 




1. Cross moline. 
(Molyneux. ) 




2. Cross ancree. 
(Montalembert. ) 




3. Cross moline voided. 
(Knowles.) 








4. Cross crosslets. 5. Cross crosslets fitche'e. 6. Cross gringole* 
(Beauchamp.) (Rattray.} (Montfort.} 






7. Cross of Toulouse. 8. Saltire. 

(Mozzi). (St. Andrew's Cross.) 




9. Saltii-e. 
(Dalrymple. ) 





10. Saltire and chief. 11. Saltire ancree. 

(Bruce of Annandale. ) (Broglie. } 



12. Saltire couped. 
(Glanville.} 



( 145 ) 

JOHNSTON bore : Argent, a saltire sable, on a chief gules 
tJiree cushions or. TWEEDIE : Argent, a saltire engrailed 
gules, a chief azure. JARDINE : Argent, a saltire and a 
chief gules, on the last three mullets of t/ie first. M OFF AT, 
of that Ilk : Sable, a saltire and chief argent ; otherwise, 
Argent, a saltire azure and chief gules. (FONT'S MS.) 
TENNENT : Argent, a saltire and chief gules. 

The Saltire, in Foreign Armory is subject to some of 
the variations incidental to the cross, thus : Or, a saltire 
couped andflory azure, is the coat of LE BARBU. Or, a 
saltire and ancred, or uwline, azure (d' Or, a la croix ancree 
en sautoir d'azur] is borne by the Dues de BROGLIE of 
France, who came originally from Piedmont. Argent, 
a saltire pommetty azure is the coat of FlOLO of Venice. 
Argent, a saltire echanchre (v. p. 76) gules, in chief a crown 
or, are the arms of VAN HUCHTENBROEK in Holland. 
Saltire may also be borne in greater numbers than one ; 
or may be one of several charges in a coat. In this case, 
according to general usage in Scotland and England, 
the arms of the saltire are usually, though not invari- 
ably, couped horizontally ; and not, as in Dutch Armory, 
at right angles to the several limbs. Plate XV., fig. 
12, is the coat of GLANVILLE of England; Azure, 
three saltires or ; and of BoYSLEVE, Marquis d'HAROUE ; 
and MOLEN, Marquis de ST. PONCY, in Brittany. For 
the Saltire thus used as a charge the French name is 
flanchis. There are many instances of its use in the 
Armory of the Netherlands: Sable, tJiree saltires or; 
and Or, tJiree saltires gules ; are both coats borne by 
Dutch families named ALMOND. 

Argent, three saltires gules, are the arms of the Counts 
van der DlLFT DE BORGHVLOET ; of BESOYEN ; and 
FAVELETTE. Azure, tJiree saltires argent (d'Azur, a trois 
flanchis d' argent] is the coat of BEVERWIJCK ; BEAUMONT ; 
VAN DEN HEUVEL, etc. 

Perhaps the best known instance is that of the Arms 



( 146 ) 

of the Lordship of BREDA ; Gules, three saltires argent, 
which was quartered in the shield of the Princes of 
ORANGE, and has from it come into the escucheon of 
the Prussian monarchy. 

Azure, three saltires argent, on a chief or as many of 
the field (d'Azur, a trots flancJiis d" argent, un chef (Tor 
charge de trois flanchis du chain f) is the coat of BALZAC, 
Marquis d'ENTRAGUES in France. 

Or, six saltires gules (three, two, one), are the arms of 
PAPENBROEK in Holland ; and those of the city of 
AMSTERDAM are : Gules, on a pale cousu sable three sal- 
tires argent. 

VIII. THE PILE. The Pile is a triangular wedge- 
shaped figure, issuing (unless it be otherwise specified) 
from the Chief, of which if it be borne alone it occupies 
a little more than the third part. 

Argent, a pile gules (d 'Argent, a une pile de gueules) 
(Plate XVI.,fig. i) is the old coat of the family of CHANDOS. 
The Lords CHANDOS bore the field or. Or, a pile 
engrailed sable, is borne by WATERHOUSE ; and Argent, 
a pile wavy gules, by DELAHAY. Azure, a pile wavy 
issuant from the dexter corner of the escucheon or, are the 
arms of ALDAM of Kent. Ermine, on a pile gules three 
lions of ENGLAND, was the coat granted in 1663 by 
CHARLES II. to his natural son JAMES CROFTS, after- 
wards Duke of MONMOUTH ; it was quartered with Or, 
an escucheon of FRANCE, within the double tressure flory 
and counter-flory of SCOTLAND. Argent, two piles sable 
(and the reverse) are the arms of HuLLES. Ermine, two 
piles in point sable (that is issuing from the dexter and 
sinister angles of the escucheon and meeting, or nearly 
meeting, in the base are the arms of HOLLIS, Earl of 
CLARE (1624). The coat of D'ESTAMPES (already given 
in Plate X., fig. 4) contains two such piles in chevron 
issuant from the base. Or, two piles issuant from the base 
gules, is the coat of the Barons d'O-MPHAL of Holland. 



PLATE XV L 




1. Pile. 
(Chandos.) 



Iff 



2. Three piles. 
(Anstruther.) 




3. Piles in point. 
(Brechin.) 




4. Piles in chief. 
(Isham.) 





5. Piles from sinister. 6. Piles from sinister base. 
(Henderson. ) ( Wroton. ) 




7. Pile reversed. 
(Hulse.) 




8. Emanche. 




9. Pointeent^e. 
(Lernout.) 




10. Pall. 

(Ptyin.) 




~\ r 



11. Pall. 
(Canterbury.) 




Y 



12. Shakefork. 
(Cunningham.) 



( 147 ) 

Plate XVI., fig. 2, contains the coat of ANSTRUTHER of 
that Ilk : Argent, three piles sable. When the piles are 
three in number a somewhat fanciful connection has 
been traced between them and passion nails, by which 
designation they are sometimes blazoned. They are 
often represented in point as in the coat of HoLLis 
above given, and are not then conjoined where they 
leave the chief. Or, three piles in point azure, is the early 
coat of BRYAN ; and Sable, three pales in point argent, that 
of H ALKETT. Or, three piles in point gules, are the arms 
of the Lordship of BRECHIN (See Rollvi 1256), originally 
borne by David, Earl of HUNTINGDON, brother of King 
WILLIAM THE LION (Plate XVI., fig. 3). This coat has 
often been erroneously tinctured ; Argent being substi- 
tuted for the field Or. The arms have thus been made 
identical with those of the family of WlSHART, who have 
been described as " WlSHARTS, Lords of BRECHIN ! " 
There were no such persons. The right tincture 
of the field is the ancient one of Or, whether it appear 
in the quarterings of the MAULES, Lords PANMURE, 
and Earls of DALHOUSIE ; or in the arms of the 
City, or in those borne by custom for the See of 
BRECHIN. In all these cases the arms of the territorial 
Lords of BRECHIN are intended, and not those of the 
comparatively insignificant family of WlSHART. The 
same coat is also borne for BASSETT ; and, piercing a 
human heart, for the family of LOGAN in Scotland. 

Where three piles are used, a common arrangement is 
that two issue from the chief, and one (reversed) from the 
base. Three sable piles thus arranged in a silver field are 
the coat of HULSE (Plate XVI., fig. 7). In several English 
coats the piles are flory, i.e., the point of each terminates 
in a little fleur-de-lis ; for example, Or, three piles issuing 
bendways from the dexter chief, and flory, at the points sable, 
are the arms of NORTON. Those of WROTON have the 
piles issuant from the sinister base, and are of the same tine- 



( 148 ) 

tures. (Plate XVI., fig. 6.) In the coat of ISHAM, as borne 
in modern times, the piles are found of small size in the 
chief of the shield ; Gules, a fess, and in chief three piles 
wavy argent (Plate XVI., fig. 4) ; but originally the piles 
were of the ordinary size, and were debruised by the 
fess ; as in GLOVER'S Ordinary of Arms, HARL. MS., 
1392. Three piles wavy issuant from the base are 
frequent in French Armory, and are often blazoned as 
flames. Or, three piles wavy issuing from the base azure, is 
the coat of the Marques de FUMEZ. The HENDERSONS of 
Fordel (Plate XVI., fig. 5) have the piles issuant from the 
sinister side of the shield : Gules, three piles issuant from 
the sinister flank argent; on a chief of the last a crescent 
azure (vert in WORKMAN'S MS.) between two ermine spots 
sable. (But see STODART, Scottish Arms, i., 308.) 

In Foreign blazon when piles thus issue from the flank 
they are called an emanche ; or the shield is said to be 
fcrnanche. Plate XVI., fig. 8, is the coat of VON RlGEL, in 
Bavaria ; d 'Argent, a une emanche de trois pieces de gueules 
mouvante du flanc dextre. (The piles here are shorter 
than our English ones.) The family of HOTMAN, 
originally from the Duchy of Cleves, bear : Parti emancJie 
d' argent et de gueules. The family of AQUIN in Dauphine 
bear : "-d'Azur, d quatre piles renversees d' argent, appoin- 
tdes vers le chef en chevron; c'etoient anciennement 
cinq A a 1'antique liez qui faisoient un A quint." 
MENETRIER, Methode du Blason, pp. 132-133. 

It should be noticed that the Ordinary in its proper 
English form of a wedge issuing from the chief, is, I 
believe, absolutely unknown to French Armory. The 
pile-reversed issuing from the base is, however, not rare, 
and is called a point l e. 

If this pointe is gradually curved upwards the shield is 
blazoned ente en pointe. Plate XVI., fig. 9, is the coat of 
LERNOUT in Flanders, and is : d'Or, a la pointe entce de 
sable char gee d' un fleur-de-lis du champ. 



( 149 ) 

Before passing from the subject we may note that an 
ingenious attempt has been made by a modern writer 
to trace the piles, especially when borne three in number, 
to the tails, or ends, of the pennons borne in mediaeval 
wars. The paper referred to is by Mr G. J. FRENCH ; it 
was read before the Archaeological Association in 1857, 
and was reprinted for private circulation. Mr FRENCH 
argues that, as the pile is often borne wavy, or engrailed, 
the idea that it was derived (as some writers assert) from 
the piles driven into the ground as foundations for a 
building, is utterly untenable. On the other hand the 
wavy piles would very fairly represent such pennons or 
tails of standards as the soldiers bore in the Crusades, 
etc. He points out that the early kite-shaped shield 
admitted the displayal of these rays in a perpendicular 
direction (as in the coat of ANSTRUTHER, Plate XVI., 
fig. 2), but that the smaller heater-shaped shield of a 
later period made it more convenient to gather the points 
in the base (as in the coat of BRECHIN, fig. 3). He 
refers to the MS. of Sir DAVID LINDSAY, in which both 
arrangements appear in the Arms of the same family : 
" On the shield of Erskyn lord of Brechine " the piles 
converge to the base ; and on that of the " lord of 
Brechane of auld" (-i.e., as anciently borne), "the piles are 
placed perpendicularly." Another instance he finds in 
the coat : A rgent, three piles sable, on a chief of the first 
as many annulets of the second, borne by Sir JOHN 
YOUNG, who in 1541, married MARGARET SCRYMGEOUR, 
of the family who were hereditary standard-bearers 
to the Kings of Scotland, and afterwards, Earls of 
DUNDEE. Mr FRENCH thinks the piles were assumed 
by YOUNG in memory " of the standard borne by her 
ancestors as the charge on his armorial shield " ! The 
SCRYMGEOURS, however, really bore : Gules, a lion 
rampant or, holding a scimetar argent ; and in 1521, 
i.e., twenty years before the match referred to, we find in 



Mr STODART'S Scottish Arms, p. 215, that the seal of 
WILLIAM YOUNG bears the piles and a chief charged 
with escallops. 

IX. THE PALL (Pairle}. This is a Y-shaped figure 
produced by the union of the upper half of a saltire with 
the lower half of a pale. 

The French name appears to be derived from the 
Latin pergula, or Italian pergola, a forked stick or prop. 

It is of very infrequent use in British Armory. Its 
English name has been derived from its supposed 
identity with the Archiepiscopal Pallium borne in 
the arms of the See of CANTERBURY (Plate XVI., fig. 1 1) 
and some other Ecclesiastical coats, and which will be 
noticed in its proper place as a charge, and not as an 
Ordinary (vide post, Chapter XIII.). 

In Foreign Heraldry the Ordinary is only occasionally 
found. Or, a pairle sable is the coat of the Barons von 
RiiPPELlN in Wiirtemburg; Plate XVI., fig. 10, d'Azur, 
au pairle (Tor, is that of PEPIN in Brittany; d'Azur, au 
pairle d'argent is borne by COLLET. The town of 
ISSOUDUN or YSSOUDUN bears d'Azur, au pairle d'or, 
accompagne de trois fleurs-de-lis, mal-ordonnees du meme, 
the pairle being intended to recall the initial of its name. 
(The phrase mal-ordonnees is used by French armorists 
when instead of three charges being arranged in the 
usual way two and one, they are, as in the present case, 
placed one above two.) Azure, a pairle argent is borne 
by the French family of COLLET, Gules, a pairle argent 
is the coat of the Bavarian DEICHSLERS. Gules, a pairle 
ermine is the coat of TAFFIN. Gules, a pall-reversed 
ermine, is an almost unique example in British Armory, 
and is borne by the family of KELDON, or KELVERDON, 
in Essex. The Barons KFELLER DE SACHSENGRUN, 
in Austria, use, Gules, a pairle-reversed argent. 

In many old representations of the arms of the 
CUNNINGHAM family in Scotland the charge is the pall, 



or pairle ; i.e., the Ordinary is drawn as touching the 
edges of the shield. It is now, however, depicted 
differently ; being couped and pointed at its extremities 
as in Plate XVL, fig. 12, Argent, a shake-fork sable. 
From a supposed identification with the hay-fork, it 
is commonly known as a " Sliake-fork " in Scotland. 
The Breton family of CONIGAN, Barons de Roz, bear : 
Quarterly I and 4 ; A rgent a pairle sable. 2 and 3 : Or, 
three buckles azure. 

Only one example is known to me in which the pairle 
is bounded by any line but the straight one ; it is that of 
the family of BuGGE in Denmark, whose coat is ; Argent, 
a pairle engrailed vert. 

THE CROSS. 

The use of the CROSS as an Ordinary has been 
referred to in page 141. But it was most natural 
that the symbol of salvation should be in use also as 
a favourite armorial charge ; and that it should be 
represented, as is the case, in a great variety of ways. 
A few only of these can here be brought under the 
notice of the student, for Dame JULIANA BERNERS in 
the Boke of St. Albans writes that " crossis innumerabull 
are borne dayli," and BERRY'S Encyclopedia Heraldica 
enumerates three hundred and eighty-five varieties ! 
The Cross of the Passion itself, with the long vertical 
arm, and the shorter horizontal one, is that which was 
probably intended when the charge was first assumed. 
On the long shields of the crusaders it would be the 
natural form ; but as the shield became shorter in pro- 
portion to its width it was represented in the form in 
which it now appears as an Ordinary, having the traverse, 
or horizontal bar, placed across the centre of the shield ; 
so making the four arms of nearly equal size, and 
extending to the borders of the shield. This alteration 
was moreover convenient as affording space for the 



charges which were so frequently placed in the cantons, 
or spaces around the arms, of the cross. 

The true Latin cross, the Cross of the Passion 
or Long Cross (fig. 47) is accordingly seldom met 
with. In this case the arms do not touch the borders of 
the shield, and the vertical piece is much longer than the 
traverse. An instance of its use is afforded by the coat 
used for the See of DUNKELD, which is: Argent, a passion 
cross sable between two passion nails gules. I assume that 
this is also the bearing in the coat of ANWICKE: Argent, 
a holy cross sable. It is so, certainly, in the coat of AUSTIN 
of Norfolk : Gules, a chevron between three long crosses 
or. In French blazon it is sometimes termed a cross 
Jiaussee. Sable, a Latin cross patee or, is borne by the 
Bavarian family of VOLZ. When the "long Cross" is 
represented upon three steps, degrees or grices, it is 
called a Cross-Calvary (fig. 49). Argent, a Cross- 
Calvary on tJiree degrees gules, is the Scottish coat of 
LEGAT (the steps need not be named as the title alone 
suffices). Argent, a cross "graded of three" sable the 
coat of WYNTWORTH is the same charge. Argent, a 
Cross-Calvary gules, on a cJiief azure five besants, was the 
coat of Bishop WESTON of Exeter (1721-1742); the 
cross being added as a difference to the Weston coat. 

A CROSS PATRIARCHAL is the long, or Latin- 
Cross with a double traverse (fig. 50). Sable, a Cross- 
Patriarchal argent, was the coat borne in the twelfth 
century by several English prelates named TURBINE : 
RALPH, Archbishop of CANTERBURY (1114-1122); his 
brother SEFFRID, Bishop of CHICHESTER (1125-1143), 
and their nephew JOHN, of ROCHESTER (1125-1137). 
HESME in France uses the reverse. VESEY, Viscount de 
VESCI bears : Or, on a cross sable a cross-patriarchal of 
the field. In the Cross-Patriarchal both traverses are 
situated above the centre of the perpendicular beam ; 
but the CROSS OF LORRAINE has the traverses 



disposed so that the second and longer traverse is placed 
as near to the base of the upright as the smaller one is to 
its summit (fig. 52). This bearing derives its name from 
the fact that it was used as their badge by the family of 
the Dukes of LORRAINE. It does not appear in their coat 
of arms, but depends by a chain from the necks of their 
eagle supporters. Azure, a cross-of -Lorraine argent, is the 
coat of EESEN and SWIENEZIC ; and Argent, a cross-of- 
Lorraine sable, is that of the French MARCELS. Per pale 
or and azure a cross-of -Lorraine counter-changed, is borne 
byFURSTENHAUER. The family of ARNOLET DE LOCHE- 
FONTAINE, Marquises deBusSY D'AMBOISE used: Azure, 
a cross-of-Lorraine or, within a bordure nebulee-fleur-de- 
lisee of the same : a noteworthy form of the bordure. 

The Cross, having four equal arms known as the 
GREEK CROSS (fig. 48), also called a cross couped ; and 
a cross hummetty (in French une croix alesee], appears 
in the arms of the modern Kingdom of GREECE Azure, 
a Greek cross argent, and is also borne by the Marquises 
of ST. GELAIS, in France. Gules, a cross couped argent 
is the coat of SWITZERLAND. Or, a cross couped azure 
is borne by YvOR of France, and its reverse by 
SOLVI of Spain and GLAVENAS of France. XAIN- 
TRAILLES of GASCON Y uses : d 'Argent, a la croix alesee 
de gueules. 

The CROSS PATTY (patee) in old writers is called 
sometimes FORMY, or PATEE FORMEE (fig. 53). It is 
a cross of equal arms which are flattened out ; the 
lines which spring from the centre being usually slightly 
curved, or concave. Argent, a cross patty sable is the early 
coat of BANASTRE : Azure, a cross patty or, is borne by 
WARD ; Gules, a cross patty argent, by ATTON ; Gules, a 
cross patty or (perhaps patonce is intended) by LATIMER. 
The CROSS-PATTY is sometimes borne, not as a cross 
couped, but as a cross patty -throughout, i.e., its bounding 
lines are produced to meet the edges of the shield, as in 



( 154 ) 

Plate XIV., fig. 5, the coat of LAWLEY. That this was 
the original bearing of the Counts of COMMINGES, or 
COMMENCES, is shown by the seal of Count BERNARD 
V. in 1226. Here the shield and caparisons of his 
horse are charged with a narrow cross which expands 
rapidly at the ends ; and in fact these form a continuous 
bordure to the escucheon. This fact is especially worthy 
of remark, because the origin of the present coat, and 
the meaning of its charges, have been a source of 
discussion and perplexity to several writers. It is 
blazoned now as : de Gueules, a quatre otelles d' argent. 
The otelle is a charge which occurs but seldom ; and it 
has been taken variously to be the blade of a spear ; 
a cicatrised wound, or a peeled almond ! (The latter two 
even in MENETRIER, Methode du Blason, p. 24, Lyons, 
1718 ; and I'A rt du Blason Justifie, p. 130, Lyons, 1 66 1 . ) 
Such are the far-fetched fantaisies of the old Armorists ! 
Really the otelles were nothing more than the pieces of 
the field which appeared within the arms of the cross- 
patee-tJirougJiout : but ignorance turned the charge into 
the field, and the field into the charge ; and then, to 
account for the result, indulged in such speculations as 
to its origin as those I have above recorded. Or, a cross 
patty sable, fimbriated (i.e., bordered) gules ; otherwise 
blazoned (or gules voided sable] is the coat of the Counts 
RAOUSSET DE BOULBON. Per saltire or and argent, 
over all a cross patty azure was used by the celebrated 
HUGH PUDSEY, Bishop of DURHAM (1153-1195). (The 
charge of VOLZ already given is a long cross patce at the 
ends.) The Cross given on Plate XIV., fig. 5, is a cross 
patee-throughout, i.e., its extremities reach the edges of 
the shield. 

Gules, a chevron between ten crosses patty argent is the 
well known coat of BERKELEY, Earls of that place. 
(Their original coat was the simple chevron.) The 
Scottish families of BARCLAYS bore : Azure, a chevron 



between three crosses patty argent, with many differences. 
Azure, three crosses patty argent, is the coat of DUGUID ; 
with the field gules, of DAWSON. Or, a fess between 
three crosses forming vert, is borne by RlLEY ; dOr, au 
chevron accompagne de trois croix patees d'azur, is borne 
by DANES of France. In French Armory the cross patee 
appears most frequently in Breton coats : Argent, a cross 
patty between four mascles gules is borne by the Breton 
KERGROAS ; and de Gueules, a trois croix patees determine 
is the coat of JOUSSEAUME, Marquis de la BRETESCHE. 
The Poitevin family of BARLOT bear : Sable, three 
crosses patty argent. This shield is often borne en ban- 
niere (vide ante, p. 57). The cross patty is occasionally 
formed by a compound line. Or, a cross patty engrailed 
is ascribed to PESHALL. 

In common English parlance, the cross patty is often, 
but quite erroneously, termed a Maltese Cross, which is 
a bearing quite different in shape (as will be seen by a 
reference to page 164; figs. 53 and 55, where the two 
crosses are drawn in close proximity). This is a mistake 
which is sometimes made by people who ought to be 
better informed. The badge of the " Order of Valour," 
the highly-esteemed VICTORIA CROSS, is actually a cross 
patty, but in the Royal Warrant of its institution it is 
declared that the badge " shall consist of a Maltese Cross 
of bronze," etc. 

THE CROSS PATTY-FITCHY (patee fichee) (fig. 54).- 
The cross patty -fit city consists of the three upper portions of 
the cross patty, but the fourth is a point or spike a cross 
" fixibyll," sharpened so as to be driven into the ground. 
This is a pretty common charge in British Armory. 
Gules, a cross patty-fitchy or, are the arms of HEYTON ; 
Or, a cross patty-fitchy gules are those of SCUDAMORE. 
Gules, a fess counter-compony argent and sable, between 
tJiree crosses patty -fitchy argent, was the coat of 
BOTELERS, Lords SUDELEY. Argent, a chevron (some- 



( 156 ) 

times engrailed) between three crosses patty-fitchy sable, is 
the coat of FYNDERNE or FINDERNE. 

THE CROSS POTENT (potencee} is a plain Greek 
cross, having at the end a piece of equal width 
placed at right angles, so that the cross appears to be 
formed of four T's, or patents (fig. 51). 

Gules, a cross potent or, is the coat of CHATTERTON ; 
Azure, a cross potent (sometimes engrailed) or, that of 
BRANCHELEY ; Sable, a cross potent or, that of ALLEYN. 
The arms of the Duchy of CALABRIA are Argent, a cross 
potent sable often quartered in the 2nd and 3rd, with 
ARRAGON in the ist and 4th. Azure, a saltire between 
four crosses potent or, is borne by VlALART in France 
(cTAzur, au sautoir d*or cantonne de quatre croix potencies 
du meme}. 

The cross potent is occasionally found fitcJiy, Such a 
coat was assigned by the Heralds of later time to 
ETHELRED, King of WESSEX. 

THE CROSS OF JERUSALEM. This is the name given 
to the cross potent with its accompanying crosslets which 
appear in the arms of JERUSALEM (see Plate IX., 
fig. i). Many attempts have been made to account for 
its adoption. The most probable, perhaps, is that which 
sees in the middle cross the initials H and I of Hierusa- 
lem, or of the Blessed Saviour IHESVS, and in the whole 
bearings the hieroglyphic of the five Sacred Wounds. 
The charge has been adopted by several foreign families. 
Argent, the Cross of Jerusalem gules, is used by LlBOTTON 
of Liege ; the reverse by CABELLIC, and CROUSNILHON, 
and LEZERGUE of Brittany. Sable, the Cross of Jerusa- 
lem or, is the coat of the Barons BERNARD DE FAU- 
CONVAL. The Swiss DlETRlCHS use Azure, the same 
cross or. 

A coat somewhat resembling the coat of JERUSALEM 
has already been given for LlCHFlELD (Plate XIV., 
fig, 7> 



( '57 ) 

THE CROSS PATONCE. -- The cross patonce is 
at the same time one of the most frequent, and 
beautiful of the forms of the Cross used in British 
Armory. It has foliated ends and expands slightly by 
curved lines from the centre. It is given voided on 
Plate XIV., fig. 8 ; the arms of PlLKiNGTON, Argent, a 
cross patonce voided gules, but is better represented in its 
usual form on page 164, fig. 56. 

Argent, a cross patonce gules, is the coat of COLVILLE, 
and CARLYLE. With the charge sable it is borne by 
BANESTRE, or BANESTER ; and azure, by the Barons of 
M ALP AS. Barry of eight argent and gules, over all a cross 
patonce sable,\s the coat of GOWER (one of the principal 
charges in the coat of the Dukes of SUTHERLAND) ; 
others of the name have borne Ermine, a cross patonce 
gules, which is also the coat of GRINDALL and INGHAM. 
Gules, a cross patonce argent (or more frequently or) is 
the coat of LATIMER (often blazoned flory, See p. 153). 
Or, a cross patonce gules, is borne by FREVILLE. Sable, 
a cross patonce or, is used by LASCELLES and, within a 
bordure, by the Earls of HAREWOOD of that name. 
Azure, a cross patonce or, is borne by the WARDS, 
Viscounts BANGOR. Azure, a cross patonce between five 
martlets or, is the coat assigned by later Heralds to 
EDGAR ATHELING, and other Saxon princes. It is used 
as the Arms of UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, OXFORD. Its em- 
ployment by the Plantagenet Sovereigns as a coat of 
Augmentation is referred to elsewhere in this volume 
(Chapter XVI.). 

There is often some confusion between the Cross 
Patonce and THE CROSS FLORY or FLEURY. The 
distinction is supposed to consist in this; that, while 
the arms of the cross patonce gradually expand, those of 
the cross flory are of equal width very nearly to the end. 
But I agree with NlSBET and GIBBON in thinking the true 
cross flory to be one of which the end terminates in fleurs- 



de-lis, as in Mr BURNETT'S sketch, Plate XIV., fig. 9, or 
perhaps better in my own on page 164, fig. 58. Sable, 
a cross flory between four escallops argent, is borne by 
FLETCHER of Saltoun. Or, a cross flory sable, the coat of 
LAMPLOWE, or LAMPLUGH. RADA in Spain bears Or, 
a cross flory sable, often drawn as a Cross of Calatrava. 
Argent, a cross flory sable, is the coat of SwiNNERTON. 

The Cross fleurette or flurty, or fleur-de-lisee (fig. 57), 
is again often confounded with the preceding one. 
But correctly drawn it should be a plain cross couped 
having a demi-fleur-de-lis attached to the extremity of 
each arm ; it is represented in Plate XIV., fig. 10, the arms 
of PEREIRA. This is known abroad as the Cross of Cala- 
trava from the Cross which appears in the arms of that 
famous Spanish Order. (The badge of the Order was 
different in shape, being more like the cross flory ^} The 
Cross of Calatrava figures in many important Spanish 
coats, and is often drawn and blazoned voided, i.e., the 
body of the cross is in outline, allowing the field to be 
visible in the intermediate space. The Spanish VlLLA- 
GOMEZ use : Or, a Cross of Calatrava gules between four 
cauldrons sable. The PANTOJAS of Estremadura bear : 
Azure, a cross florencee gules bordered or, within a b ordure 
of sixteen panes gules and argent. In English blazon this 
would be, Azure, a cross fleur-de-lisee or, voided gules, etc. 

The French VlLLEQUlERS bear : Gules, a cross fleur- 
de-lisee between twelve billets or (NlSBET wrongly makes 
the field azure). 

THE CROSS ANCREE, and the CROSS MOLINE. 
The cross ancree has its extremities terminating in two 
curved pieces like the hooks of a grapnell (as on Plate 
XV., fig. 2). It resembles the cross moline (which is 
so called from its being similar in shape to the iron cross 
in the centre of a mill stone) except that the latter is 
now borne pierced in the centre, in French ajouree ; the 
piercing is usually square, but may be round, or lozenge- 



( 159 ) 

shaped. It must however be noticed that this is rather 
a modern refinement, and that the cross moline of the 
Rolls of Anns is not thus pierced. Argent, a cross 
moline sable is the coat of COLVILLE. The COLVILLES 
of Ochiltree bear the same square-pierced, as in Plate 
XIV., fig. 6. These two are NISBET'S instances (i., p. 115), 
and it will be noticed that here the piercing is duly 
expressed. In my view the cross moline and the cross 
ancree are practically the same thing ; and if there be a 
piercing it should be, as in French blazon, distinctly 
expressed. D'Or, a la croix ancree de gueules is the coat 
of the AUBUSSONS, Comtes de la FEUILLADE ; Dues de 
la ROANNALS. Argent, a cross ancree sable is borne by 
the Marquises and Comtes de MONTALEMBERT in 
France (Plate XV., fig. 2). Gules, a cross moline or, in 
chief two mullets argent is borne by the Marquises de 
COURVOL. The Dutch family of BENTINCK, now Dukes 
of PORTLAND in England, use : Azure, a cross moline 
argent ; the Marquises' de SALVERT in France use the 
same. This coat is also attributed to MOLINEUX ; 
but the MOLYNEUX family, Earls of SEFTON, etc., 
usually bore the charge Or, and often square, 
or even quarter, pierced (cf. Plate XIV., fig. 6). 
(The difference between quarter piercing and square 
piercing is, that the former is much larger than the 
latter, taking up the whole square at the point of inter- 
section of the arms of the cross.) Gules, a cross moline 
argent (sometimes ermine) are the arms of EEC, or 
BEKE. They are also those of the Principality of 
RATZEBURG (quartered by Mecklenburg), and of the 
Principality of CAMIN (quartered in the full coat of 
Prussia). Both of these Principalities are Bishoprics 
seized and secularised at the " Reformation." Or, a cross 
moline, and in the dexter canton a rose gules is borne by 
SVMENS in Brabant. Per f ess or and azure, over all a 
cross moline argent, is the coat of the County of GRADISCA. 



( 160 ) 

Per pale argent and azure, a cross moline counter changed, 
is borne by LlGNIERES. 

Gules, a cross moline or, is borne by VlLLEHAR- 
DOUIN. Sable, a cross moline argent is the coat of 
UPTON in England ; UiTENHAGE in Holland ; DEYN 
in Guelders, etc. The UPTONS, Viscounts TEMPLE- 
TOWN, make the charge or. 

THE CROSS SARCELLY, or RECERCELLEE, is simply 
a variety of the cross ancree, or moline ; only differing 
from the latter in having the hooks at the end drawn 
larger so as to admit of another convolution. The cross 
of the BEGS, or BEKES, referred to above, is often drawn 
after this fashion. Argent, a cross sarcelly voided or, is 
the coat of BASING. 

In Plate XV., fig. 13 gives us the arms of KNOWLES, 
or KNOLLYS, formerly Earls of BANBURY : Azure, 
crusily and a cross-moline disjoined, or voided through- 
out, or. 

THE CROSS BOTONNY (or BOTONNEE) (trefle) is repre- 
sented on Plate XIV, fig. 11, the arms of WlNWOOD, 
Argent, a cross botonny-sable, in it each arm of the cross 
terminates in a trefoil. A rgent, a cross botonny -gules, borne 
by BRYERLEGH ; Azure, a cross botonny argent, by GOLDIS- 
BURGH ; and Or by WADE of Kent. Gules, a cross botonny 
or was used by JOHN BOKINGHAM, Bishop of LINCOLN 
(1362-1398). Quarterly gules and azure over all a cross 
botonny or is the coat of PiERREFEU, and THOMAS DE 
LA VALETTE, in France. Gules, a cross between four 
crosslets botonny argent are the arms of DE CLAIRON, 
Comtes de HAUSSONVILLE in France. The Cross 
botonny is occasionally met w\\hfitchy at the foot. 

THE CROSS POMMETTY (POMMETTEE), or POMMELLY, 
is one of which the arms end in a ball, or globe. It is some- 
times called a croix bourdonnee, from the round ball by 
which the tops of the bourdons, or pilgrim's staves, were 
surmounted. Argent, a cross pommetty sable are the arms 



( 161 ) 

of WASSELEV, WASTERLEY, or WESTLEY, sometimes 
blazoned as : 

THE CROSS CLECHEE, is not a common form in 
British Armory. In it each arm of the cross expands 
into a kind of curvated lozenge shape, voided like the 
handle of a mediaeval key, and having a small knob at 
each angle (Plate XV., fig. 7). De Gueules, a la croix 
clechee et pouunettee cTor, were the arms of the Counts of 
TOULOUSE ; a circumstance from which this cross 
derives its ordinary Heraldic name of "a cross of 
Toulouse" In the seal of RAYMOND VII., Count of 
TOULOUSE in 1228, the "voiding" is only a plain cross. 
D'Azur, a la croix de Toulouse d'or, is the coat of 
VENASQUE in France. Azure, a cross of Toulouse 
argent, is borne by BOFFIN D'ARGEN^ON in France. 
Or, a cross of Toulouse gules are the arms of LUPIA in 
Spain. The same coat is borne by the Italian Mozzi 
(Plate XV., fig. 7) ; and by ST. GlLLES, ROUSSET, 
LAUTREC, and L'IsLE JOURDAIN in France. 

A CROSS FOURCHEE, OR FOURCHETTE, is one in 
which each arm of the cross forks like a V. Or, 
a cross fourcJiette sable is the coat of TRUCHSESS 
DE KULENTHAL in Germany ; the reverse is used by 
VAN VIERACKER. (Page 164, fig. 59.) 

THE CROSS TAU is in the shape of a broad letter 
T. Or, a cross Tau azure, were the arms of the Order 
of ST. ANTHONY (probably originally the cross, or 
crutch-head, of a pilgrim's staff). With the field argent 
this forms the first and fourth quarters of the coat of the 
Barons HAN NET in Prussia. Argent, a cross Tau gules, 
is borne by VAN GENT of Utrecht ; and, with the cross in 
bend, by the Counts von ROTHALL (SlEBMACHER, 
Wappenbuch. iii., 14). Azure, a cross Tau or, is used by 
the VROOMBAUTS of Flanders. (Page 164, fig. 61.) 

THE CROSS GUIVRE, or GRINGOLEE, is a plain cross 

couped ; at the extremity of each arm are two serpent's 
M 



( 162 ) 

heads curved outwards. (See Plate XV., fig. 6, the Arms 
of MONTFORT.) The Barons von UFFELE in Flanders 
use : Argent ', a cross guivree azure (over all Argent, three 
fess-de-moulin sable]. Gules, a cross gringolee argent, is 
borne for MERCKELBACH. Argent, a cross gringolee 
gules, are the arms of HAGEN, and OTHEGRAVEN. 

A CROSS URDEE is one in which the arms are spread 
at the end into a lozenge shape. In Plate XIV., fig. 1 2 the 
Cross of the MANFREDI (there called a cross retranchee) 
is of this shape, but is also pommetty. 

THE CROSS AVELLANE is one of which the arms take 
the conventional form of a filbert It is but rarely met 
with except as the cross which adorns the Orb of 
Sovereignty in the British Regalia. 

THE CROSS AiGUlSEE is simply one of which the 
points are sharpened into the shape of a chevron. (Page 
164, fig. 60.) 

CROSSLETS. 

These are properly only little crosses ; but the word is 
often used as an abbreviation for the fuller term Cross- 
Crosslet, or Crossed Crosslet. In these latter each arm of 
the cross is recrossed by a small piece at right angles. 
In the Cross-Crosslet-fitchy the lower arm is pointed, and 
the traverse thereon is usually omitted. Crosslets are 
usually borne in groups ; sometimes as powderings of 
the field (see Seme, or Crusily, p. 112). There are, how- 
ever, instances in which both the Cross-Crosslet and the 
Cross-Crosslet-fitchy are found in arms as a sole charge. 
Argent, a cross-crosslet gules, is a coat of BRIERLEY ; of 
CROSSLEY ; and of DUNNING in Scotland, Ermine a 
cross-crosslet sable is the coat of CARROLL. Argent, a 
cross-crosslet-fitchee sable is borne by the Kentish SCOTTS. 
Gules, a cross-crosslet-fitchee argent, is a coat of ROUSSET 
in France. Sable, a cross-crosslet argent, is used by 
DURRANT, or DURANT. 

But, as has been said, the chief use of the cross-crosslet 



is as a subordinate charge. Thus: Azure, a bend between 
six crosses-crosslet-fitchy or, is the coat of the Earldom of 
MAR. The CHEYNES bear the same but with the charges 
argent. The Scotch family of SPALDING bears : Or, on 
a cross azure five crosses-crosslet of the first. 

Gules, a fess between six crosses-crosslet or is the well 
known coat of the BEAUCHAMPS, Earls of WARWICK. 
(Plate XV., fig. 4.) Argent (and Or), a fess dancetty 
between tJiree crosses-crosslet-fitchy gules, are coats of 
SANDYS of England (sometimes the crosslets are 
botonne, or trefle, in these coats). Gules, a fess between 
tJiree crosses-crosslet-fitchy or, is borne by GORE, Earl of 
ARRAN in Ireland. 

Azure, a fess engrailed between six crosses-crosslet or, 
was the coat of WILLIAM CAMDEN, the Antiquary. 
Gules, a fess chequy (or counter-company) argent and sable, 
between six crosses-crosslet of the second was the coat of 
BOTELER, or BUTLER in England. Argent, a chevron gules 
between three crosses-crosslet-fitchy sable, within the Royal 
Tressure of Scotland, is the coat of the KENNEDYS, Earls of 
CASSILIS, and Marquesses of AlLSA. Azure, a fess argent 
between six crosses-crosslet-fitchy or, is the arms of the 
old Scottish house of RATTRAY (Plate XV., fig. 5). The 
LONGUEVILLES of Huntingdon, bore : Gules, a fess 
dancetty ermine between six crosses-crosslet-fitchy argent. 
The CRAVENS, Earls of CRAVEN, use Argent, a fess 
between six crosses-crosslet-fitchy gules. 

A rgent, six crosses-crosslet-fitchy sable, on a chief azure 
two mullets or, is the coat of CLINTON, Duke of NEW- 
CASTLE. A rgent, on a fess gules tJiree crosses-crosslet of the 
field was borne by CORSANT, a family who were engaged 
in the First Crusade. (Salle des Croists at Versailles.) 

Vert, a saltire between twelve crosslets or is the coat of 
the Lordship of MEHRENBERG, quartered by the House 
of NASSAU. (Notice these are crosslets proper, z>., small 
plain equal armed crosses.) 



The Norman family of BREZE, Comtes de MAU- 
LEVRIER, bore : d'Azur, a un dcusson d 1 argent borde d'or 
en abime; accompagne de Jiuit croisettes d'or en orle. 
These arms appear on the handsome monument by 
GOUJON, erected in the Cathedral of Rouen by DIANE 
DE POITIERS (mistress of HENRI II.) to the memory of 
her husband the Due de BREZE. 






47. Passion. 48. Greek. 49. Calvary. 






50. Patriarchal. 51. Potent. 52. Lorraine. 






53. Patty. 54. Patty-fitchy. 55. Maltese 






56. Patonce. 57. Fleur-de-lisee. 58. Flory. 





59. Fourchy. GO. Aiguisee. 61. Tau. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE SUB-ORDINARIES. 

THE charges known by this name are as follows : the 
QUARTER ; the CANTON ; the GYRON ; the INES- 
CUCHEON ; the BORDURE ; the ORLE ; the TRESSURE ; 
the FRET ; the LOZENGE ; the FLAUNCHE and FLASQUE ; 
the BILLET ; the LABEL ; and ROUNDLES of various 
colours. 

I. THE QUARTER (franc-quartier}. As its name denotes 
this bearing occupied originally the quarter of the shield, 
i.e., the first fourth part of the field cut off by the palar 
and fess lines meeting in the fess point. It is found 
drawn of this size in early English blazons. In modern 
ones it has undergone some diminution and cannot now 
be practically distinguished in most cases from its former 
diminutive, the Canton, except when, as in the instances 
now given, it is the sole charge. Argent, a quarter sable is 
the coat of SUTTON, Lord LEXINGTON ; Gules, a quarter 
argent is the old coat of BLENCOWE. SHIRLEY, Earl 
FERRERS, uses : Paly of six or and azure a quarter ermine. 
Counter-vair a quarter ermine, is borne by SALPERWICK, 
Marquis de GRIGNY : the President LAMOIGNON bore : 
Losangd de sable et d^ argent au franc-quartier d'hermine. 
GENDRON uses d'Azur, au franc-quartier d'or ; Du- 
BUISSON, d 'Argent, au franc-quartier de gueules ; and 
DASBOURG of Luxemburg, Or, a quarter sable. Gules, 
frettyor, on a canton of the same a lion pass ant sable is the old 
coat of DE RiBAUMONTwho took part in the First Crusade. 
In the Armorial de Gueldre the arms of the Sire de 
LEEFDAEL are : Or, three cinquefoils gules, on a quarter 



( 166 ) 

of tJie last an eagle displayed argent. Only two of the 
cinquefoils are here visible ; the third is hidden by the 
quarter, but is supposed to be still existing under that 
addition or augmentation. ( Vide post, p. 427.) 

II. THE CANTON (Franc-canton]. This as stated 
above is a diminutive of the Quarter. It occupies the 
ninth part of the shield (or the space either on the dexter 
or the sinister in the upper portion of the escucheon if 
the shield were supposed to be charged with a plain 
cross drawn of the correct proportions). Both the 
quarter and canton are, theoretically, additions to the 
original coat ; and if occasion require it are considered 
exempt from the ordinary rule which forbids colour on 
colour, or metal on metal. Plate XVIIL, fig. 2, is the coat 
of KlNGSCOTE, Argent, ten escallops, four, three, two, 
and one sable ; on a canton gules a pierced mullet or. 
In all such cases the number of charges named is that of 
what is assumed to be the original coat, including those 
" absconded " or hidden by the canton, as in the similar 
case of the quarter. Usually the canton used is the 
dexter one, but in a few cases the sinister canton is 
employed. Chequy or and gules a sinister canton argent, 
are the arms of SLEIGH. Sable, a sinister canton argent 
is in SIEBMACHER'S WappenbucJi, for EYTZENRIET. 

Per f ess argent and or, on a canton gules the lion of St. 
Mark, is the coat of the Venetian FOSCARI. A rather 
remarkable coat is that of SCHATZ of Bavaria ; Per bend 
sinister argent and gules a canton of the last. This is, 
however, rather a case of a German parted coat. 

The Canton has been sometimes thought to indicate 
the square banner of a knight-banneret. It may have 
done so very occasionally. I remember three coats in 
which the lower edge of the charge is indented, as 
if it had been intended to give the idea of a banner 
(though not necessarily that of a banneret, which was 
simply square). In the Second Calais Roll, i.e., the Roll 



of Knights made at the Siege of Calais in 1348 (HARL. 
MS. 6589, printed in Notes and Queries, 5th. S., vol. iv. 
p. 324), is the coat of Sir WILLIAM DE LA ZOUCHE, 
Gules, bczantfe, a canton indented in the bottom. Or, a 
canton indented at the bottom gules was the coat of 
BESYNGBURGH. Azure, a chevron engrailed, and a canton 
indented at the bottom, was borne by DEDNAM. 

Instances of the use of the Quarter and Canton as 
" DIFFERENCES : " as " AUGMENTATIONS : " and as 
"MARKS OF ILLEGITIMACY:" will be found respectively 
in the subsequent Chapters which treat of those subjects. 

A Canton, and Fess (or bar), are sometimes conjoined in 
one bearing without any dividing line ; as in Plate XVI 1 1., 
fig. 3 which is the coat of WOODVILLE or WIDVILLE : 
Argent, a fess and canton conjoined gules, borne by Queen 
ELIZABETH WOODVILE, wife of EDWARD IV. Or, a 
fess and canton sable, are the coat of GEOFFREY RlDEL, 
Bishop of ELY (1174-1189). Chequy or and gules, a 
canton barry argent and of the second, are the arms of 
TREDERN in Brittany. Ermine, on a canton gules an 
escucheon voided argent, is the coat of SURTEES of Durham. 

III. Next to the QUARTER or CANTON, we may place 
the GYRON (giron} which is the lower half of a Quarter, 
formed by a diagonal line ; or we may define it as the 
piece included by half the partition line per bend, and 
half the partition line per fess meeting in the fess 
point. 

There is, I believe, only one instance in British 
Armory in which a single Giron occurs as a charge ; it is 
in the coat of CHIVERS : Argent, a giron azure, and three 
cinquef oils gules. Plate XVIII., fig. 4, is the coat of DE 
CLUSEAU in LIMOUSIN, d 'Argent, au giron de gueules. 
Girons appear in the arms of the GlRON, Duke of 
OSSUNA, Marquis of PENAFIEL in Spain. The name is 
said by BARNABF. MORENO DE VARGAS to have been 
assumed by RODRIGUE GONSALEZ DE ClSNEROS who 



( 168 ) 

yielded his own horse to ALPHONSO VI., whose charger 
had been killed under him ; and in order to secure the 
return of the horse to him, he cut off with his sword a 
giron, or gusset-shaped piece, from his surcoat, that so he 
might be recognised by the king at the close of the 
combat. (See MENETRIER, Traite de rOrigine des 
Armoiries, Paris 1680.) The GlRON arms are: Or, 
tJiree points ', or girons, moving from tJie base of the shield 
gules ; and a bordure chequy of the same tinctures. The 
Dukes of OSSUNA bear : Per fess (a) in chief, CASTILE 
impaling LEON ; (b) in base, Or, three girons accosted, 
issuing from the base gules ; for GlRON the whole within 
a bordure chequy gules and or, thereon five escucJieons 
azure, on each as many plates in Saltire, "/as Quinas 
Reales" of PORTUGAL. ( Vide infra, p. 441.) 

In the remarkable coat of MORTIMER, Earl of MARCH, 
Plate XVIII.jfig. 5, a small gyron (sometimes called a "bast 
esquierre") occurs at each end of the chief. The arms 
are blazoned : Barry of six or and azure, on a chief of 
the first tivo pallets between two gyrons of the second, 
over all an inescucheon argent. Otherwise : Azure, three 
bars or, on a chief of the last two pallets of the first, 
the corners gyroned of the first and second, an inescucJieon 
argent. (See the seal of EDMUND MORTIMER, infra ; 
and also the chapter on DIFFERENCES, infra p. 
448.) 

The curious arms of the French family of PRESSIGNY 
resemble those of MORTIMER ; and the coat was one 
which was thought so difficult to describe clearly and 
succinctly as to be a test of a man's knowledge of French 
blazon. It is : Per pale or and azure three bars counter- 
changed ; a chief also per pale and of the same tinctures, 
tJiereon two pallets between as many girons all counter- 
changed. In the centre point of the whole shield an 
escucheon argent. These were the arms of RENAUD DE 
PRESSIGNY, Marechal de FRANCE, in 1270. 



The coat blazoned above is that drawn in the MS. 
Armorial du Heraut " BERRY," circa 1450, No. 716. 

" D'or et d'azur, au pie party, 
Au chef palle, fesse, contre-fesse, 
A deux quantons gironnes 
Et un escu d'argent par my (i.e., ' en abime ') 
Sont les armes de Pressigny." 

There are slight variations, but MENETRIER (or his 
editor), for once goes all wrong in La Nouvelle MttJwde 
du Blason, 1718, p. 263. A good modern French blazon, 
given in RIETSTAP'S Armorial General under MARANS, 
is : Fasce-contre-fasce d'or et d'azur de six pieces, a un 
ecusson d'argent en abime ; au chef tierce en pal (a) 
tranche" d'or et d'azur ; (b) parti d'azur et d'or; (c) faille 
d'azur et d'or, but the tinctures are repeated (four times) 
in a way which would have been very shocking to an 
English Herald of the old school. 

IV. THE INESCUCHEON, OR ESCUCHEON (ecusson). 
The former name is applied only when, as in the MORTI- 
MER coat above recorded, there is but one such charge ; 
when there is more than one they are called escucheons. 
This is however a modern refinement which does not 
get universal acceptance. 

Argent, an inescucheon ermine is said to be the coat of 
BAZIN, or BASING ; and its reverse that of BLANKFRONT. 
It is not always easy to determine whether a coat should 
be blazoned as charged with an escucheon, or with a 
bordure ; for instance in GLOVER'S Ordinary the coat of 
GWYN is said to be both: Vair, an escucheon or; and 
Or, a bordure vair. Azure, an escucheon argent (d'Azur, 
a I 'Ecusson d'argent) is the coat of WAVRIN, as borne in 
1191 (Third Crusade); and still by the Counts of 
WAVRIN in Belgium (See Armorial de Gueldre, No. 154). 
Or, an escucheon gules, is the coat of the Lordship of 
BlTSCH, quartered by the Counts of HANAU. Or, three 
escucheons barry of six vair and gules, is borne by MONT- 



CHENSY (Rolls of 1277 and 1296). Gules, three escucheons 
argent, is the coat of JOHN FlTzSlMON (Roll temp. 
HENRY III.) ; and its reverse (Plate XIX., fig. 12) is the 
well known bearing of the Scottish family of HAY. 
PLANCHE suggests that did we know the paternity of 
EVA, wife of WILLIAM DE HAY A, who was living in 
1174, we might probably be able to account for the 
adoption of these arms without going back, as the pre- 
posterous legend does, to the times of the Danish 
invasion of Scotland. 

The same coat: Argent, tJiree escucheons gules, is the 
bearing of the Counts de RlBEAUPlERRE, or RAPPOL- 
STEIN, of Alsace (MORICE, Chevaliers de la Toison (TOr, 
No. 144) ; of RABENSTEIN in the Wappenrolle von Zurich 
(No. 385) ; of the ancient Dukes of SPOLETO ; of the 
French families of ABBEVILLE DALENONCOURT ; LA 
MOTTE, etc. ; of LE BRUYN of Holland ; and of the 
English D'AVILLIERS (temp. EDWARD I.). Or, three 
escucheons vair, was borne by DE FONTAINE in 1203 at 
the Third Crusade (Salles des Croises at Versailles). 

V. THE BORDURE (bordure}. The BORDURE is, as 
its name denotes, a border surrounding the shield. 
According to French usage it should occupy one-fifth of 
it ; but in practice its size depends on whether it is 
borne charged or plain. The confusion in ancient 
blazons between coats in which this or an escucheon is 
the sole charge has been already noted. Chequy or and 
azure a border gules, was the coat of the Counts de 
DREUX, created Earls of RICHMOND in England. 
Ermine, a bordure gules appears in the Roll of 1286 as 
the arms of HUNDESCOTE. Ermine, a bordure engrailed 
gules is the coat of BARNEWALL, Lords TRIMLESTOWN, 
in Ireland, etc. Or, a bordure engrailed sable is borne by 
KNIGHT. Its chief use, especially in Scotland, has been 
as a brisure ; that is, as a mode of differencing the 
younger branches of families from the parent stock ; 



and its use for this purpose will be more fitly considered 
in the chapter on DIFFERENCES. (Chapter XIV., p. 437.) 

But there are a few examples in Scottish Armory in 
which the bordure is used as a principal figure. Plate 
XVII., fig. 2, is the coat of the MAULES, Earls of PAN- 
MURE, it is Per pale argent and gules, a bordure charged 
with eight escallops, all counter-changed. These number 
six only in Sir DAVID LlNDESAY's MS. and on the seal 
of Sir DAVID MAULE, in 1320. (See the Registrum de 
Panmure, I., clxiv., edited by JOHN STUART, LL.D., 
privately printed in 1874.) Fig. 3 of the same plate is 
the coat of the old Earls of DUNBAR and MARCH, 
unquestionably the chiefs of their family. It appears on 
the seal of Earl PATRICK as early as 1 292 ; and the 
bordure is there charged with eight roses ; this is the 
usual number, though it varies in the seals of his 
descendants, and occasionally the bordure appears to be 
uncharged. 

The Bordure may of course be formed of any of the 
compound partition lines ; as in the coats of BARNE- 
WALL and KNIGHT above given where the bordure is 
engrailed. The HAMILTONS of Neilsland difference 
with a bordu re-quarterly, engrailed argent, and invecked 
azure. It may further be parted per pale, or per fess, 
or be borne quarterly. It may also be compony, or 
gobony, that is divided into pieces of alternate metal 
and colour. The Spanish family of IRRIBERI, bear : 
Or plain, within a bordure compone of eighteen pieces of 
azure and the field. Such bordures are frequently used, 
as will hereafter be shown, as marks of cadency ; and 
only one is therefore given here. HUMPHREY, Duke of 
GLOUCESTER, fourth son of HENRY IV., bore the 
Quartered coat of FRANCE and ENGLAND, within a 
bordure compone sable (sometimes azure) and argent as 
in Plate XVII., fig. 4. 

In gobone, or compone, bordures, the pieces or com- 



pons, are often charged. A bordure counter-compone 
differs from the bordure-9&W in having two rows of 
pieces. It is, in fact, Chequy of two rows. Such a 
bordure appears in the coat of OLIPHANT of Condie 
(Plate XVII., fig. 5). Gules, three crescents argent, a 
bordure counter-compony of tJie tinctures. Barry of six 
or and sable, a bordure counter-compony of the same is the 
coat of the Barons SAVA of Italy and Provence. A 
curious Italian bordure counter-compone is that of the 
RlZZOLETTl of Padua the outer panes are alternately 
sable and argent, while the inner row is of gules and 
argent. A similar example is found in the coat of the 
Galician Counts of STADNICKI. There the outer compons 
are of azure and argent, the inner ones of argent and 
gules. In bordures gobone, and counter-compone the 
pieces, or panes, follow the outline of the shield and the 
lines which divide them are usually drawn as if radiating 
from the centre point. But in a bordure chequy, these 
are not only three rows of panes or chequers but the 
dividing lines do not follow the outline ; the chequers 
are all rectangular, and the bordure as a whole is treated 
as if it were itself cut out of a chequered field ; as in 
Plate XVI I., fig. 6. BARCLAY of Touch bears: Azure, 
a chevron or between three crosses patee argent ; a bordure 
chequy of the second and first. When a bordure is 
blazoned flory, crusily, bezante, or billetty : it is under- 
stood to be charged with eight fleurs-de-lis, crosslets, 
bezants, billets, etc. 

The expressions a "bordure of ENGLAND" or a " bor- 
dure of FRANCE " are used to imply in the one case, a 
bordure gules charged with eight golden lions passant 
gardant ; and in the other, a bordure azure charged with 
eight fleurs-de-lis or. Similarly, a " bordure of CASTILE " 
(now borne in the Royal Arms of PORTUGAL), is of gules 
charged with the golden castles of CASTILE. (Plate 
XVII., fig. 7.) RICHARD, Earl of CORNWALL, elected 



PLATE XVII. 







m wj 




1. Bordure. 2. Bordure. 3. Bordure. 

(Earl of Cornioall.) (Maule.) (Dunbar.) 




4. Bordure compony. 5. Bordure counter compony. 6. Bordure checquy. 
(Duke of Gloucester. ) ( Oliphant of Gondie. ) (Barclay of Toitch.) 




7. Bordure of Castile. 
(Portugal.) 




8. Orle. 
(Baliol.) 




9. Orle of martlets. 
(Gledstanes.) 





10. Tressure flory counter flory. 11. Tressure. 
(Fleming.) (Howard.) 




12. Tressure. 
(Earl of Aboyne.) 



King of the ROMANS, second son of King JOHN of 
ENGLAND, bore: Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned 
or, within a bordure sable, charged with bezants, varying 
in number. (Plate XVI I., fig. i.) Quarterly or and 
azure, a bordure counter-changed is used by AUBER in 
France, and (with sable instead of azure] by ADALBERT. 
Occasionally a double bordure is found in the Heraldry 
of the Peninsula. Of this one example may suffice. 
The Portuguese ORTINS bear ; Em campo azul hum 
Sol de ouro, e duas bordaduras, a primiera de prata cheya 
de rosas verdes ; a segunda composta de prata e ver- 
melho. (Azure, a sun in splendour within two bordures, 
the first argent charged with roses, vert ; the second compony 
argent and gules.) 

There are some coats in which the effect of several 
bordures is produced, and which require skill and atten- 
tion in blazoning. For example : the Counts de 
THIERMES bear : Or, a bordure azure, and en surtout an 
escucheon argent thereon a lion rampant gules crowned or 
within a bordure azure. Here the effect is the same as if 
the argent shield bore a triple bordure, azure, or, and 
azure. 

A CIRCULAR BORDURE is found in the coat of the 
Scottish family of KlLGOUR. Argent, a dragon volant 
in pale wings displayed within a circular bordure sable 
thereon three crescents of the field (see STODART, Scottish 
Arms, ii., plate lv.). The French blazon of this bordure 
would be Vetu en rond. The German family of LEO 
bear: d'Or, au lion de sable, le champ vetu en rond du 
mcme. The Florentine BELLINCIONI use the same, the 
field of argent, the lion and bordure gules, and the Swiss 
RHEINAU, Azure, a lion rampant or, a bordure circular 
gules. 

Of this bearing Vetu en ovale is a variation. Or, six 
mule shoes azure nailed argent, the field vetu en ovale 
ermine, is the coat of FERRIERE DE TESSE. 



( 174 ) 

The coat of Lord GRAY, although to appearance a 
differenced coat Gules, a lion rampant within a bordure 
engrailed argent, seems to belong to the same category 
of principal arms ; just as in English Armory the 
TALBOTS, Earls of SHREWSBURY, bore : Gules, a lion 
rampant within a bordure engrailed or, in which coat 
the bordure appears to be not a brisure denoting 
cadency from an ancestor who bore simply Gules, 
a lion rampant or, but rather a difference originally 
assumed to distinguish the family of TALBOT from 
other families who bore the common charge of a 
lion or on a field gules. (My MS. Ordinary contains 
the names of over a hundred families to whom this 
coat is attributed.) 

In Spanish coats the bordure is sometimes found of 
the same tincture as the field, only separated from it by 
the pourfilar line ; thus the Andalucian family of CANI- 
ZARES bears : Gules plain, a bordure of the same charged 
with eight saltires couped (flanchis) or. ESCORN A similarly 
bears : Argent, an ox statant gules, on a bordure of the 
field eight bells azure. (On Spanish bordures see my 
"Heraldry of Spain and Portugal," and pp. 440, 475, 
infra.} 

In England the use of the bordure as a principal 
charge is not unfrequent, and in such cases it is itself 
generally charged with eight repetitions of a minor 
charge, bezants, escallops, roses, etc. 

The different families of ERPINGHAM bore: Argent, 
with bordures of various tinctures for difference, azure, 
vert, gules, and sable, charged with martlets argent, or 
or. We cannot say which was the original or principal 
coat. The various D'ARCY coats afford like examples. 

VI. THE ORLE is a narrow bordure detached from 
the edge of the shield. Gules, an orle argent (Plate 
XVI I., fig. 8), was the coat of JOHN BALLIOL, the 
vassal King of SCOTLAND. The coat of the Berwick- 



shire family of LANDALE of that Ilk, which has long 
been borne cti snrtout by their heirs-general, the Earls 
of HOME, is : Or, an orle azure. 

In very early English blazons the Orle is sometimes 
described as " un faux ecusson" (See the Falkirk Roll 
of 1298, and the still earlier Rolls of 1240 and 1256; 
MS. 414 in the Heralds' College ; and HARL. MS. 6589.) 

The ORLE is seldom found charged, or formed by 
any other than the line following the outline of the 
escucheon in which it is borne. But KNOX, Earl of RAN- 
FURLY in Ireland, bears : Gules, a falcon volant or within 
an orle wavy argent ; ULSTER'S Register also has recorded 
a coat granted in 1693 to a cadet of this family, which 
has the orle waved on the outer, but engrailed on the 
inner, side ; and a coat of LANDEL, presumably differ- 
enced from that already given, has the orle engrailed on 
the inner edge ; and there is another in which the inner 
edge is indented. FONT'S MS. gives as the coat of 
NORIE : Per pale argent and sable an orle engrailed on 
both sides, and charged with four quatrefoils, within a 
bordure all countercJianged. 

The family of CHADWICK bears : Or, on an orle gules, 
the outer edge engrailed, eight martlets argent, all within 
an orle of eight crosslets sable. 

Six, eight, or more minor charges, such as bezants, 
martlets, crosslets, etc., placed round the shield as they 
would be arranged if there were a bordure charged with 
them, ate said to be "in orle" as in the coat of GLED- 
STANES, now GLADSTONE (Plate XVII., fig. 9) : Argent, 
a savage's head couped, distilling drops of blood, wreathed 
with bay and holly leaves all proper, within an orle of 
eight martlets sable. 

The coat of CONSIDINE also has an unusual orle : 
A rgent, an orle gules flory and counter-flory on the outer 
edge only vert ; in the centre a dagger in pale azure, the 
hilt or. 



Among the curiosities of Heraldry is the coat of 
BENEWITZ of Bavaria, who bear : The arms of the 
EMPIRE within a circular orle nebuly azure. 

The Barons von SCHAWENBURG use: Argent, a (plain) 
bordure nebuly of or upon azure, over all a saltire gules. 

VII. THE TRESSURE. This bearing is almost 
peculiar to Scotland, and is very familiar in consequence 
of its position in the Royal Arms of that country. 
A plain tressure is a diminutive of the orle, and is 
depicted half its thickness ; it is never borne alone. 
There are a very few instances here given in which a 
triple tressure is used. Azure, three concentric orles or, is a 
coat ascribed to LANDELLS; Gules, three such orles argent, 
is attributed to Sir JOHN CHIDIOK in the Roll of 1308. 

In foreign coats the plain tressure, or orle, is some- 
times repeated. The Breton family of BAIGNEAU bear : 
Or, four concentric orles (or plain tressures] sable. 

But in Scotland the tressure is always double, and 
almost always flory-counter-flory of fleurs-de-lis, to the 
number of eight at least. In the well known case of 
the Royal Arms of Scotland the tressure is often 
inaccurately depicted, all the heads of the fleurs-de-lis 
being turned outwards in spite of (or rather in ignorance 
of the meaning of) the blazon. 

When properly drawn the fleurs-de-lis are cut horizon- 
tally into two parts ; and the upper and lower portions 
project alternately from the outer edge of the outer 
tressure, and from the inner edge of the inner one. No 
portion of the fleur-de-lis now appears upon the thin 
strip of the field which is shown between the two tres- 
sures. (See Plates XXXVL, XXXVIL, XXXVIII., etc.) 

Popular belief long associated this bearing in the 
Arms of Scotland with a supposed alliance between one 
ACHAIUS, King of the Dalriadic Scots, and CHARLE- 
MAGNE ; and declared that it commemorated the 
agreement that the French lilies should be for all time 



( 177 ) 

coming a defence to the lion of Scotland. It is easier to 
laugh at the transparent absurdity of this fable than to 
account for the first introduction of the Fleurs-de-lis 
into the Royal Coat of Scotland. Historically no alli- 
ance between SCOTLAND and FRANCE can be found 
earlier than the reign of ROBERT BRUCE. 

On the seal of ALEXANDER II. the lion is the sole 
charge. On the Great Seal of ALEXANDER III. (1249- 
1286) the lion rampant appears alone upon the shield 
borne by the monarch, but the caparisons of this charger 
have the lion surrounded by a bordure ; this is charged 
with small crosslets but the inner edge has a border of 
demi-fleurs-de-lis. (VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de 
Flandre, Plate xv.) A portion of this seal is engraved 
in LAING'S Scottish Seals, vol. ii., Plate ii., fig. i, and I am 
inclined to think not so accurately as in VREE'S example, 
where the whole seal is given, and the crosslets distinctly 
shown on the bordure. To this bordure I believe we 
must trace the origin of the tressure flory-counter-flory, 
which had no direct connection with any French alliance 
connubial or political. 

In the Roll of Anns of the Thirteenth Century, to which 
the date 1272 is assigned, we find what is, so far as I 
can trace, the first blazon of the Scottish Arms, No. n. 
" Le Roy d'Escoce, d'or un lion rampant et un borde 
florette de gulez." This may correspond sufficiently with 
the bordure upon the seal of ALEXANDER III. referred to 
above, but it assuredly is not the tressure flory-counter- 
flory as borne in later times. This was certainly held 
in honour in Scotland in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, and occasionally bestowed as an augmentation 
of their arms on persons descended maternally from the 
Royal House ; and upon others who were thought to 
have deserved well of their King and country. THOMAS 
RANDOLPH, Earl of MORAY, whose mother was ISOBEL, 
sister of King ROBERT BRUCE, bore : A rgent, three cushions 



( '78 ) 

pendent within the Royal Tressure gules ; the tressure 
being an addition to his paternal coat (Plate XXXIII., 
fig. 9). No tressure, however, was borne by the CAMP- 
BELLS, or the Earls of MAI^, who were equally descended 
from sisters of King ROBERT. As early as the middle of 
the fourteenth century we find several families of mark 
bearing the tressure without having any near connection 
with the Royal House. Thus the FLEMINGS of Biggar 
bore : Gules, a chevron within a double tressure flory-counter- 
flory argent (Plate XVII., fig. 10). It will be noticed that 
the chevron, or other Ordinary, in Scottish coats is not 
prolonged beyond the inner edge of the tressure ; in a few 
foreign coats hereafter to be given (p. 181) this rule is not 
observed. MALCOLM FLEMING, on whose seal in 1357 
the tressure occurs (LAING, Scottish Seals, ii. No. 366), 
probably obtained that armorial distinction in reward 
for his devoted service to the cause both of ROBERT 
BRUCE and his son. It was two generations later that 
Sir MALCOLM FLEMING, of Biggar and Cumbernauld, 
allied himself to the Royal House by marriage with a 
daughter of ROBERT, Duke of ALBANY. The Royal 
Tressure also occurs on the seal of WILLIAM LIVINGSTON 
as early as 1357 (LAING, Scottish Seals, ii., No. 650), and 
with these two families may be classed a house of more 
mark that of the SETONS, whose representative Sir 
ALEXANDER SETON bore the tressure in 1337 (Scottish 
Seals, ii., No. 891); certainly not (as has been sometimes 
represented) in virtue of descent from King ROBERT'S 
sister CHRISTIAN, whose husband, Sir CHRISTOPHER 
SETON, was only collaterally (if at all) related to the 
head of the Scottish house of SETON. 

Of the descendants of the daughters of ROBERT II. and 
ROBERT III., the Lords of the ISLES ; the KENNEDYS ; 
the LYONS ; the GRAHAMS of Garvock ; and the 
EDMONSTONES, all bore the Tressure ; but no such 
addition was made to the arms of the Earls of DOUGLAS, 



( 179 ) 

or of ANGUS ; or to those of the DOUGLASES of Morton ; 
the LINDSAYS, Earls of CRAWFORD ; and the KEITHS, who 
were genealogically equally entitled to it. The families 
of MURRAY of Touchadam ; CHARTERIS of Kinfauns ; 
and MURRAY of Tullibardine (Scottish Seals, ii., No. 
771) all had the Royal Tressure in their arms before the 
sixteenth century. The towns of ABERDEEN and PERTH 
also obtained early the right of honouring their arms 
with the addition of the Royal Tressure. It appears on 
the still existing matrix of the Burgh seal of ABERDEEN 
which was engraved in 1430. It was at a rather later 
date that it appears in the arms of the BUCHANANS 
and MAITLANDS. It is not easy to explain the motive 
of an Act of Parliament of JAMES III. of the date 1471, 
which, however, was never carried into effect, that there 
should in future be no tressure about the lion in the 
Royal Coat : " In tyme to cum thar suld be na double 
tresor about his armys, but that he suld ber hale armys of 
the lyoun without ony mar." In later times the Royal 
Tressure was occasionally borne by virtue of Royal 
Warrants, several of which are recorded in the Lyon 
Register ; and it must be presumed to have been so 
granted in various cases in which the warrant is no 
longer extant It has been held to be ultra vires of 
LYON to allow it (except by a special warrant from 
the Sovereign) to any family which could not prove 
descent from an ancestor entitled to bear it. JAMES V. 
in 1542 granted a warrant to LYON to surround the 
arms of JOHN SCOT, of Thirlstane, with the Royal 
Tressure, in respect of his ready services at Soutra Edge 
with three score and ten lances on horseback, when 
other nobles refused to follow their Sovereign. The 
grant was put on record by the grantee's descendant 
PATRICK, Lord NAPIER ; and is the tressured coat borne 
in the second and third quarters of the NAPIER arms. 
(It may be mentioned that the late Mr RlDDELL sug- 



gested a doubt of the genuineness of this instrument on 
the ground of an obvious error in the date of it, King 
JAMES not having been at Fala until the month of 
October. It appears however that the discrepancy is 
simply due to a clerical error (See NAPIER'S Partition of 
the Lennox, pp. 217-226; and RlDDELL's reply in Addi- 
tional Remarks on the Lennox Representation, pp. 79-87). 

When the Royal Tressure is granted to the bearer of 
a quartered coat it is usually placed upon a bordure 
surrounding the quartered shield, as in the case of the 
arms of the Marquess of QuEENSBERRY, to whom, in 
1682, the Royal Tressure was granted upon a bordure or. 
A like arrangement is borne by the Earl of EGLINTON, 
and is found upon a seal of Earl HUGH, appended to a 
charter of 1 598. 

The Royal Tressure has at least twice been granted 
as an augmentation to the arms of foreigners. JAMES V. 
granted it to NICOLAS CANIVET of Dieppe, secretary to 
JOHN, Duke of ALBANY (Reg. Mag. Sig., xxiv., 263, 
Oct. 24, 1529). JAMES VI. gave it to Sir JACOB VAN 
ElDEN, a Dutchman on whom he conferred the honour 
of knighthood. 

In a few exceptional and later cases the floriation of the 
Tressure has been somewhat varied. The Tressure (Plate 
XVII., fig. 12) granted to CHARLES, Earl of ABOYNE, 
third son of the second Marquess of HUNTLY, is adorned 
with crescents without, and demi-fleurs-de-lis within ; 
and the Tressure borne by the Earl of ABERDEEN, 
another member of the GORDON family, bears thistles, 
roses, and fleurs-de-lis alternately. On I2th March 1762, 
a Royal Warrant was granted directing LYON to add 
a " double tressure counterflowered as in the Royal 
Arms of Scotland," to the arms of ARCHIBALD, Viscount 
PRIMROSE. Here the Tressure was gules, as in the 
Royal arms, although the field on which it was placed 
was vert. In a new record of the arms of ARCHIBALD, 



Earl of ROSEBERY, in 1823, this heraldic anomaly is done 
away, and the blazon is now: Vert, three primroses within 
a double tressure flory-counter-flory or. {See STODART, 
Scottish Anns, vol. i., pp. 262-263, where mention is also 
made of an older use of the Royal Tressure, or, by " Sir 
ARCHIBALD PRIMROSE of Dalmenie, knight and baronet, 
be his Majesty CHARLES ye ii. create, Vert, three prim- 
roses within a double tressure flowered counter flowered or") 

There are in Foreign Heraldry a few coats in which 
the Tressure appears. Or, a tressure azure, is the coat of 
TROMENEC in Brittany. 

Or, a double tressure flory-counter-flory vert, over all a 
cross gules (d'Or, au double trescheur fleure, contrefleure 
de sinople a la croix de gueules brocJiante sur le touf] is 
borne by ROCQUENGHIEN of Cambray; and BAULANDE 
of Hainault. BOSSUT of Liege bears the same but with 
a saltire gules brochant over all ; ESCORNAIX (otherwise 
VAN SCHORISSE) bears the same, but with a chevron gules 
brochant over all. (See MAURICE, Toison d*Or, p. 91.) 
In the cut of the arms of DES CORNAIS in MENETRIER'S 
Mttkode du Blazon (opposite p. 1 54, No. 8) the chevron gules 
does not pass the inner edge of the tressure ; and there is 
the addition of an escucheon en surtout, Azure a bend or. 
In the other cases, and in the next example, the Ordinary 
en surtout comes to the edge of the shield, v. p. 178. 

Vert, a double tressure flory-counter-flory or, over all a 
chevron azure, is attributed to ALLOIS of Belgium. 

VIII. THE FRET. This Sub-Ordinary at an early 

period originated in the still earlier fretty coats (vide 

pp. 96-97); as a charge it is peculiar to British Armory. 

It is produced by the interlacing of the bendlet and 

bendlet-sinister with a large mascle of equal width. Plate 

XIX., fig. u, is the coat of the HARRINGTONS, Sable, a 

fret argent (and is probably a canting coat derived from 

a herring net). The MALTRAVERS, who bore : Sable, a 

fret or ; the VERDONS, who bore: Or, a fret gules ; the 



( 182 ) 

TOLLEMACHES, whose arms were : Argent, a fret sable ; 
the ETCHIN GRAMS, whose coat is : Azure, a fret argent, 
and other families who now bear a single fret, are found 
recorded as originally bearing Pretty in the ancient Rolls 
of A rms. 

A Fret, like a saltire or cross, is also (though 
infrequently) borne, singly or in combination with others, 
as a minor charge, and is then of smaller size and couped. 
The coat of OYRY is : Azure, three lucies hauriant argent, 
two and one ; and as many frets or, one and two. 

IX. THE LOZENGE (and its variations, the FUSIL, 
MASCLE, and RUSTRE). The LOZENGE is a four side 
figure (rhombus) of which the angles at the top and 
bottom are acute, and those at the flanks obtuse. As a 
single charge, or uncharged Sub-Ordinary, it is seldom 
found in British Armory. Gules, on a lozenge or a 
chevron azure is the coat of BROOKE. Per fess or and 
gules a lozenge counter-changed is that of KlRKE, or 
KYRKE. It is more frequently found in Foreign blazons, 
where it is commonly drawn as a lozenge throughout, i.e. 
its points touch the borders of the escucheon. This is 
also blazoned as vetu, or chape-chausse. The EuBINGS 
of Bavaria bore : de Gueules, le champ vetu d^ argent. 

Gules, a lozenge argent (de Gueules, a une losange 
dargenf) is the coat of the extinct family of RORDORF 
in Bavaria and of the Counts von GRAVENECK or 
GRAFENEGG (of the Holy Roman Empire). The reverse 
is borne by the Swedish and Prussian Counts of 
SCHWERIN ; and is the same as that of EUBING above. 

Gules, a lozenge-throughout per pale or and sable is the 
curious coat of FlDELER (SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, 

, 153). 

Per fess argent and azure, a lozenge-throughoui counter- 
changed ; are the arms of CORRER, or CORRARO, of 
Venice. This coat is also sometimes blazoned : Coupe 
d*azur, sur argent, cJiape-cJiausse de I'un en Vautre. Gules, 



on a lozenge-throughout or, a trefoil vert is the coat of the 
French family of BENTOUX. 

In the Armory of England and of the Low Countries 
the Lozenge is a frequent charge : either detached, or 
conjoined with others. Plate XVIII., fig. 7 is the coat of 
HYDE, Earl of CLARENDON : Azure, a chevron between 
tJiree lozenges or. Gules, three lozenges argent is a coat 
of GREYSTOCK. Or, three lozenges gules, is borne on the 
Continent by the Dutch families of WOERDEN ; HOOLA ; 
VAN GEESDORP ; VAN VLIET ; by TROISDORFF in 
Westphalia, and GAUTHIER DE GOURAVAL in France. 
Or, tliree lozenges sable is the coat of DE LlNDT ; 
JANSDAM ; and KEMP in the Netherlands. 

Frequently the lozenges are borne touching each other 
at the points in fess, in pale, or in bend. Argent, three 
lozenges conjoined in fess gules is the well known coat of 
MONTAGU, or MONTACUTE, Earls of SALISBURY (Plate 
XV II I ., fig. 9). Sable, three lozenges conjoined in fess ermine, 
are the arms of GlFFARD. Argent, tJiree lozenges con- 
joined in bend sable is borne by the Austrian Barons von 
SEUSENEGG ; the same in pale is borne by HOUCHIN, 
Marquis de LONGASTRE. Ermines, three lozenges ermine 
in triangle, meeting at the fess point ; is the coat ascribed 
to HALLOFTE or HOLLOFTE. These lozenges in French 
would be blazoned "enpairle\" thus the Counts BRAUN 
VON WARTENBERG bear (for BRAUN), d 'Argent, a trois 
losenges de gueules appointees en pairle. 

Five lozenges are often borne conjoined in pale, fess, 
bend, or in cross. In the Low Countries there are a 
very considerable number of coats containing eight, nine, 
and especially ten, lozenges conjoined. The last are 
usually arranged 3, 3, 3, i ; thus HAUDION, Count de 
WYNEGHEM bears : Argent, ten lozenges conjoined azure 
3, 3, 3, i ; and the Barons C ARTIER D' YVES do the same. 

An elongated lozenge, each of whose sides is much 
longer than its horizontal diameter, is called a fusil 






( 1 84 ) 

(fusee) from the French fuseau. The family of CHAMP- 
NEYS, county Devon, bear: Argent, two fusils in fess 
gules, as Plate XVI II., fig. 1 1 . Azure, three fusils conjoined 
in fess argent, is borne by the Austrian Counts von 
EGGER, and by FRIBERG ( Wappenrolle von Zurich, 
No. 153). Azure, three fusils in fess or, is the canting 
coat of FUSEE DE VOISENON in France (d'Azur, a trois 
fusees d'or accolees en fasce) ; and LE FUSELIER in 
Cambray, bears: d'Or, a cinq fusees d^azur range es en 
bande. 

Perhaps the best known English example is that 
afforded by the coat of PERCY, Earls and Dukes of 
NORTHUMBERLAND : Azure, five fusils conjoined in fess 
or (Plate X VI II., fig. 12). In early Rolls these were called 
" mill pecks," and are probably armes parlantes. 

A Lozenge voided, that is deprived of its middle, 
only a border being left, is called a Mascle, from 
macula, the mesh of a net. (It may be noted that in 
some early Rolls of Arms this term is applied to a 
lozenge.) Plate XVI II., fig. 8, Ermine, a mascle sable, is 
the coat of FAWKES of Yorkshire. The Mascle is fre- 
quently found in Low Country and Breton coats. 
Argent, a mascle sable, is borne by LOHEAC DE TREVO- 
ASEC ; and (with the charge azure) by TREANNA. 
Argent, three mascles azure, is the coat of MERSEMAN of 
Flanders ; of MAES and DE GOYER of Holland ; Argent, 
three mascles sable, of PANHUYS ; MADOETS ; WAES ; 
and GOVAERTS, all also of the Netherlands. 

Gules, three mascles argent, was borne by LE BASCLE, 
Comte ARGENTEUIL ; and by VERRUSALEM, one of the 
seven patrician families of LOUVAIN. 

Mascles are most frequently borne combined, thus the 
great family of DE QuiNCY, Earls of WINCHESTER, 
bore : Gules, seven mascles conjoined, 3, 3, I or (Plate 
XVII I., fig. 10). FERRERS bore the same. 

Or, seven mascles conjoined azure, 3, I, 3, is the coat of 



COURRAN, and the Vicomte de PLEDRAN in Brittany 
bore the same but differently arranged 3, 3, I. 

The great house of DE ROHAN (Dues de ROHAN, 
BOUILLON, and MONTBAZON, Princes de LEON, MONT- 
AUBAN, SOUBISE, etc.), bore : de Gueules, a neuf mdcles 
d'or (3, 3, 3) accolees et aboutees. 

The same coat but with the field azure is that of LE 
SENECHAL, Barons de QUELEN, Marquis de PONTE- 
CROIX. 

Thirteen mascles conjoined or (4, 4, 4, i) in a field gules is 
borne by TlGNlVlLLE. Azure, afess between three mascles 
or, is the coat of BETHUNE, or BEATON (the family to 
which Cardinal BEATON belonged). Sable, afess between 
three mascles or, is borne by the Scottish MlCHELLS or 
MITCHELLS. 

RUSTRE. A Lozenge pierced with a circular opening 
is called a Rustre (ruste]. Or, a rustre sable, is borne 
by CUSTANCE. The Irish PERYS have Or, three rustres 
sable. SOUMERET D'ESSENAU, in Flanders, uses the 
reverse. De Gueules, a trois rustes d' argent, is the coat 
of SCHESNAYE. The Belgian family of AAVAILLE, 
bear : Or, a /ess gules between three rustres azure. 

The fields LOZENGY, FUSILLY, MASCALLY, have been 
already noticed in Chapter III. ; and are probably more 
ancient than these charges which have been derived from 
them. 

X. THE FLAUNCHE (FLASQUE, AND VOIDER). 
The FLAUNCHE borne only in pairs, is a projection from 
each side or flank of the shield, bounded by the 
segment of a circle. In French blazon the shield is 
said to be flanque en rond. De Sable, flanque en rond 
d' argent, is the coat of the Spanish family of MARTINET. 
The HOBARTS, Earls of BUCKINGHAMSHIRE bear : 
Sable, a star of eight points or, between two flaunches 
ermine (de Sable, ci une e"toile rayonnante d'or, flanque en 
rond determine) (Plate XVI 1 1., fig. 6). The PARKERS, 



( i86 ) 

Earls of MORLEY, use : Sable, a stags head caboshed, 
between two flaunches argent. Gules, two leopard's faces 
between as many flaunches or is the coat of FRERE. 

When the flaunches are smaller in size they are some- 
times blazoned as flasques, or voiders. The HAMILTONS 
of Colquot in Scotland are said to bear : Gules, three 
cinquefoils between two flasques argent. 

XI. THE BILLET (AND DELVE). BILLETS are small 
oblong rectangular figures, regarding which it has been 
disputed whether their name is derived from letters or 
logs of wood. In British Armory they are usually 
borne in a perpendicular position, abroad they are 
often couchees. BlLLY in France bears : de Gueules, a 
trois billettes, d' argent. Plate XIX., fig. i, Sable, a bend 
between six billets or, is a coat of CALLENDAR in Scot- 
land ; and of ANVIN in Picardy (which goes back to 
the Second Crusade). A similar coat, but with the bend 
engrailed, both it and the billets being argent, was borne 
by the Lords ALINGTON. 

Gules, a bend between six billets or (de Gueules, a la 
bande d'or accompagnee de six billettes du meme, rangees 
en orle) is the coat of the French Marquises de SAVEUSE. 

Azure, a bend between seven billets or (four in chief and 
three in base) was borne by the Marquises de CHAS- 
TELLUX. UAzur, a onze billettes d' argent, 4, 3, 4 is the 
coat of BEAUMANOIR, Marquis de LAVARDIN. 

Gules, three billets in pairle sable, are the annes par- 
lantes of the Silesian family DIE SCHINDEL. A rgent, three 
billets couchees gules is borne by the WOESTWYNCKELE 
of Flanders. Argent, six billets couchees sable, are the 
coat of the Dutch family of VAN VEEN. Gules, four 
billets couchees in pale argent that of ABILLON. 
Occasionally the billet is borne voided ; d'Azur, a dix 
billettes videes argent, was borne by the Marquis de ST. 
PERN. 

More rarely still they are pierced circular, as (some- 



times only) in the coat of DE LA BEDOYERE : d*Azur, 
a six billettes percdes cT argent. 

A billet with four equal sides is called a delve, and 
represents a divot, or spade-full of turf, or earth, thus 
delved out. A rgent, five square billets, or delves, 3 and 
2, gules, is the coat of the Piedmontese MASSON. 
Argent, a chevron between three delves gules, is the coat 
of WOODWARD of Kent. 

XII. THE LABEL (OR FILE). This figure is sometimes 
numbered under the SUB-ORDINARIES. Its use as a 
brisure, or mark of difference, will be considered in the 
Chapters on CADENCY or DIFFERENCE. Here it will 
be treated of as a common charge. We do not know 
with certainty what it was at first assumed to represent. 
It is apparently a narrow ribbon or bar, "filum," 
" lambel," stretching across the shield, from one side to the 
other, and having other narrow ribbons, varying in number, 
dependent from it at right angles. In modern times 
these points are usually three in number ; and they 
are often drawn slightly patees, or broader at the lower 
ends. The modern form of the cadency label is as 
unsightly as it is without authority. 

I have already printed in BOUTELL'S Heraldry, His- 
torical and Popular, p. 469, a number of interesting 
examples of the use of this bearing as a sole charge, 
etc. 

LE CORNUT DE ST. LEONARD (Liege) bears : Gules, a 
label of three points argent ; DU ROZON (Brittany), 
TROGOFF, LARDIER, and CHARDOIGNE (France) : de 
Gueules, au lambel d'or. 

BLANDIN (Brittany): Argent, a label of five points 
sable ; DE KERSBEKE the same, but the label of gules. 

GROBBENDONCK (Brabant) : Quarterly, I and 4. Sable, 
a label argent: 2 and 3. Or, a fess embattled counter- 
embattled gules ; VAN OOSTENWOLDE, and DU PONT, 
Or, a label azure ; MONFRAIN, the reverse. 



Very rarely we meet with the label as a sole charge 
in British Armory. Argent, a label of Jive points azure, 
is ascribed to HENLINGTON : and Azure, a label of five 
points or to SABBEN. 

Occasionally the label occupies an unusual position. 
GuiLLlM says that Argent ', a label of five points in bend 
sable was the coat of one MORIEN, buried in St. Mary's 
Church at Oxford. Argent, a label of five points in bend 
gules is an Irish coat of GOFFE. In the coat of DE LA 
ROCHE DE BEAUSAINT : Per pale gules and ermine over all 
a bend wavy argent ; a label azure is placed bendways upon 
the Ordinary. In the arms of the Dutch BARESTIJNS : 
Argent, a wolf passant gules, a label of the same is 
beneath the wolf's feet. The Frisian family of ROORDA 
bears : A rgent, two roses in chief gules, in base a label 
sable. 

AURELLE DE LA pREDIERE in Auvergne, bears : Or, 
a chevron azure in chief, a label reversed gules. 

In the coat of OHA DE ROCOURT in Belgium : Argent, 
a barbel in pale gules, a semi-circular label of five points 
azure surmounts the head of the fish. 

It is rare to meet with a label with less than three 
points, though I have found a few examples. The 
Spanish family of BERENGUER has (as its 1st and 4th 
quarters) Or, a label of one point azure. 

In HARL. MSS., 1441 and 5866, there is recorded a 
coat of FlTZ SlMONS : Sable, three crescents argent, in 
chief a label of two points, in fess one of a single point of 
the second. The coat of DE LA VERGNE in Brittany is 
Gules, in chief a label of two points or. 

LALANDE bears : d'Or, a deux lambels de trois pendants, 
le premier de gueules, I'autre de sable pos^s I'un sur 
I'autre. 

The Barons von der LlPPE of Courland use: Argent, 
two labels, each of four points, in pale sable. 

The Barons HOENS in Flanders have : Azure, three 



labels argent, respectively of jive, four, and three points in 
pale; and (with the labels or) this is the coat of EFFEREN 
VON STOLBERG in Prussia ; and of the Florentine 
BUONACORSI, now extinct. 

On early seals the number of the points of the label 
varies considerably. On that of GuiLLAUME D'ASPRE- 
MONT, one of the Chevaliers Bannerets of Touraine in 
1213, his shield bears (gules) a lion rampant (or) crowned 
(azure), and debruised by a label of ten points. (See La 
Touraine, par BOURASSE, p. 371, folio, Tours, 1855, while 
at p. 347 the number of points is seven.) Seven is also 
the number borne by DE RAMEFORT, another Chevalier 
Banneret of Touraine : Fusille or and azure, a label of 
seven points gules. 

There are many other curious points connected with 
the use of the label into which we have not space now 
to enter. Besides those which are charged, some of 
which will be noticed in a future chapter, I have notes 
of some which are bordered, engrailed, etc. ; but I con- 
clude this sub-section with two curious examples. Or, a 
file (i.e., label) of tJiree points gules from eacJi a bell 
pendent azure the clapper sable. This is the canting coat 
of BELFILE. 

TOMKOWITZ, in Poland, bears : Vert, a label of three 
points in fess argent, a ball of the same affixed to the 
bottom of the centre point. 

XIII. ROUNDLES. We may include the ROUNDLES 
among the Sub-Ordinaries. These are balls, or circular 
discs, of metal or colour, and have, very needlessly, 
special names given to them in respect of their tinctures. 
Unless distinctly described as a ball, a roundle of gold 
is called a Bezant, a name probably derived from the 
gold coins of BYSANTIUM in use among the Crusaders ; 
usually it is a small flat plate of gold, but is sometimes 
figured as a coin, when this is so it must be expressed. 
A similar disc of silver is called a Plate (from the 



Spanish plata, silver). (Coins as heraldic charges are 
noted hereafter in Chapter XIII., p. 389.) The French 
call both bezants and plates by the general name of 
besans, affixing thereto the designation of the metal, 
e.g. besans d'or, besans d argent, etc. The Roundles of 
colour, or of fur, are similarly called by the general term 
of tourteaux, and their colour is specified. In German 
Heraldry the roundles are nearly always globes. In 
British Armory by a Torteau is meant only a flat, round 
plate gules. The difference between those of the roundles 
which are globular and those which are flat should be 
noted ; and in drawing duly expressed by shading. A 
Roundle azure is called a Hurt ; this is probably globu- 
lar, and the name derived from the English hurt, or 
whortleberry, not, as GERARD LEGH contends, from a 
hurt, or bruise, received in war ! The French call it a 
tourteau d'azur. Roundles of sable are called Ogresses, 
Pellets, and Gunstones ; and are evidently intended to be 
globular. Their most usual name Pellets is thought by 
some to be derived from the Spanish peletta, the leaden 
knob of a bird-bolt or blunt-arrow. Pomeis, or pomeys 
is the name given to roundles of a green colour, obviously 
from pomme, an apple. (A recent authority, the writer of 
the article on "Heraldry" in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
9th Ed., vol. xi., p. 697, tells us that this is called a 
" Pompey" /) Roundles of purpure are not often met 
with, but are called golpes, or wounds ; these, I suppose, 
should not be globular in shape, as are the still rarer 
Oranges, ottenne; and Guzes, of sanguine (eyeballs accord- 
ing to GERARD LEGH !). Roundles of fur are flat. 

This confusing English nomenclature is the subject 
of the just disapproval of Foreign Armorists, particularly 
of DE LA COLOMBIERE, who says : " De vouloir prati- 
quer ponctuellement tous ces differens termes c'est plu- 
tost obscurcir la science que 1'eclaircir ; c'est pourquoy je 
ne s^aurois approuver ces noms bizearres qui n'ont 



PLATE XVIII. 




1. Canton. 
(Nod.) 



B*+ 
TOM 

** 
* 




2. Canton. 
(Kingscote.) 




3. Canton and fess. 
(Woodville.) 




4. Gyron. 

(De Cluseau.) 





5. Gyrons. 6. Flanches. 

(Mortimer.) (Hobart.) 



V 




7. Lozenge. 
(Hyde.) 




8. Mascle. 




9. Lozenges conjoined. 
(Montacute.) 




10. Mascles conjoined. 
(De Quinci. ) 




11. Fusil. 
(Champney.) 




12. Fusils conjoined. 



aucune etymologic claire, et ne sont point intelligibles."- 
(La Science Heroique, cxv.) 

This nomenclature is not found in the early Rolls of 
Arms; where, as in the Armory of the Continent, all 
roundles of metals are besants, and all those of colour 
torteaux. In Scotland the English use as to roundles 
of colour has been adopted, but the practice of calling 
those of metal Bezants or, and Bezants argent has 
never gone out of use. 

A few examples of the use of roundles, at home and 
abroad, may now be given. 

Azure, a bezant, is ascribed to BASSINGFORD, and to 
BiSSET. Gules, a bezant to BURLAY, and GOSPATRIC. 
RANDLE HOLME gives, Or, a hurt, as the canting coat of 
HURTLE ; and, similarly, Argent, a torteau to TORTOX 
(probably a family of his own invention). 

In the Zurich Wappenrolle (i4th century) Or, a ball 
sable, is the coat of TUFEL ; Sable, a plate, is that of 
SCHMID, according to SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, Hi., , 
115. 

Azure, a chevron or between three bezants are the well 
known arms of HOPE. 

MONTESQUIOU, Marquis de FEZENSAC, bears : d'Or, a 
deux tourteaux de gueules, I'un sur Vautre, en pal. With 
the tourteaux of sable this is the coat of BELLY in France. 
Azure, two plates in pale, is borne by VERDUZAN. Azure, 
three plates, two and one, is the coat of 'the Princes of 
MONTLLART. Gules, three bezants, was borne in England 
by DENHAM ; LA TOUCHE ; and others ; the same, but 
with the bezants (sometimes plates) figured, by GAMIN 
of France. I suspect the roundles in the coat of 
BOULENGER of Holland to be balls, and not bezants : 
dAzur, au chevron d'or, accornpagne de trois bezans du 
mcine; and in that of BOULA DE MAREUIL, dAzur, a 
trois besans dor. Gules, three balls in f ess or, is the coat 
of CLOOT of Brabant. 



( 192 ) 

The BANDINI of Florence bear : Gules, three plates, 
but these roundles are balls in the coat of HOFREITER DE 
DACHAU. Plate XIX., fig. 3, Or, three torteaux, is the 
well known coat of COURTENEY, and of the Counts of . 
BOULOGNE ; and was also quartered for the County of 
GRONSFELD by the Counts of BRONCKHORST, of the 
Holy Roman Empire. 

Barry of six argent and azure in chief three torteaux, 
was the arms of GREY ; with a label ermine this was the 
coat of the unhappy Lady JANE GREY, proclaimed 
Queen of England, and executed in 1554. 

Another well known British coat, that of ZOUCHE 
(Plate XIX., fig. 2), bears : Gules, ten bezants, 4, 3, 2, I. 
Argent, six hurts, 2, 2, 2, are the arms of DE CASTRO in 
Spain. Argent, a chevron gules between tJiree hurts, 
appears in early Rolls of Arms for BASKERVILLE. 

Perhaps the most important Foreign instance of the 
use of roundles is afforded by the coat of the Florentine 
MEDICI, Grand Dukes of TUSCANY, which was originally, 
Or, six balls gules. (NOTE, not torteaux as very often 
wrongly blazoned by English writers, but palle, i.e. balls, 
possibly pills !) These were borne sometimes seven, or 
eight in number ; but six, in orle, is the most usual 
arrangement. The uppermost one was changed into a 
ball bearing the Arms of France, as an augmentation 
by LOUIS XL of France, in 1465. (See the grant in Mrs 
PALLISER'S Historic Devices, etc., p. 171.) This is some- 
times wrongly depicted. While the palle are properly 
drawn as balls, the one in chief is wrongly represented 
as a flat plate of azure. In Florence itself, however, the 
French augmentation is properly shown as a ball, like 
the others in shape ; these are often in very high relief, 
as in the MEDICI chapel in the church of San Lorenzo. 

Roundles are often charged, thus: Ermine, three pomlis, 
each charged with a cross or, is the coat of HEATHCOTE, 
Lord AVELAND ; and Gules, three plates, on each a fleur- 



PLATE XIX. 




1. Billet. 
Callendar. 




2. Bezants. 
Zouche. 




3. Torteaux. 
Courtenay. 




4. Roundles. 
Punchyon. 




5. Fountains. 
Stowrton. 




6. Gurges. 
Gorges. 





8. Annulet. 
Lowther. 




9. Annulet Stoned. 
Eglinton. 




10. Vires. 
Firtew. 




11. Fret. 
Harrington. 




12. Escutcheon. 
Hay. 



( 193 ) 

de-lis sable, is that of TOMLIN. Or, three hurts, on each 
a mullet argent, is borne by MONTCHAL, of France. 
When roundles are parted, or counterchanged, they 
retain in English the name of roundles ; thus in Plate 
XIX., fig. 4, Per bend argent and sable, three roundles 
within a bordure engrailed all counterchanged, are the 
arms of PuNCHYON of Essex. 

In French Blazon a roundle composed of metal and 
colour is called a besant-tourteau, or a tourteau-besant, 
according as they>/^on which it is placed is of colour, 
or of metal. 

A curious instance of the bearing of besants-tourteaux 
is afforded by the Spanish coat of FUENSALDA : de 
Gueules, a six besants tourteaux d* argent et de sable poses 
2, 2, 2, les I et 3 a dextre, et le 2 a senestre, coupes ; les 
trois autres partis. 

Roundles barry wavy of six argent and azure (the 
conventional representation of water), are called Foun- 
tains, or Sykes, as in the canting coat of WELLS ; Azure, 
three fountains ; and in that given on Plate XIX., fig. 5 
Sable, a bend or between three fountains, the arms of 
STOURTON ; Argent, a chevron sable between three sykes, 
is the canting coat of SYKES. Akin to this last bearing 
is the Gorge or Gurges, or Whirlpool, a spiral line of 
azure commencing in the fess point of a field of argent, 
and occupying the whole shield ; it is figured in Plate 
XIX., fig. 6, and was borne, in the reign of HENRY III., as 
armes parlantes, by the Wiltshire family of GORGES. In 
GLOVER'S Roll of A rms, No. 1 88, this bearing takes an 
unusual form : being, Argent, four concentric annulets 
azure, the exterior one is cut by the outline of the shield. 
It is there given thus : " Rauf de Gorges Roele dArgent 
& dazur " (sic). 



CHAPTER VI. 

ANIMATE CHARGES : I. THE HUMAN FIGURE. 

NEXT to geometrical figures, the most prominent charges 
in armorial bearings are those derived from the animal 
and vegetable creation ; and of these those which repre- 
sent man its lord, may be supposed to claim precedence 
in our consideration. 

The entire human figure, naked or clothed, appears 
occasionally in our own Armory, but is still more 
frequently met with in the wider range of Foreign 
Heraldry ; this contains many very curious examples, 
only a few of which can find description within the 
narrow limits of the present work. 

The figure of the BLESSED SAVIOUR seated in majesty 
(as represented in REVELATION, i. 16 ii. 12 xix. 15) is 
the charge, derived from ancient seals, of the arms of the 
See of CHICHESTER. The utter ignorance of many of 
the old heraldic writers (if we can in courtesy confine 
it only to those of far back times) could scarcely 
be better exemplified than by the treatment which the 
noblest of all charges has undergone at their hands. 
The figure of the " Lord of Life and Glory " has become 
according to them " Azure, a PRESTER JOHN sitting on a 
tombstone, in Jiis left hand a mound, his right hand extended, 
all or ; on his head a linen mitre, and in his mouth a sword 
ppr" (FOSTER'S Peerage.} Where the whole bearing 
was thus travestied it is no wonder that the details have 
become ridiculous ! " The rainbow throne of light " has 
been degraded into a tombstone, and the sword issuing 
from the mouth into a skewer passing through it ! 



( 195 ) 

The bearings , which appear in some of the Post- 
Reformation Sees are derived from representations of 
the Blessed Trinity, or of the Saints to whom the 
Cathedrals were dedicated, which appeared on the 
ancient seals. 

The figure of the Blessed Virgin bearing the Divine 
Child which appears, on an azure field, in the arms of 
the See of Salisbury had a similar origin. These are 
identical with the arms of the PHOUSKARNAKI (or 
FOUSKARNAKI) of Greece. As armes parlantes the 
curiously designated Breton family of LENFANT-DlEU 
use cTAzur, a un enfant JESUS, les mains jointes d' argent, 
naissant d'un croissant d'or, surmonte d'un soleil du meme, 
et accoste de deux etoiles d'or. The family of LORETTE 
use also as armes parlantes the following coat : Per pale 
azure and or, the figure of NOTRE DAME DE LORETTE 
Jwlding in her arms the Holy Child. 

The families who bear the names of saints, such as 
ST. ANDREW, ST. GEORGE, ST. MICHAEL, have (perhaps 
not unnaturally) included in their arms representations 
of their family patrons. 

The Bavarian family of REIDER include in their shield 
the mounted effigy of the good knight St. MARTIN 
dividing his cloak with a beggar (date of diploma 1760). 
The figure of the great Apostle of the Gentiles appears 
in the arms of the VON PAULI. JOERG, and J6RGER, 
of Austria, similarly make use of St. GEORGE. 

Continental Heraldry affords not a few examples of 
the use of the personages of Holy Writ. The ADAMOLI 
of Lombardy bear : Azure, the Tree of Life entwined 
with tJie Serpent, and accosted with our first parents, all 
proper (i.e., in a state of nature). The addition of a 
chief of the Empire to this coat makes it somewhat 
incongruous. 

The family of ADAM in Bavaria improve on Sacred 
History by eliminating EVE, and by representing ADAM 



( 196 ) 

as holding the apple in one hand, and the serpent 
wriggling in the other. On the other hand the Spanish 
family of EVA apparently consider there is a sufficiently 
transparent allusion to their own name, and to the 
mother of mankind, in the simple bearings : Or, on a 
mount in base an apple tree vert fruited of the field, and 
encircled by a serpent of the second. 

The family of ABEL in Bavaria make the patriarch in 
the attitude of prayer to serve as their crest ; while the 
coat itself is : Sable, on a square altar argent, a lamb 
lying surrounded by fire and smoke proper. 

SAMSON slaying the lion is the subject of the arms 
of the VESENTINA family of Verona. The field is 
gules, and on a terrace in base vert the strong man 
naked bestrides a golden lion and forces its jaws apart. 
The Polish family of SAMSON naturally use the same 
device, but the field is Azure and the patriarch is 
decently habited. The STARCKENS of the Island 
of OESEL also use the like as armes parlantes ; the 
field in this case is Or. After these we are hardly 
surprised to find that Daniel in the , lions' den is 
the subject of the arms of the Rhenish family of 
DANIELS, granted late in the eighteenth century ; the 
field is Azure. The Bolognese DANIELI are content to 
make a less evident allusion to the prophet ; their arms 
are : Per fess azure and vert, in chief " the lion of the 
tribe of Judah " naissant or, holding an open book with 
the words " LlBRl APERTI SUNT." (DANIEL vii. 10.) 

The Archangel St. MICHAEL in full armour, as con- 
ventionally represented, treading beneath his feet the 
great adversary, sable, is the charge on an azure field of 
the VAN SCHOREL of Antwerp ; and he also appears in 
the arms of the city of BRUSSELS. 

Heathen mythology has been laid under contribution 
even more frequently than Holy Writ. NEPTUNE is 
to be found in the arms of NOLTHENIUS of Guelderland. 



( 197 ) 

Azure, Hercules proper, combating a lion rampant or, 
appears as the coat of WILL at Augsburg ; rending a 
tree in the arms of FAURE ; and slaying the hydra in 
the canting coat of HERKLOTS. 

The personification of FORTUNE is a favourite, both 
as a crest and as a charge, in German armory. Usually 
she is represented, as in the arms of ANTONELLI, naked, 
standing on a globe (sometimes floating on waves), and 
holding a veil, or sail, above her head. 

Besides such instances as have been already referred 
to, the naked human figure is a not unfrequent charge 
abroad, though we have not many instances of it at 
home. The shield of the Scottish family of DALZIEL 
of that Ilk (Plate XX., fig. i), which goes back at 
least to the fourteenth century, is Argent, a naked man 
proper. Occasionally in early examples the arms are 
drawn extended, and in some representations, though 
not in the earliest, the body is swinging from a gibbet. 
This is an allusion to a probably not very ancient legend, 
in which the founder of the family is said to have 
recovered the body of King KENNETH III., who had 
been hanged by the Picts. 

All such legends in connection with Heraldic bearings 
must be received with the utmost incredulity. In 
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred the story has been 
invented to account for the arms ; not the arms assumed 
as a historical hieroglyphic. 

The coat of the VEGNUDINI of Bologna is Argent, on 
a terrace a naked woman standing between two vine 
shoots, and holding in her right hand a pruning-hook, all 
proper, on a chief azure three mullets or. 

The Pomeranian family of PlRCH have a very remark- 
able coat : Per pale (a) Azure, a fish haurient in pale 
argent ; (b) Gules, on a terrace a naked woman affrontee, 
a fox running between her legs from right to left and 
holding in his mouth a quantity of hay " la dite femme 



empoignant de ses deux mains la queue du renard et sen 
frottant le corps" all proper ! 

Azure, a naked boy pointing to a star in tJie dexter chief, 
all proper, is the coat recorded for the Scottish family of 
OSWALD, in FONT'S MS. (vide infra}. 

A naked boy shooting (not Cupid*) is one of the 
charges of the Bolognese ARFETTI ; and the SCHEU- 
CHENSTUEL DE RHAIN in Bavaria, a family now extinct, 
bore : Gules, on a mount in base sable a naked boy with 
extended legs, and arms akimbo. 

I have a good many similar examples in which the 
motive for the adoption of the charge is hard to find. 
This, however, is not the case in the canting coat of the 
family of BESSON, who bear : d'Or, a deux enfans 
(jumeaux, en patois bessons) de carnation, affrontes, se 
tenant d^une main et port ant de I'autre chacun un rameau. 

The Barons GEMELL, and the Sicilian GEMELLI, have 
arms of which the motif is the same. Two nude chil- 
dren are the supporters of the family of NlCEY in 
Champagne ; and two naked virgins with dishevelled 
hair those of the Counts des ULMES. 

A SAVAGE, or wild man, usually represented naked 
but wreathed about the head and loins with verdure, 
and holding a rough bough of a tree as a club, occurs 
frequently both at home and abroad, but with us is more 
common as a crest or supporter than as a charge of the 
escucheon. (The charge in the coat of OSWALD is often 
thus drawn.) 

In Germany still, and among ourselves before the six- 
teenth century these savages are often not wreathed but 
are drawn covered with hair, and in aspect " affenartig? 
as a German writer terms them. An English example 
of the savage man is afforded by the arms of the families 
of EMELIE, EMLAY, or EMLINE, of Northamptonshire, 
and elsewhere (Plate XX., fig. 2). They bear : Sable, 
a wild man standing wreathed, and holding (some- 



PLATE XX. 




1. Man. 
Dalzell. 




2. Savage. 
Emlyn. 




3. Horseman. 
Maguire. 





4. Saracen's Head. 5. Heads conjoined. 

Lloyd. Aforison. 




6. Moors' Heads. 
Sardinia. 




1. Sinister Hand. 
Maynard. 




9. Legs. 
Isle of Man. 





10. Arms. 
Tremayne. 



11. Eye. 
Heshuysen. 




12. Heart. 

Douglas. 



( '99 ) 

times a staff raguly, at others) a tree eradicated, all 
proper. 

The coat ascribed to DRUMMOND of Kildies is : Or, 
three bars undy gules, over all a naked man in motion 
brandishing a sword proper. 

In Foreign Heraldry kings, queens, bishops, priests, 
mounted or dismounted knights, pilgrims, miners, and 
men of other occupations, appear properly habited in 
great variety ; in our own Armory they occur only 
occasionally. Plate XX., fig. 3, is the coat of the 
Irish MAGUIRES Vert, a mounted knight armed cap-a-pie 
and holding in his hand a sword all proper. 

The arms of LITHUANIA (which were quartered with 
the arms of POLAND, Gules, an eagle displayed argent 
in the shield of that kingdom) were : Gules, a knight 
armed cap-a-pie mounted on a white horse, brandishing' his 
sword all proper, and bearing an oval buckler Azure 
thereon a cross patriarchal or (vide post, p. 486). 

A volume would be required for the full description 
of all the curious instances of the use of the human figure 
in Continental Armory, here it will suffice to mention but 
one more instance. The Spanish family of PALACIO in 
the Asturias, bears, on a green field two couples of both 
sexes performing the national dance of \he fandango ! 

When we come to the consideration of the HUMAN 
BODY in its several parts as a Heraldic charge the 
abundance of examples is even more embarrassing. 

HUMAN HEADS are borne in profile, or affrontes, and 
either couped or erased, that is either cut cleanly off at 
the neck, or having a ragged edge of pieces of skin. 
The Savages head is usually wreathed with foliage ; 
while the Saracens head is usually banded, or wreathed 
about the temples, and wears earrings, as in the arms of 
GLEDSTANES (Plate XVI I., fig. 9). Plate XX., fig. 4 gives 
us the arms of MARCHYDD, or MERGETH, AP CYNAN, 
a Welsh chieftain, still borne by his descendants the 



( 200 ) 

LLOYDS, Lords MOSTYN ; the PRICES ; and WYNNS ; 
it is : Gules, a Saracen's head erased at the neck proper, 
wreathed about tJie temples sable and argent. This is also 
the coat of the BRUUNS of Denmark. It should be 
remarked that " Moor's heads " are generally drawn as 
those of "blackamoors," or negroes, as in Plate XX., 
fig. 6 which represents the arms of SARDINIA: Argent, 
a cross gules between four Moor's heads couped sable, 
banded of the first. A single Moor's head proper, on a 
chief argent (as the " arms of CORSICA ") was granted 
as an augmentation to the arms of ELLIOTT, Earl of 
MlNTO, and is still borne in their escucheon. It is also 
the coat of the Florentine Pucci ; of VAN DER ELST 
and of GENDRON in HOLLAND. Or, a Moors head and 
biist proper, wreatJied sable and or, is the canting coat of 
the Tirolese Counts MOHR DE TARANTSBERG ; and a 
similar coat is borne by MAIR of Bavaria. Argent, three 
negro's J leads in profile sable wreatJied of the colours is 
borne by the CANNINGS. 

The long continued struggle between the Turks and 
Hungarians accounts for the introduction of the head of 
a dead Turk with his single long lock of hair into 
several important Hungarian and Transylvanian coats. 
The Austrian Counts and Princes of SCHWARZENBERG 
impale, or use as a quartering, with their own arms of 
SEINSHEIM (Paly of eight argent and azure) the follow- 
ing concession : Or, a raven sable, collared of the field, 
perched on the head of a dead Turk, and picking out his eye ; 
no doubt an agreeable memorial of a hard fought fight ! 

A singular coat Plate XX., fig. 5 belongs to the 
Scottish family of MORISONS of Dairsie in Fife. Azure, 
tJiree Saracen's Jieads erased, conjoined in one neck, and 
wreathed with laurel all proper, the faces respectively 
turned towards the chief and flanks of the shield. In 
Foreign Heraldry a somewhat similar arrangement is 
known as a " Tete de Gerion" and is borne as the canting 



( 201 ) 

coat of the TRIVULZI of Milan, d'Or, a un tete de Gcrion 
de carnation , couronne d'or, avec les barbes et cheveux 
grises. Here the tre volti, triple faces, are two in 
profile towards the flanks ; the third is affronte. 

The head of JANUS with its double face, occurs in the 
arms of several families, e.g., JANER in Spain bears, 
Or, the head of Janus crowned with an antique crown 
proper. 

The head of ARGUS is the charge of the arms of the 
French family of SANTEUIL : d'Azur, a une tete d' Argus 
d'or, the head being plentifully covered with an inde- 
finite number of eyes of course these are armes 
parlantes = " cent ceuil." 

Other heads are occasionally met with ; the heads of 
BOREAS, ;OLUS, MIDAS, and of ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, 
and ST. DENIS, have all of them come under my obser- 
vation, and some of them in more than one instance. 

The conventional representation of a CHERUB the 
angelic head surrounded by six wings appears in the 
arms of the Italian family of BUOCAFOCO, or BUCCA- 
FOCO ; Gules, a seraph or. Three such cherubs are the 
coat of the French CHERINS ; dOr, a trois cherubins de 
gueules ; and the Counts TRIANGI naturally bear : Gules, 
a chevron ploye argent between three cherubs proper, their 
wings or. The Italian house of MALATESTA of Rimini, 
bore : Vert, three human heads affrontes proper; and the 
GRYNS of Cologne chose as their heraldic property the 
coat : Sable, three Jiuman heads affrontes, grinning, or 
grimacing, proper {!} and crowned or. 

The HUMAN EYE appears as a charge (usually in armes 
parlantes} in more coats than might have been expected. 
The coat of the HESHUYSENS of Amsterdam is: Azure, two 
Jiuman eyes in f ess proper (Plate XX., fig. 1 1 ). The Catalan 
GRANULLAS bear : Or, two human eyes in chief proper. 

The FlNlELS of Languedoc have no less than nine ; 
d'Azur, a neuf yeux ouverts d' argent, 3, 3, 3. 



( 202 ) 

In the coat of the French family of DENIS the eyes 
are weeping, de Gueules, a deuxyeuxlarmoyants au naturel, 
les larmes d* argent en chef, et une rose d*or en point. The 
BELLEVOIRS carry the matter further ; their coat is : 
Sable, two human eyes in chief proper, the base of the 
shield seme de larmes argent. One more example will 
suffice the FORMANOIRS bear: Or, fretty sable, the 
claire-voies charged with human eyes proper. 

Of the HUMAN HEART in Armory, not perhaps the 
oldest but the most famous example occurs in the 
DOUGLAS coat to which the heart was added (at first 
uncrowned) by the first Earl of DOUGLAS, in commemora- 
tion of his uncle the good Sir JAMES having set out to 
Palestine bearing the heart of his royal master, in order 
that it might be deposited in the soil of the Holy Land : 
a journey frustrated by his falling in an encounter with 
the Moors in Spain (See LOCKHART'S Spanish Ballads}. 
Or, a heart gules is borne by CORTI. Argent, three hearts 
gules (d' Argent, a trois cceurs de gueules), is the canting 
coat of CCEURET, Marquis de NESLE ; and d 'Argent, three 
green hearts (d? Argent, a trois cceurs de simple) that of 
CCEURVERT. Or, three hearts sable the points in pairle 
are the arms of the Counts of DERNBACH. 

In many coats additions of a sentimental character are 
found. Azure, a heart inflamed or, is borne by ST. 
HlLAIRE ; Or, a heart gules, a pansy issuant therefrom, 
azure (or vert) ; is the coat of CHAILOUS, or CHAYLAU ; 
Azure, a heart or winged argent is that of GENESTET. 
But even a more distinctively "Valentine" character 
is found at times. The GOESHEN, or GoSCHEN, 
family bear: Argent, a heart gules, inflamed and 
pierced by an arrow or, the point and feathers azure. 
The GujANS of Chiir bear : Azure, a heart gules, 
pierced by two arrows in saltire argent, the flame 
has developed into a surmounting estoile. The family 
of RHODIUS of Brabant bear : Gules, a heart inflamed, 



( 203 ) 

pierced by two darts or. The VANNS of Holland 
use Or, two human hearts gules inflamed or, the dexter 
projecting over the sinister. The arms of the Counts 
COLLEONI of Milan are, in modern times, blazoned as : 
Per pale argent and gules, three hearts reversed counter- 
changed. In ancient, and less delicate, times the bearings 
had a different significance as armes parlantes. 

Or, six beards sable, are the arms of the Venetian 
BARBANI ; and Or, a beard sable, of the BARBONIANI. 

The TONGUE appears as a charge in the coat of 
LlNGUET : Azure, two pens in saltire argent, on a chief of 
the last three tongues gules. 

The LlPS (and TEETH) are used in the canting coat of 
LlPPE of Switzerland : Argent, two upper lips each above 
a row of teeth fesseways in pale proper, all within a b ordure 
azure. 

The TEETH alone: Argent, three molars gules are 
borne by CAIXAL of Spain ; Or, on a fess gules three 
double teeth argent, is the coat of the Dutch KlES. 

The JAW BONE appears in the coat of the Spanish 
QUEXADA : Argent, five jaw bones gules 2, I, 2 ; while 
QuiJADA bears : Argent, four lower jaws, 2, 2, azure. 

The whole SKULL, either alone, or in conjunction with 
the piratical crossbones, is occasionally used as a heraldic 
charge : as by DlDlER DE MORTAL : de Sable, a trots 
tetes de mort d 'argent ; au chef d 'azur charge d 'un cheval 
issuant du second (note the "pale horse " of death, REV. 
vi. 8, in the chief). VAN GORCUM in Holland bears: 
Per pale (a) Gules, two crossbones supporting a skull argent; 
(b) Azure, two swords in saltire proper. The Dalmatian 
family of MORTE is even more funereal : Sable, two cross- 
bones in saltire supporting a skull argent. 

The whole SKELETON is used as supporters by the 
PELETS ; and as a crest by the VAN SCHOONHOVENS of 
Ghent (holding an arrow and between two wings or), and 
by TOD VON LEWENTHAL (holding bow and arrow and 



between two horns per fess, the dexter or and sable; the 
sinister sable and argent]. 

In the coat of the family of DE LA SABLONNIERE of 
the Netherlands two human skeletons sable hold a sieve 
gules in an argent field. The family of LEICHNAM, in 
Hesse, bear : Gules, a corpse enshrouded on a bier proper, as 
canting arms. 

In British Armory the HUMAN ARM is very frequently 
employed as a crest, often embowed and vambraced, 
that is in armour ; sometimes couped at the elbow, 
and upright (a cubit ami), and holding a variety of 
weapons, etc. : Argent, a hand appaume (i.e., open, show- 
ing the palm) couped gules, are the arms of O'NEILL, 
Earl of TYRONE ; the sinister hand is known as the 
" Badge of ULSTER," and is the distinguishing mark of 
the dignity of all Baronets except those of Scotland and 
Nova Scotia. 

Azure, a hand appaume argent are the canting arms of 
MAGNE, in France, and are also those of the family of 
WAROQUIER, or VAROQUIER ; whence arose the French 
proverbial " Je te donnerai les armes de VAROQUIER ! " 
a threat of a box on the ear ! A BLESSING HAND is 
one of which the thumb and two first fingers are alone 
extended, as in the act of Episcopal benediction. 

Such a hand occurs occasionally as in the arms of 
BENOIT : Azure, a chevron or between three hands blessing 
argent. In Scottish Heraldry it is the crest of the 
MILLARS. 

Azure, three hands (sometimes dexter, sometimes 
sinister) argent are the armes parlantes of MALMAYNS ; 
and Or, three clenched fists proper, those of PoiGNET. 

Argent, a chevron azure between tJiree sinister Jiands 
appaumes gules is borne by the Lords MAYNARD (Plate 
XX., fig. 7), while the French Counts MAYNARD DE 
ST. MICHEL are content to use d'Azur, a une main 
dextre appaume e d'or. 



( 205 ) 

Gules, afess between four hands (argent or or) is the 
coat of the QUATERMAINES. 

An arm is often represented as issuing from the edge 
of the shield. In some University arms it issues from 
the chief, as in those of the UNIVERSITY OF PARIS, which 
are : Azure, tJiree fleurs-de-lis or, a hand and arm issuing 
from clouds in chief and holding a book proper. In French 
blazon an arm is called a dextrocJiere, or a senestrocJiere 
according as it is represented a right or a left hand. 
(RlETSTAP says, but wrongly, according as it issues from 
the dexter or sinister flank.) If the elbow is not shown 
the term is un avant bras. 

Or, a right hand and arm issuing from a cloud in sinister 
flank and holding a sword proper in pale, was borne by 
the Princes POTEMKIN in Russia. The arms of the 
County of SCHWERIN as quartered by the Princes of 
MECKLENBURGH, are ; Gules, an arm in armour to the 
wrist embowed, issuing from clouds on the sinister side, 
and holding a gem ring, all proper, round the arm a scarf 
azure. (The clouds were originally only the puffings 
at the top of the sleeve !) 

Or, a chief azure, thereon a hand and arm proper vested 
ermine, the maniple (sleeve or fanori] ermine extending over 
the field in pale; is the coat of VlLLIERS DE L'lSLE 
ADAM, Grand Master of the Knights of the Hospital of 
St. John. Similar to this the coat of MOHUN : Gules, a 
dexter arm proper in a maunch ermine, the hand holding a 
fleur-de-lis or (cf. p. 458). 

Several of the Highland Chieftains have a quartering 
in which a hand issues from the flank and holds a cross- 
crosslet (^ Plate XXXVI II.,figs. 4, 5,6, and pp. 512, 513). 

In French Armory two arms are sometimes repre- 
sented as issuing from the flanks, the hands being 
clasped in the centre of the escucheon ; this bearing- 
is known as a Foi. The Counts COUSIN DE LA 
TOUR- FONDUE bear : d'Azur, a une Foi d' argent. 



( 206 ) 

UAzur, a une Foi d'or were the arms of Foi DE ST. 
MAURICE. 

This bearing occurs in a very few instances in English 
Heraldry. Sable, two arms issuing from the flanks and 
embowed in fess argent, the hands conjoined, between 
three crescents of the second, is recorded in CAMDEN'S 
Visitation of Huntingdonshire in 1613 (Camden Society), 
p. 55 for CRESPIN, or CRISPIN. Gules, two arms issuing 
from the flanks, the hands conjoined argent between three 
hearts or; are the armes parlantes of PUREFOY, Bishop 
of HEREFORD (1554-1557). Another coat borne by a 
family of the same name is : Sable, six armed hands 
embracing in pairs argent two and one. Gules, two hands 
issuing from the sinister base and grasping a broken two- 
handed sword in bend-sinister proper, is the coat of KEMP, 
in Scotland. Sable, two arms issuing from the flanks in 
base, conjoined in chevron and grasping a human heart or, 
is the allusive coat of DE LA FOY. 

Gules, three dexter arms vambraced fessways in pale 
argent, the hands proper, is the coat of ARMSTRONG. 

Gules, three dexter arms conjoined at the shoulders, and 
flexed in pairle or, the fists clencJied proper ; is borne by 
the family of TREMAYNE (Plate XX., fig. 10). 

HUMAN RIB BONES appear in the canting coats of 

COSTANZO of Naples, DE LA COSTE DU VlVIER, etc. 

The arms of the Portuguese DA COSTA are : Gules, six 
human ribs arg&nt, ranged 2, 2, 2, fessways in pale. 

HUMAN LEGS AND FEET occur with some frequency 
as Heraldic charges (Plate XX., fig. 8). Argent, a man's 
leg erased at the thigh in pale sable, is borne by the family 
of PRIME in Sussex. 

The well known insignia of the ISLAND and KING- 
DOM OF MAN (Plate XX., fig. 9) is at least as ancient 
as the middle of the thirteenth century. This was the 
ancient symbol of Trinacria (Sicily), afterwards adopted 
as the arms of that kingdom under MURAT, and it is 



( 207 ) 

interesting as an example of a heraldic charge evolved 
out of ancient symbolism. As borne in comparatively 
modern times it is blazoned as : Gules, three legs in 
armour embowed and conjoined at tJie tliighs proper, 
spurred and garnished or. An early example of this 
coat is engraved in Mr PLANCHE'S Pursuivant, p. 112, 
with the legs encased in the banded chain mail of the 
thirteenth century, and without spurs. This coat has 
been quartered as " Arms of Pretension " by various 
English families; and still appears among the quarterings 
borne by the Earls of DERBY ; and the Dukes of 
ATHOLE ; and M'LEOD. It is also borne for the name 
of AUFFRECK. The legs would in foreign blazon be 
described as " conjoined in pairle : " and the coat is thus 
borne on the Continent by the Franconian family of 
RABENSTEINER ; and by DROGOMIR in Poland. 

A remarkable Spanish coat is that borne by the family 
of BONES COMBES : Or, two legs issuing from tJie flanks 
of the shield, the feet immersed in water in base all proper. 
(Escudo de oro, y dos piernas en ademan de banarse. 
PlFERRER, Nobiliario de los Reinos y Senorios de Espana, 
vol i., No. 279, Madrid, 1857-1860.) The MALAGAMBAS 
bear : Azure, a human leg proper, shod, and pierced by an 
arrow in bend argent, distilling blood. On a chief of the 
second three estoiles of the first. 

FEET alone occur in the Armes parlantes of VOET and 
SNEEVOET of Flanders ; Azure, three human feet argent. 
A family of VOET in Holland bears : Gules, a human 
foot argent ; and one of the same name in Flanders 
bears : Azure, three human feet, the soles alone appearing, 
proper. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ANIMATE CHARGES : II. BEASTS. 

I. THE LlON. No animal has anything like so 
prominent a position in early, and even in later heraldry, 
as that which is held by the Lion. 

The earliest known example of it is on the seal of 
PHILIP I., Count of FLANDERS, appended to a document 
of 1164; and before long it became the ensign of the 
Princes of NORWAY, DENMARK, SCOTLAND, and 
(according to most writers on the subject) ENGLAND, 
of the Counts of HOLLAND, in fact of most of the leading 
potentates of Europe, with the important exception of 
the German Emperors and Kings of FRANCE. In 
England in the reign of HENRY III. it was borne by so 
many of the principal nobles, that no idea can have 
existed that sovereign houses had an exclusive right to 
it. In Foreign Armory the coats in which the lion 
appears as the principal, most frequently as the sole 
charge, may be numbered by thousands. 

The English lions which appear first on the seals of 
RICHARD I., 1195, 1198 (DEMAY, Le Costume d'apres les 
Sceaux, p. 144) were, in the reign of HENRY III. and for 
two centuries afterwards, more generally designated 
leopards, and that not only (as has been said) in 
derision by the French but by the English themselves. 
In token of their being his armorial insignia, three 
leopards were sent to HENRY III. by the Emperor 
FREDERICK II. GLOVER'S Roll, c. 1250, which gives 
lions to six of the English Earls, begins with " Le roy 
d'Angleterre porte, Goules trois lupards d'or" On the 



( 2 9 ) 

occasion of the marriage of the same King's daughter, the 
Princess MARGARET, with King ALEXANDER III. of 
Scotland, a robe was made for the King, of purple sar- 
cenet with three leopards in front and three behind ; and 
these little leopards were also placed on the violet 
brocade robe made for the Queen (Close Roll, 1252). 
The designation of leopards continued to be generally 
adhered to throughout the reigns of the three EDWARDS, 
though the identity of the animals was occasionally 
disputed; and NICOLAS SERBY was "Leopard" Herald 
in the reign of HENRY V. But by the end of the 
fifteenth century it seems to have been decided by com- 
petent authority that the three beasts in the royal coat 
were lions ; and the early armorialists, JOHN of Guild- 
ford, NICHOLAS UPTON, and the rest, protest strongly 
against their being called anything else. 

Mr PLANCHE considers that, from a historical point 
of view, these writers and their successors are in the 
right, and his reasoning is somewhat as follows. In the 
early days of coat-armour, more especially in England, 
the animals most usually met with were lions and 
leopards, which in the rude drawing of the day were 
distinguishable only by their respective attitudes. The 
lion's normal position was rampant ; the " ramping and 
roaring lion " of the Psalmist, erect and showing but one 
eye and one ear ; that of a leopard was what came to be 
defined as " passant-gardant," walking along but showing 
both eyes and ears. As the necessity for varying the 
attitude of either animal arose out of the multiplica- 
tion of coats, the terms came into use of lion leoparde for 
what we call a lion rampant-gardant, and leopard lionne 
for a lion passant. Now, when a lion came to be 
repeated more than once in a coat of arms, and space 
did not admit of its being placed in the rampant 
attitude, it was very apt to assume the position 
of a leopard lionne, or even of a leopard simply. 



The earliest trace which we have of the arms of any 
member of the English royal house is on the shield of 
King JOHN as prince, on whose seal are two lions passant, 
or leopards-lionnes. These become three on his seal as 
king, in 1290. On the other hand the earliest Great 
Seal of RICHARD I. (c. 1189), where we have also the 
earliest representation of the arms of any actual monarch, 
exhibits a lion rampant ; but as the convex shield pre- 
sents but half its surface, Mr PLANCHE (following 
HENRY SPELMAN in his Aspilogid) considers that the 
complete device had been two lions rampant-combatant. 
(See the Catalogue of Seals in the British Museum, vol. i., 
Nos. 80 and 91.) He finds corroboration of this view in 
the words of the contemporary poet WILLIAM DE BARR, 
who says of RICHARD, " rictus agnosco leonum illius in 
clypeo ;" and in the description in GEOFFREY VINESAUF'S 
Chronicle of his interview with FREDERICK BARBAROSSA, 
in the Isle of Cyprus, where the English King's saddle is 
described as having behind "two small lions of gold 
turned towards each other with their mouths open and 
each stretching out his forelegs as if to attack and devour 
the other." It may be remarked that VlNESAUF's 
evidence would be stronger if he had alluded to the lions 
as the coat-armour of RICHARD ; his description rather 
implies that they were embroidered on his saddle. In 
any case, however, after a universal and authoritative 
recognition of four hundred years' standing of the 
English^ royal animals as lions, they can hardly again 
be degraded on doubtful antiquarian grounds into 
leopards. The idea that sprang up in the middle 
ages that the leopard was the issue of the pard and 
lioness, helped to bring that heraldic animal into 
disrepute, and accounts for the anxiety of the early 
English armorial writers to adopt or revert to the 
designation of lions. 

In French blazon the old distinction between the 



lion and the leopard is still preserved. The lion is our 
lion rampant. The leopard is the same beast but 
passant-gardant ; while the names lion-leoparde and 
leopard-lionne are respectively given to our lion passant, 
and rampant-gardant. 

The knowledge of natural history possessed by the 
early heralds, or wearers of coat-armour, was limited. 
Most of them had never seen a lion ; but the graphic 
and spirited character of the drawing made up for its 
want of realism. Mr RUSKIN (Modern Painters, iv., 106) 
contrasting the true, or mediaeval, griffin with its false 
or renaissance counterpart, remarks that the Lombard 
workman did really see a griffin in his imagination and 
carved it from the life. The mediaeval herald had in 
like manner so truly beheld with his immortal eyes 
a creature possessed of the power and majesty of the 
lion, that he delineated it as he had seen it. The lions 
of the fourteenth century are perhaps the best. Towards 
the sixteenth their grotesque character becomes some- 
what exaggerated ; but they still convey the idea of 
strength and kingly dignity ; and are vastly superior to 
the utterly un-idealised lion of more modern heraldry. 

Before enumerating the different attitudes of lions in 
later heraldry, the terms armed and langued^ as applied to 
them and to other beasts of prey, have to be explained. 
The former term applies to the claws and teeth, the 
latter to the tongue. When a lion, or other animal, 
is described as armed argent and langued gules, it is 
meant that the claws and teeth are argent, and the 
tongue gules. In English heraldry it is presumed that, 
unless otherwise blazoned, the lion is armed and 
langued gules , and there is therefore no occasion to 
mention the fact. In the case, however, of either the 
lion, or the field which is charged with it, being 
gules, the lion is represented armed and langued azure, 
unless otherwise described. This is the general under- 



( 212 ) 

standing with regard to the blazons of the Heralds' 
College in modern times ; but in the heraldry of 
Scotland this usage, though introduced, has not been 
at all times so clearly admitted. 

In Foreign Armory a lion is understood to be repre- 
sented rampant unless some other position be expressed, 
and it may be noticed that the royal beast is only very 
exceptionally borne proper, that is of its natural 
colours. Of the multitude of coats charged with lions 
only a few ancient examples can be recorded here. 

Or, a lion rampant sable (d'Or, au lion de sable] is the 
well known coat of the Counts of FLANDERS (pp. 483); 
of the Duchy of JULIERS (quartered by the Counts 
PALATINE OF THE RHINE, and in the Royal Escucheon 
of PRUSSIA) ; by the Lords of KONIGSTEIN ; and of 
MAHLBERG, the latter quartered by the Princes of 
NASSAU, and the Grand Dukes of BADEN. It was 
borne by the Counts of LYONNAIS ET FOREZ, and the 
families of GRASSE, and LEON (Salle des Croises, 1096). 
In Britain it was used by the families of WELLES ; 
GRIFFITHS, Princes of CARDIGAN and GWENT ; and by 
their kinsmen the MATHEWS. 

Or, a lion rampant gules (cTOr, au lion de gueules] is 
the blazon of the Counts of HOLLAND, and the original 
coat of the Counts of HAPSBURG, now Emperors of 
AUSTRIA. It was also early borne in France by the 
families of FOUCAULD ; and DU PUY ; in Germany by 
the Counts UNRUH ; RECKHEIM ; and ROUCY ; in 
Britain by the CHARLETONS, and other descendants of 
the Princes of POWYS ; in Scotland by FARQUHARSON, 
MACDONALD, and MACINTOSH ; and by the DUFFS, 
Earls, now Dukes, of FIFE. 

A rgent, a lion rampant azure (d*A rgent, au lion d'azur] 
is the coat of the CRICHTONS of Frendraught ; of the 
BRUGES, and FAUCONBERGES, or FALCONBRIDGES ; 
and of the Counts MENSDORFF-POUILLY of Austria. 



PLATE XXI. 






1. Lion Rampant. 
Louvain. 



2. Lion Rampant gardant. 3. Lion Rampant regardant. 
Sherburn. Pryse. 







4. Lions Passant. 
Clifford. 



5. Lions Passant, gardant. 6. Lions Passant, regardant. 
Le Strange. M'Mahon. 




7. Lion salient. 
DUlington. 





8. Lion dismembered. 9. Lion Queue fourche"e. ' 
Maitland. Montfort, Earl of Leicester. 






10. Tricorporate Lion. 

Nashe. 



11. Winged Lion. 
Venice. 



12. Lioncels. 
Longespee, Earl of Salisbury. 



( "3) 

A rgent, a lion rampant gules (d'A rgent, an lion de gueules) 
is borne by the Counts of ARMAGNAC in France ; the 
Barons of WARTENBERG ( Wappenrolle von Zurich, 
No. 191), the Counts von ALTDORF ; the PREISSACS, 
Dues de FlM ARGON, and D'ESCLIGNAC in France ; and 
by the family of FEZENSAC (Salle des Croises, 1097). 

A rgent, a lion rampant sable (cTA rgent, au lion de sable), 
are the arms of STAPLETON, and FlTZ ROGER in 
England, the Welsh families of LLOYD ; MORGAN ; 
WYNN, etc., the Counts BARBARANI, and LOREDAN of 
Venice, the Barons BERSTETT of Austria, the French 
families of FlENNES, and POLASTRON (both in the Salle 
des Croises, thirteenth century), etc. 

A sure, a lion rampant argent (d'Azur, au lion d' argent) 
is borne in England by the MONTALTS, and CREWES ; 
in Scotland by LAMONT, M'DOUGALL, and M'NEILL 
(quartered with other coats, v. p. 512). In Italy it was 
carried by the BELLUOMI, and the Venetian Rossi, etc. 

Azure, a lion rampant or (dAzur, au lion dor), is 
a coat of frequent occurrence both in Britain and on 
the Continent. At home it is an early coat of NEVILE ; 
BRAOSE or BREWYS ; and was borne by HUGHES ; 
MEREDITH ; and LLOYD in Wales ; in France by SAULX, 
Due et Pair de TAVANNES ; the families of LA NOE, 

PlEDEFER, GRAAY T , MUSY, etc. 

Gules, a lion rampant argent (de Gueules, au lion d' argent) 
are the arms of the English MOWBRAYS, quartered by 
the Duke of NORFOLK ; and of the Scottish WALLACES. 
Abroad it is borne by the PONTEVEZ, Dues de 
SABRAN {Salle des Croises, 1096); the Neapolitan Counts 
D'ARIANO; the MANTELLI of Italy, the LOVENSCHILDS 
of Denmark ; the ANTOINGS, VAN NOORDENS, VAN 
SANDWYKS, etc., of the Low Countries, etc. 

Gules, a lion rampant or (de Gueules, au lion d'or), the 
arms of FlTZ ALAN of Arundel, is also a coat borne with 
great frequency. It is the old coat of the Dukes of 



ZAHRINGEN ; of the Vicomtes de GOYON ; of the 
MAULEONS, and LAUTRECS, crusaders in 1224; of the 
MONTLEONS, bannerets of Touraine ; MONTBAZON, 
SOISSONS, ROSTAING, SABRAN, VERTHAMONT, etc. 

Or, a lion rampant azure (Plate XXL, fig. i), the arms 
of LOUVAIN, is the well known coat of PERCY, Earls of 
Northumberland ; and of RIVERS, Earls of DEVON, etc. 
It was also borne by the Counts of ZUTPHEN, in Holland ; 
by the Counts, afterwards Princes of SOLMS ; by the 
GRAMONTS (Dues de CADEROUSSE, GUICHE, and 
GRAMONT, in France) ; by the Neapolitan ACQUAVIVA, 
Dukes of ASTI, etc. 

Sable, a lion rampant argent (de Sable, au lion d 1 argent], 
is the coat of CROMWELL ; VERDON ; SEGRAVE ; (later 
crowned or) in England ; of the Duchy of AOSTA ; of 
the Norman Counts of MEULLENT ; of the Barons of 
QUERNFURTH ; and the Counts of GONDRECOURT. 

Sable, a lion rampant or (de Sable, au lion a" or} are the 
arms of the Duchy of BRABANT ; of the CAPECI of 
Naples; the Marquesses of NYDEGGEN ; the CHAUVIGNY, 
Comtes de BLOT, etc. 

Vert, a lion rampant argent (de Sinople, au lion a" argent], 
is borne by the Barons BOLEBEC in England, the 
HUMES or HOMES of Scotland, the DIAZ of Spain, etc. 
A list at least as extensive might easily be given in which 
the like arms are borne with the simple differences of the 
addition of a crown, as in the coat of the Lordship of 
GALLOWAY : Azure, a lion rampant argent, crowned or, also 
borne by the Counts of GLEICHEN ; and of EBERSTEIN 
(one of the BRUNSWICK quarterings), or of the lion's 
tail being fourcJiee (originally a mere freak of the artist's 
brush, afterwards converted into a real mark of differ- 
ence) thus : Argent, a lion rampant queue four chee gules, 
is the coat of VALKENBURG ; and in England was borne 
by MOUNTFORD; HAVERING; ST. PAUL; and BREWSE. 

With the above indications of the important position 



( s ) 

occupied by the lion in British and Foreign Heraldry it 
may suffice to add here a few other examples in which 
the royal beast figures in important coats. 

The MARSHALLS, Earls of PEMBROKE bore : Per pale 
Or and vert, a lion rampant sable. The TALBOT coat is, 
Gules, a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed or ; the 
GRAYS of Howick bore the same, but with the charges 
argent (v. p. 435). 

The Counts of PoiCTOU ; the GOYONS, Dues of 
VALENTINOIS ; the Dukes of COURLAND ; the Counts 
of SUSENBERG, etc., all bore: Argent, a lion rampant 
gules crowned or. 

Azure, billetty a lion rampant or, are the well known arms 
of the Counts of NASSAU (v. pp. 404 and 466). A similar 
coat : Argent, billetty (couches) azure, a lion rampant gules, 
was borne by the Counts of GEROLDSECK (v. p. 490). 

Azure, fleury and a lion rampant argent is the coat 
of HOLLAND of England ; and, with the charges or, of 
BEAUMONT, both in England and in France. Azure, 
crusily a lion rampant or, was borne by the BRAOSES, 
BREUS,or BREWES (v. ante BRUCE, p. 144); the LOVELLS 
bore the reverse. 

The tressured lion of SCOTLAND is treated separately 
(pp. 177, etc.), but Argent, a lion rampant azure within 
the Royal tressure gules, is the coat of LYON, Earl of 
STRATHMORE (v. p. 349). 

In Plate XXL, are exhibited the attitudes of lions in 
later heraldry, some of which are applicable to other 
animals. In the examples which were given above, all 
are in the original and most frequent attitude known as 
rampant, the left foot alone supporting the body, the 
head in profile, the tail elevated and curved, as in fig. I, 
the arms of PERCY, or LOUVAIN. In the position known 
as rampant-gardant (the "leopard lionne" of French 
blazon) the attitude of body, legs, and tail is the same 
but the head is front faced, i.e. the full face is turned 



towards the spectator as in No. 2, the coat of SHER- 
BURNE of Stony hurst in Lancashire, Argent ', a lion 
rampant vert. Azure, fleury, a lion rampant-gardant 
argent is the original coat of the ROLANDS, or HOLLANDS, 
Earls of KENT, and Dukes of SURREY (v. p. 215); 
Gules, a lion rampant-gardant argent was the coat of 
MARNEY. Gules, a lion rampant-gardant or, is borne 
by the Counts and Princes of SAYN. 

When the lion is rampant-regardant the general atti- 
tude is the same but the head looks backward and is 
accordingly seen in profile, as in No. 3, the coat of 
PRYSE of Goggerdan in Wales, Or, a lion rampant- 
regardant sable. Or, a lion rampant-regardant gules, was 
borne by GUTHRIE of Halkertoun in Scotland. 

When passant (in French blazon, un lion ttopardf) the 
beast is depicted in a walking attitude the dexter fore- 
paw elevated, the other three resting on the ground, the 
head in profile and the tail curved over the back, as in 
the English coat of GlFFARD (No. 4). Gules > three lions 
passant argent (de Gueules, a trois lions leopardes d j argent). 
The position termed passant-gardant, the attitude of the 
Royal lions of ENGLAND, is the same, but the animals 
are front or full-faced, as in No. 5, the coat of 
LESTRANGE, Gules, two lions passant-gardant argent (de 
Gueules, a deux leopards d y argent). A rgent, a lion passant- 
gardant gules, crowned with an imperial crown, and 
gorged witJi an open one, both proper, are the arms 
of OGILVY, Earls of AlRLY. The same position with 
the head in profile and looking backward is known as 
passant-regardant, as in (No. 6) the Irish coat of MAC- 
MAHON : Argent, three lions passant-regardant in pale 
gules. This coat is also borne by the Marquises of 
MACMAHON in France, the family to which belongs the 
late President of the French Republic, Le Marechal 
MARIE EDME PATRICE MACMAHON, Due de MAGENTA, 
who bears the same arms : d 'Argent, a trois lions 



Icopardcs de gueules regardants ; with the addition of the 
special augmentation of a Duke of the French Empire : 
a chief gules seme of etoiles (drawn as mullets) argent 
(a un chef de gueules seme d' etoiles d' argent). 

An attitude slightly differing from rampant, is that 
known as salient, in which the animal is represented in 
the act of springing upon its prey, both its hind legs 
being on the ground and its fore-paws elevated and 
extended, as in No. 7, the arms of the DALLINGTONS : 
Gules, a lion salient or. Or, a lion salient sable, is the 
coat of FELBRIDGE. (This is an attitude seldom, or 
never, met with in Foreign blazon.) 

A few other attitudes are enumerated by heralds, but 
though sometimes used for crests, are rarely if ever found 
in arms ; such is statant, in which the lion stands with 
all four legs upon the ground. In French blazon this is 
described as pose. Azure, a lion statant or, are the arms 
assigned to EDMUND BROMFIELD, Bishop of LLANDAFF, 
in 1389. A lion in the same attitude but presenting his 
full face to the spectator, is said to be statant-gardant. 
This is the attitude in which the lion now appears in 
the Royal Crest of England. In some modern blazons 
the word statant is omitted. 

The lion couchant is represented lying down ; and 
dormant, as sleeping with its head resting on its fore- 
paws. Sable, a lion or, couchant upon a terrace azure is the 
coat of the family of HEIN of Lorraine. Sejant is the 
term applied to a lion sitting ; sejant-gardant, when in 
this attitude the full face is shown ; sejant-rampant when 
though still seated the fore-paws are raised in the air, as 
in the coat of HOHENHAUSER of Suabia ; Argent, a lion 
sejant-rampant sable ; and sejant-affronte when, as in the 
Royal Crest of SCOTLAND, the seated lion is shown with 
its whole body facing the spectator. 

Or, a lion rampant dismembered, or couped at all its 
joints, gules, is the coat of the MAITLANDS (Plate XXL, 



( "8 ) 

fig. 8), an allusive coat to an old orthography of the name 
" mautelent," or mutilated. Allusion has already been 
made to the representation of the lion with a double tail 
(queue fourchee}, and to the fact that this, which has in 
process of time become a real difference or distinction in 
the case of some important coats, arose simply from the 
exuberance of the painter's fancy in treating the swelling, 
or central enlargement, of the tail of the conventional 
mediaeval lion. 

The coat of the kingdom of BOHEMIA is now, Gules, a 
lion rampant, queue fourchee argent, crowned or. (In the 
1 4th century Zurich Wappenrolle the tail is thus treated.) 
In the historical Heraldry of ENGLAND we have other 
examples : Gules, a lion rampant queue fourcJiee argent is 
the coat of SIMON DE MONTFORT, Earl of LEICESTER 
(Plate XXL, fig. 9); and Or, a lion rampant queue fourchee 
vert was borne by the SUTTONS, Barons DUDLEY. 
Azure, a lion rampant queue fourchee or appears in the 
old Rolls of Arms for STAPLETON. In many important 
historic coats the lion is represented crowned (in some 
cases the crown is a much later addition to the original 
arms). In many coats especially in Foreign Armory the 
lion grasps some object with its paws ; thus Azure, a lion 
rampant or holding a quince of the last, slipped vert, are the 
arms of the Italian SFORZA. Azure, on a mount in base 
vert, a lion rampant crowned or, and holding a sabre 
argent, is borne by the Princes of KOHARY in Hungary. 
At times it is collared (with or without a chain), or 
gorged with a coronet or antique crown. A lion is said 
to be morne in the very rare examples in which it is 
deprived of its natural weapons the teeth and claws. A 
lion morne" appears as a canting charge in the coat of the 
old French family of DE MORNAY : Fasce d argent, 
et de gueules, au lion morne de sable couronn^ d*or brocJiant 
sur le tout. I have noticed that the lion morne occurs in 
the arms of several old Breton families, KERBOURIOU, 



KERBESCAT, KERANGUEN, etc. It is styled diffamed 
when without a tail, and evire when represented without 
indications of sex. Other leonine monsters are occa- 
sionally found, e.g., two-headed lions, and lions bi- 
corporate and tri-corporate. Examples of the last are 
afforded by the seal of EDMUND CROUCHBACK, ist Earl 
of LEICESTER ; and in the coat assigned to the family of 
NASH ; Or, a incorporate lion rampant azure the bodies 
issuing from tJie dexter and sinister chief points and from 
the base, all uniting in one head gardant in the fess point 
(Plate XXL, fig. 10). 

The Arms of the Republic of VENICE are the Evan- 
gelistic Symbol of its Patron Saint, ST. MARK. Azure, 
a winged lion coucJiant or, holding' between its fore-paws an 
open book thereon the words PAX TIBI, MARCE, EVAN- 
GELISTA (MEUS) proper (Plate XXL, fig. 11). 

By an utterly unnecessary refinement the name of 
lioncels is often given to a number of lions represented in 
the same field, or to lions charged upon an Ordinary, and 
therefore of smaller size. Thus, the coat of WILLIAM 
LONGESPEE, Earl of SALISBURY (Plate XXL, fig. 12), is 
often blazoned : Azure, six lioncels three, two, one, or. 
The family of DE BEAUVAU in France thus blazons its 
coat : d'A rgent, a quatre lionceaux de gueules armes et 
couronnes d'or (these lions are represented 2 and 2). 
The French family of MONTGOMMERY bears ; de Gueules, 
au chevron determine accompagne de trois lionceaux 
leopardes d'or. 

We often find instances in which the lion is borne not 
of one tincture but barry, or bendy, or chequy, or other- 
wise divided. The arms of the Grand Dukes of HESSE 
are : Azure, a lion barry argent and gules crowned or. 
The Spanish MENDEZ bear Argent, on a lion gules three 
bends or. 

Lions and other animals ordinarily face to the dexter 
side of the shield, unless otherwise blazoned ; when they 



( 220 ) 

are required to face the sinister they are said to be 
contournes. But in Germany this is a matter which is 
treated as of no importance. The German heraldic 
artist who arranges a series of shields for decorative pur- 
poses has no hesitation about turning the charges to the 
sinister if it seem desirable ; and in the case of quartered 
or impaled coats in which several lions appear, it is 
quite usual to make the lions turn so as to face each 
other, or to look towards the central line of the shield. 
Thus in the arms of WALLENSTEIN, Duke of FRIED- 
LAND, the arms are Quarterly, I and 4, Or, a lion 
rampant azure, crowned of the field ; 2 and 3, Azure, a 
lion rampant crowned or. Over all, en siirtout, as an 
augmentation, the Imperial arms: Or, a double-headed 
eagle displayed sable. Here the lions in the first and 
third quarters are drawn contournes, so as to face 
those in the second and fourth (cf. pp. 473, 490). The 
German heralds arrange helmets and crests on the same 
principle of symmetry. (See Chapter XIX.) 

In British Heraldry two lions rampant placed face to 
face are said to be counter-rampant, or combatant. 

When back to back they are said to be addorsed 
(addosses). 

Or, two lions combatant gules, is the coat of WYCOMBE. 
(Plate XXII., fig. i.) Per pale argent and or, t^vo lions 
combatant, the dexter gules the sinister argent, is borne by 
the Barons STEIN DE BRAUNSDORF. Gules, two lions 
rampant addorsed argent, is a coat of ROGERS. 

When two or more lions passant in pale face in 
opposite directions they are said to be counter-passant, 
as in Plate XXII., fig. 2 ; the arms of GLEGG : Sable, two 
lions counter-passant in pale argent. Or, three lions 
counter-passant sable, is the coat of TESTU, Marquis cle 
BALINCOURT. 

A demi-lion rampant, that is, the upper half of a lion 
rampant, with a portion of the tail, often occurs as a 



( 221 ) 

crest ; and very occasionally is used as a heraldic charge, 
either issuant or naissant, terms which, though often con- 
founded, should be carefully distinguished. The latter 
term is only used when the charge is represented as 
rising out of the middle of an Ordinary, or other charge 
(quasi nuncesset in nascendo]. Thus in Plate XXII., fig. 5, 
is the coat of Sir HENRY EAM, or ESME, K.G., temp. 
EDWARD III. : Or, a demi-lion rampant gules naissant 
from a /ess sable. Whereas fig. 4, the coat of CHALMERS 
of Balnacraig, is blazoned : Argent, a demi-lion rampant 
sable issuing out of a fess gules ; in base a fleur-de-lis of 
the last. Fig. 3 is the coat of MARKHAM : Azure, on a 
chief or a demi-lion rampant issuant gules. It should be 
noticed that this distinction between naissant and issuant 
is not observed by modern French Heralds, who apply 
both terms indifferently to a demi-lion. So far as my 
observation goes, if there is any distinction it is this : 
that an animal rising from the base line of the shield, or 
of an Ordinary, is generally said to be issuant (issanf], 
while an animal rising out of the midst of it is usually 
blazoned as naissant. UAzur, au lion naissant d'or, 
is the coat of CLAIRAMBAULT, Marquis de VENDEUIL ; 
with the lion crowned this is also the coat of the Barons 
ERATH of Nassau. D'Azur, seine* de fleurs-de-lis d'or, au 
lion naissant d^ argent was borne by the old French 
crusading family of MOREUIL. (Salle des Croises, 1202.) 
Per fess, or, and wavy azure and argent ; in chief a 
lion rampant isstiant gules ( Von Gold ilber Blau quer 
getheilt, im oberen goldenen Felde ein wachsender rother 
Lowe, im untern blauen zwei silberne wellenformig gezo- 
gene Querbalken} are the arms of the County of ROTELN, 
or R6TELEN, quartered in the full shield of the Grand- 
Dukes of BADEN (v. p. 491). Argent, three demi-lions 
rampant gules is the coat of STURMY. Or, three demi-lions 
rampant gules is borne by TOURNAI, Comtes d'OlSI. 
Gules, three demi-lions rampant argent, in the centre point a 



( 222 ) 

bezant, is the coat of the BENNETS, Earls of TANKER- 
VILLE. 

Parts of a lion are not unfrequent as charges, particu- 
larly the head, either erased or couped. Argent, three 
lion's heads erased gules (Plate XXII., fig. 6) is the coat of 
SCOTT of Bal weary. De Sinople, a trois tetes de lion 
arrachees d'or is borne by BERTHELAY QuESQUERTIN, 
of France. 

A lioris gamb is the whole fore-leg, in the walking 
attitude unless otherwise specified, as in Plate XXII. , 
fig. 7, the coat of NEWDEGATE, which is Gules, three lion's 
gambs, erased argent. Two lion's gambs, issuant from the 
flanks of the shield and conjoined in chevron, is the bearing 
of several English families, e.g., Azure, two lion's gambs 
chevronways argent, supporting a cinquefoil or, is a coat of 
CHIPPENDALE. 

A lion's paw is cut off at the middle joint, and is 
usually drawn erect, as in fig. 8, the coat of FEATHER- 
STONE : Argent, three lion's paws couped and erect sable. 

Lion's tails are occasionally found as heraldic charges ; 
as in the Cornish coat of CORKE : Sable, three lion's tails 
erect erased argent (fig. 9). They also occur as the canting 
coat of TAYLARD : Or, on a mount gules in base three 
lion's tails erect of the second curved towards the sinister. 

Only a single example of the use of the lioness as a 
heraldic charge is known to me. The family of CoiNG 
in Lorraine bears : d'Azur, a une lionne arrttee d'or. 

The following fourteenth century examples of the use 
of the lion as a heraldic charge are taken from the oft 
quoted Wappenrolle von Zurich, and should be of interest 
to the student of early armory. 

(51) END: Azure, a lion ramp ant- gar dant argent, its 
feet or. 

(186) MARTDORF : Argent, a lion statant-gardant gules. 

(284) CASTELN : Per pale or and argent, a lion statant- 
gardant gules. 



PLATE XXII. 




1. Lions Combatant. 
Wycombe. 




2. Counterpassant. 
Glegg. 




3. Issuant. 
Markham. 






4. Tssuant. 
Chalmers. 




5. Naissant. 
Esme. 




6. Lions' Heads. 
Scott. 




7. Lion's Gambs. 
Newdegate. 




8. Lion's Paws. 
Usher. 




9. Lions' Tails. 
Corke. 




10. Tiger. 
Lutwyche. 





11. Lions' Heads reversed 

and Jessant de lis. 

See of Hereford. 



12. Leopard's Face. 
Pole, Duke of Suffolk. 



(35) WlLDENVELS : Per pale argent and sable, in the 
first a demi-lion statant-gardant gules issuant from the 
dividing line. 

(408) TANNENVELS : Azure, a lion rampant or, queue 
argent. 

(489) RlNACH : Or, a lion rampant gules headed azure. 

A curious use of the lion as a charge occurs in several 
ancient coats of the Low Countries, e.g. in that of 
TRASEGNIES, whose arms are: Bande d'or et d'azur ; 
a Vombre dii lion brocJiant sur le tout, a la bordure 
engrelee d'or. Here the ombre du lion is properly repre- 
sented by a darker shade of the tincture (either of or or of 
azure], but often the artist contents himself with simply 
drawing the outline of the animal in a neutral tint. 

Among other curiosities of the use of the lion are the 
following foreign coats. 

BoiSSlEU in France, bears : de Gueules, seme de lions 
d'argent. 

MlNUTOLI of Naples : Gules, a lion rampant vair, the 
head and feet or. 

LOEN of Holland : Azure, a decapitated lion rampant 
argent, three jets of blood spurting from the neck proper. 

PAPACODA of Naples : Sable, a lion rampant or, its 
tail turned over its head and held by its teeth. 

The Counts REINACH of Franconia : Or, a lion ram- 
pant gules, hooded and masked azure (see above). 

Of coats in which several lions appear the following 
are examples. 

A rgent, tJiree lions rampant gules, crowned azure is the 
coat of BARBANCON. Argent, three lions rampant sable, 
is used by CHEVERELL in England, and with the lions 
crowned or, by HALEWIJN of Flanders (Armorial de 
Gueldre}. Gules, three lions rampant or, was the coat of 
Prince TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD. 

Or, three lions passant in pale sable, is borne by CAREW. 

Per pale azure and gules three lions rampant argent, is 



the coat of the HERBERTS, Earls of PEMBROKE and 
MONTGOMERY ; it is also borne by VAUGHAN. Sable, 
three lions passant in pale argent, is the coat of ENGLISH. 
Quarterly or and gules four lions passant gardant 
counterchanged was borne by LLEWELLYN AP GRIFFITH, 
Prince of NORTH WALES ; and is still used at times as 
the Arms of the Principality of WALES. 

Azure, six lions rampant or, is the coat of WILLIAM 
LONGESPEE, Earl of SALISBURY ; and LEYBURNE bears : 
Or, six lions rampant sable, in several ancient Rolls of 
A rms. 

II. OTHER BEASTS. 

THE TIGER. The tiger of real life is but rare as an 
armorial charge, and it is used in armory mainly as a 
crest, and for supporters granted to persons for service 
in India. Thus the supporters granted to OUTRAM 
(baronet) are two tigers, rampant gardant, wreathed with 
laurels and crowned with Eastern crowns, all proper. 

A very modern coat, granted to BRADBURY in 1874, 
is : A rgent, on a mount in base a tiger passant proper, on 
a chief vert two other tigers dormant, also proper. 

The Tiger is as infrequently found in Foreign Heraldry, 
and I have only on record three instances of its use. 
The modern blazon of the Italian FlRENZUOLA is : 
Argent, a tiger rampant proper girt round the body or, 
and holding a reaping hook proper, but I think the old 
blazon was a wild cat. 

The HERALDIC TIGER found in a few English coats, 
and sometimes used as a supporter, bears but little 
resemblance to the real animal. As drawn it has the 
body of a lion but the head nearly resembles that of a 
wolf (Plate XXII., fig. 10). Or, a tiger passant gules, is the 
coat of LUTWYCHE. In one or two old English coats 
the tiger is drawn in combination with a mirror. One 
of the old beliefs regarding the tigress was that she was 



so greatly afflicted with vanity that she could be robbed 
of her whelps if a mirror were placed in her path, the 
depredators finding it easy to carry off their prey while 
the mother was contemplating her personal charms ! 
(See GUILLIM, Display of Heraldry, pp. 188, 189.) 
Argent, a tiger or, regardant at a mirror on the ground 
proper, was the coat of SlBELL of Kent. 

THE LEOPARD. The leopard of natural history, as 
distinct from the lion, is not a frequent charge in British 
Armory, and it is quite probable that in most ancient 
instances in which it is found, the lion was really 
intended. Gules, a leopard passant gardant or, spotted 
sable, is the coat of ARLOTT, and the charge is clearly 
canting on the leopard of natural history (v. p. 210). 
The leopard also occurs occasionally as a supporter. 
The leopard's head, however, is a frequent heraldic 
charge : it is represented full-faced, and no part of the 
neck appears. Plate XXII., fig. 12, is the coat of POLE, 
Duke of SUFFOLK: Azure, a fess between three leopard's 
faces or. (See DALMATIA, p. 494.) 

The Marquises de BARBAN^OIS in France bore: de Sable, 
a trois tetes de leopard d'or arraches et lampasses de gueules. 

A curious combination of the leopard's head (often 
reversed) with the fleur-de-lis occurs in several old 
English coats. Gules, three leopard's heads jessant de Us 
or, appears to have been borne by the family of CANTE- 
LUPE in the thirteenth century. Of this family was 
THOMAS DE CANTELUPE, Bishop of HEREFORD, 1275- 
1282, and the arms since borne for that see (Plate XXII., 
fig. 11) are the arms of that prelate only differenced by 
the leopard's heads being reversed. Mr PLANCHE, in 
his Pursuivant of Anns, pp. 103, 104, shows that the 
original arms of the CANTELUPES were the fleurs-de-lis 
alone ; and though it is quite possible that the leopard's 
heads were added intentionally to mark an alliance or 
sub-infeudation, it yet appears probable that, as his 

Q 



( 226 ) 

engravings show, the charge may have been developed 
out of a variation in the drawing of the fleurs-de-lis 
Sable, three leopard's heads reversed jessant de Us, are the 
arms of WOODFORD. Sable, tJiree leopard's heads or, 
jessant de Us argent, are those of MORLEY. Gules, three 
leopard's heads or, jessant de Us azure, over all a bend 
of the last, are the arms of TENNYSON, and probably 
are only a variation of the similar arms of DENYS, or 
DENNIS. Lord TENNYSON, the poet-laureate, has a 
grant of the following coat : Gules, on a bend nebule 
between three leopard's heads jessant de Us or, a laurel 
wreath in chief proper. 

With the Heraldic leopard we may couple the LYNX, 
the PANTHER, and the WILD CAT, or CATAMOUNT, 
which appears in some Scottish crests. 

The domestic cat, dignified by the old Heralds with the 
title of musion, occurs in the canting arms of KEATE, 
or KEATS (Argent, three cats in pale sable). The 
COMPTONS of Catton, in allusion to their place of 
residence, bore : Sable, three cats passant gardant argent 
collared and belled or. The cats in the arms of the Scotch 
family of SCHIVES, or SEEVES : Sable, three cats passant 
in pale argent, are said to be civet cats, and are thus 
allusive to the name. There are several Foreign coats 
which bear a panther, but in the Armory of Britain the 
heraldic panther is only met as a supporter ; as thus 
borne by the Duke of BEAUFORT it is a leopard-like 
beast, inflamed at the ears and mouth, and seine of 
roundles of various colours. 

Per fess argent and gules, in chief a denii-panther 
issuant argent inflamed proper, is borne by the Princes of 
STARHEMBERG. The Tirolese FIGHTERS bear: Per 
fess argent and gules, a Jieraldic pantJier counter-changed. 
Argent, a panther rampant azure, is the coat of HOCHART 
of Wiirtemberg. Azure, a pantJier rampant argent 
crowned or, is the coat of the Pomeranian JATSKOW. 



( 227 ) 

BOAR. The boar, i.e., the wild boar, or sanglier, is 
represented in profile, and in British armory is usually 
passant. Like the lion it is often described as armed 
and langucd, but this is needless when tusks and tongue 
are of the natural colour. The French armorists call 
the tusks of the wild boar its defenses, and the beast 
instead of being termed armed is said to be dcfendu. 
Gules, a boar passant or (Plate XXI II. , fig. i) belongs to 
the family of BAIRD of Auchmedden in Banffshire. 
Argent, a boar rampant sable, is the coat of the Counts 
von BASS I:\VITZ ; the Barons von EBERSPERG bear : 
Argent, on a mount vert a boar passant sable. 

The head of the wild boar (Jiure] is of frequent 
occurrence as a heraldic charge ; and is often described as 
armed ; thus, Plate XX I II., fig. 2 is the coat of ELPHIN- 
STONE : Argent, a cJievron sable between tJiree boars 
heads erased gules armed argent (d' Argent, au chevron 
de sable, accompagne de trois hures de sanglier de gueulcs 
aux defenses d'argenf]. Azure, tJiree boars heads coupcd 
or is the well known coat of the great Scottish family 
of GORDON ; and Or, tJiree boar's heads erased gules, 
armed and langued azure, is borne by URQUHART. 
Sometimes the heads are borne erect, muzzle upwards ; 
Argent, three boars heads erased erect sable, is the coat of 
BOOTH (originally that of BARTON, see NISBET, ii. 49). 

The domestic PIG, as distinct from the savage wild 
boar, finds a place in Heraldry, usually as the charge 
of a canting coat ; as for instance : Azure, three boars 
passant in pale argent, is the coat of BACON. Sable, 
three boars argent, is the coat of SWYNEHOWE. Similarly 
in France theDES PORCELLETS (Marquises de MAILLANE) 
bore originally d* Or, a un porcelet passant de sable. Other 
less important branches of the house blazon the beast 
as a sanglier. The Marquises de HOUDETOT bore 
anciently, d'Or, a six pores de sable; and the blazon of 
the Norman HAUTOTS is d'Or, a sept porceaux de sable. 



( 223 ) 

Argent, a chevron between tJiree "pores" sable appears in 
the Rolls of Arms for SWYNETHWAYTE. 

Among the curiosities of Heraldry we may place the 
canting arms of HAM of Holland : Gules, five hams 
proper, 2, I, 2. The VERHAMMES also bear: Or, three 
hams sable. These commonplace charges assume almost 
a poetical savour when placed beside the very matter- 
of-fact coat of the family of BACQUERE : cTAzur, a un 
ecusson d'or en abime, accompagne de trots groins de pore 
d' argent ; and that of the WURSTERS of Switzerland ; 
Or, two sausages gules on a gridiron sable, the handle in chief. 

WOLVES. The wolf occurs in a good many coats 
in British Armory and is usually drawn salient, or leaping 
forward as if to seize its prey. It is however sometimes 
represented passant, as in the canting coat of LOWE, 
Gules, a wolf passant argent. Vert, a wolf sejant argent, 
is borne by the Dutch family DE WOLF. Or, a wolf 
passant sable, is the coat of the old Counts of WOLFFS- 
THAL. UOr, au loup rampant d'azur arme, etc., de 
gueules are the arms of the French Marquises d'AGOULT. 
Gules, a wolf rampant argent, was the armes parlantes 
of the Counts of WEISSENWOLFF. Gules, a wolf saliant 
or, is the coat of the Marquis d'ALBERTAS. 

In Spanish Heraldry the wolf is the most common of 
animals. It is there very often represented as ravissant, 
i.e., carrying the body of a lamb in its mouth and across 
its back. Or, a wolf saliant regardant sable ravishing' a dog 
proper, is the coat of the Austrian Barons von KALITSCH. 

The she-wolf occurs in several foreign coats : the 
French family of LOPPIN bear: d 'Argent, a deux louves 
rampantes et affrontees de sable. The SEGURS bear Azure, 
and the same charges argent. Gules, on a mount vert, a 
she-wolf coucJiant and suckling her young or, is the coat of 
the LUPARELLA family at Rome. Gules, a she-wolf 
suckling two children proper, is the allusive coat of the 
Bavarian family of ROMUL. 



PLATE XXII I. 





2. Boars' Heads. 
Elphinstone. 




3. Wolves' Heads. 
Robertson. 




4. Bear. 

St. Gall. 



\ 




5. Bears' Heads. 
Forbes. 




N. ./ 



Foxes countersalient. 
Williams. 




7- Stag trippant. 
Strachan. 






8. Stag at gaze. 
Somerford. 




9. Stags courant. 
Rae. 






10. Stag lodged. 11. Stag's Head cabossed. 
Downes. Mackenzie. 



12. Stags' Horns. 
Boyle. 



( "9 ) 

The wolf's head appears frequently as a charge, 
especially in Scottish coats. The arms of ROBERTSON 
of Strowan (Plate XXIII., fig. 3), are: Gules, three 
wolf's heads erased argent. In representing the head 
of the wolf it is usual to have a portion of the neck 
depicted ; and in the older representations of the boar's 
head, both at home and in Germany, the same was the case. 

BEAR. The Bear is not an animal frequently repre- 
sented in its entirety in British coats. When borne it is 
usually in reference to the name, and is drawn with a 
muzzle, and often with a collar and chain. Argent, a bear 
rampant sable muzzled or, is the coat of BERNARD, or 
BARNARD, and, with the addition of a collar and chain, of 
the BERESFORDS. A rgent (or Or), a bear passant sable, are 
the arms of FlTZ URSE. In Foreign Heraldry, as might 
be expected, its use is somewhat more frequent ; and it 
is generally drawn without collar, muzzle, or chain. Or, a 
bear rampant sable, is the coat of OELPER in Bavaria. 
Argent, a bear passant sable, of the Prussian families of 
BEHR, and ROCHOW. Argent, a bear statant sable, 
appears in the Wappenrolle von ZiiricJi for BARENSTEIN ; 
muzzled and collared the same is borne by BEHR of 
Prussia ; and BlORN of Denmark. The well known arms 
of the Swiss Canton of BERNE are : Gules, on a bend or a 
bear passant sable. Argent, a bear erect sable, is the coat 
of the Swiss Abbey of ST. GALL (Plate XXIIL, fig. 4). 

The white POLAR BEAR is certainly intended in the 
coat of WOHNSFLETH of Holstein : Azure, a white bear 
rampant contourne collared gules ; and the same animal is 
very probably represented in the arms of ARESEN of 
Denmark ; Azure, a bear passant argent. 

The BEAR'S HEAD frequently figures as a charge, and is 
usually drawn muzzled. Azure, three bear's heads argent, 
muzzled gules (Plate XXIIL, fig. 5) are the well known 
arms of the family of FORBES in Scotland. Azure, a 
fess or, in chief a bears head proper, muzzled and ringed 



( 23 ) 

or, is the coat of the BARINGS, Earls of NORTHBROOK, 
etc. 

Fox. The Fox is an animal seldom met in British 
Heraldry. Gules, a fox or, is assigned to the family of 
GAVE NOR. Argent, two foxes counter salient in saltire 
gules, the sinister surmounting the dexter (Plate XXIII., 
fig. 6), is the coat given for CADRODHARD, a British 
prince of the tenth century who certainly never bore it. 
It is, however, quartered in memory of their descent, by 
the family of WILLIAMS- WYNNE of Wynnstay. Argent, 
three foxes passant (or cour an f), gules (or sable], is borne 
by TREGOZ of Cornwall. 

Abroad, it is somewhat more frequently found. Or, 
on a mount, a fox proper, is the canting coat of the Dutch 
Counts van Vos ; other families of the name bear the fox 
passant, or rampant, gules. Or, a fox rampant sable, is the 
coat of the Venetian BALBI ; Vert, a fox rampant argent, 
is borne by the Barons von REINECK ; Argent, a fox 
rampant gules, are the armes parlantes of the Tirolese 
Counts FuCHSS, whose supporters are two foxes gules, 
mantled ermine. Per fess argent and azure (sometimes 
azure and argent) a fox rampant counter-changed, is the 
coat of the ZANI of Venice. The French families of 
RENARD, and RENAUD, bear the fox passant or ; the 
first on a field gules, the other on a field azure. Azure, 
three foxes rampant gules, is the coat of VON DER HEIM, 
and of RODENBERG in Holland. 

THE ELEPHANT is but little used in Heraldry ; and 
in British Armory is seldom found except as an allusive 
charge. Gules, an elephant passant argent (armed or), is 
assigned to the English ELPHINSTONES. Gules, an 
elephant argent on a mount in base or, is the canting coat 
of the Counts von HELFENSTEIN of Suabia, and appears 
very quaintly drawn in the Wappenrolle von Zurich, 
taf. ii., fig. 40. In its conventional representation, 
Argent, with a castle on its back proper, it is borne in an 



azure field by the Russian and German Barons le FORT, 
and it is thus represented in the insignia of the Chief 
Order of Knighthood of Denmark ; and in the arms of 
the STERCKS of Brussels, but in this last it is of sable, 
tinned gules > in a field argent, and the tower bears three 
armed men. The French family of DE BARRY bears : 
Azure, three elephants or ; the two in chief affrontcs. As 
supporters the elephant is used by the Prussian Counts 
von GOTTSTEIN ; the Danish families of AHLEFELD, 
DANESKIOLD, etc. ; and the English Earls of FOWLS. 

The ELEPHANT'S HEAD alone, is the charge of the 
arms of the Dutch family of DERX, who bear : Or, an 
elephant's head in profile proper. Sable, on a fess between 
three elephant's heads argent as many mullets of the field, 
is the coat of PRATT, Marquis of CAMDEN. Its tusks 
are borne by the Counts AvOGLI of Ferrara : Azure, 
three elephant's tusks issuing from the dexter flank argent. 

THE CAMEL (or DROMEDARY), is used in British 
Armory as an allusive charge by the families of CAMEL 
who bore Azure (or sable] a camel argent ; and Or, 
tJiree camels sable. Vert, a camel argent (or or) is borne 
by FALLOWES of Chester. The French CALMELS 
D'ARTENSAC use : d' Argent, a trois cJiameaux arretes 
statant d'azur. Its hump makes the camel an appropriate 
coat for the Italian GOBBI : Azure, on a terrace vert a 
camel argent. KROCHER of Prussia bore anciently, Or, 
a camel passant sable ; the more modern coat is, Azure, a 
camel argent. Camels heads are borne by KEMELS in 
Flanders, Azure, a chevron between three camel's heads 
or: and by DiEK of Holland. Camels support the arms 
of the Counts of ROMREE. 

STAGS (BUCKS, HARTS, HINDS, DOES) are frequent 
in British and German heraldry ; much less so in that 
of the southern countries. 

The terms of blazon used in regard to them differ 
somewhat from those applied to beasts of prey, and 



require separate explanation. The antlers of stags, 
being regarded as ornaments, rather than as weapons, 
are known as attires, and their branches are called tynes 
(cors in French), and the beast is said to be attired, 
(rame in French). As in the case of bulls, unicorns, and 
other cloven-footed animals, the stag is said to be 
unguled (ongle] when its hoofs are of a different tincture 
from its body. A stag in the walking attitude is said 
to be trippant. Plate XX I II., fig. 7, Azure, a stag 
trippant or, attired and unguled gules, is the coat 
of STRACHAN of Glenkindy, in Aberdeenshire. Azure, 
three bucks trippant or, is borne by GREENE. When 
standing still and full-faced, it is described as at gaze. 
The Barons von HlRSCHBERG bear, Argent, a stag at 
gaze gules. (Plate XXIII., fig. 8) Vert, a stag at gaze or, is 
borne by SOMERFORD of Stafford. The family of RAE 
of Pitsindie in Perthshire bore: Argent, three roebucks 
courant gules (Plate XXIII., fig. 9). A stag reposing is 
said to be lodged, or couchant : Sable, a stag lodged 
argent (Plate XXIII., fig. 10), is the coat of DOWNES 
of Chester. Vert, tJiree bucks lodged or, is a coat of 
ANDERSON. In the attitude of a lion saliant it is 
described as springing ; d 1 Azur, a trots cerfs elances d'or, 
is the coat of the Counts BORLUUT DE HOOG-STRATEN 
of Holland. Or, tJiree bucks rampant sable, unguled or, 
their attires wreathed of the tinctures, is borne by the 
German Counts of WALMODEN. Another family of WAL- 
MODEN bears : Or, three bouquetins, or chamois, sable. 

The REINDEER is borne by the HIRSCHMANNS of 
Franconia : tinctured gules it is used as a supporter by 
the Marquis of DOWNSHIRE, Viscount HEREFORD, the 
Lords KENSINGTON, etc. (see English Glossary, j.z/.). 

MOOSE-DEER are the supporters of the Lords CAR- 
LINGFORD and CLERMONT. 

In Scotland the stag's head erased in profile, is borne 
by several branches of the family of CRAWFURD ; and 



233 

it also appears on the seal of the ABBEY of HOLYROOD 
HOUSE in commemoration of a legend regarding the 
foundation of the religious house which is at least as 
old as the first half of the fifteenth century being told in 
the old Ritual Book of the Abbey (Bannatyne Club Mis- 
cellany, ii., 11) dating about the time of the captivity of 
JAMES I. in England. King DAVID I., according to 
BELLENDEN'S narration, coming to visit the Castle of 
Edinburgh on the Festival of the Elevation of the 
Holy Cross, when the country all round was " ane great 
forest, full of hartes, hyndes, toddis, and siclik manner 
of beistes," joined, contrary to the admonition of his 
confessor, a hunting party of his nobles, and had a 
miraculous escape from an enraged stag by the 
intervention in some shape of the Cross, and as an 
atonement for his having profaned this holy day and 
in thankfulness for his deliverance, he founded the 
Abbey of Holyrood House : Sir GREGAN CRAWFORD 
is said to have aided in some way in the King's preserva- 
tion, and thence acquired the coat alluded to, Argent, a 
stag's head erased gules. The favourite position however 
of the stag's head is cabossed (or caboshed}, that is, full-faced 
with no part of the neck visible. LEGGE, Earl of DART- 
MOUTH bears : A zure, a buck's head cabossed argent. Sable, 
three buck's heads cabossed argent belongs to the family 
of CAVENDISH, Dukes of DEVONSHIRE. Argent, on 
a bend azure tJiree buck's heads cabossed or, to that of 
STANLEY. Barry of six argent and azure over all three 
stag's heads cabossed or, is, with many variants, a coat of 
WOODWARD of Gloucestershire, and the neighbouring 
counties. In Scotland the stag's head cabossed, known 
as the Caberfae, is most associated with the family of 
MACKENZIE, whose arms are, Azure, a stag's head 
cabossed or (sometimes with a star or between the tynes). 
The French term of blazon for this bearing is " un 
rencontre'' BoUTON uses the term massacre, which is 



( 234 

really only applied to the attire and the piece of the 
skull connecting the horns, as in the coat of COCKS, 
Earl SOMERS ; Sable, a chevron between tJiree stag's 
attires argent (tie Sable, au cJievron d'or, accompagne dc 
trois massacres de c erf d" argent] ; and single antlers also 
occur as in the Scottish coat of BOYLE of KELBURNE 
(the paternal coat of the Earl of GLASGOW), Or, three 
harts horns erect gules two and one (Plate XX 1 1 1., fig. 12). 

In the quartered coat of the Dukes of BRUNSWICK two 
quarters are each charged with a single stag's horn, Argent, 
a stag s Jwrn gules is used for the County of REGENSTEIN ; 
Argent, a stags horn sable for that of BLANKENBERG. 

BULLS, OXEN, Cows and CALVES. When bulls or 
cows, etc., occur in Heraldry they are said to be armed 
of their horns, and unguled of their hoofs, as in the coat 
of BEVILL of Gwarnack, Plate XXIV., fig. I. Argent, a 
bull passant gules armed and unguled or ; this is also the 
coat of the Margravate of NIEDER LAUSITZ (v. p. 500). 
ASTLEY, Earl of SHAFTESBURY bears : Argent, three 
bulls passant sable armed and unguled or. Gules, on a 
mount in base vert an auroch, or wild ox argent, were the 
original arms of the AUERSPERGS, Princes of AUERS- 
PERG, Dukes of MUNSTERBERG in Silesia, etc. Argent, 
on a mount vert, a young bull statant gules is the coat of the 
Princes PONIATOWSKI, and the Counts ZALEWSKI, and 
KOMOROWSKI of Poland, of the clan ClOLEK ; it is also 
borne by the WAIDER of Tirol. Argent, a bull rampant 
gules, is the coat of TORA in Spain. Or, a bull passant 
sable horned or, is borne by the Barons PLESSEN ; de 
Gueules, a une vache d 'argent, is borne as a canting coat 
by LA VACHE DE LA TOUCHE of Brittany. The PUGET, 
Marquises de BARBENTANE, bear : d' Argent, a une vache 
passante de gueules surmontee d'un estoile entre les comes. 
Or, a cow sable, is borne by VACHER of Cambray. Or, 
two cows passant in pale gules, collared, armed and belled 
azure, were the arms of the Counts of BEARN, and borne 



235 

by the Kings of NAVARRE. The French term for belled 
is clarincc. (On the original arms of STYRIA, v. p. 499.) 

The family of VAQUER of Majorca bear : Azure, on a 
terrace a cow witJi her calf all argent. 

The calf is frequently used as a canting charge. Azure, 
a calf passant or ; and the same on a mount vert, are both 
borne by the families of KALFF of Holland. Argent, 
three calves passant sable; are the arms of MEDCALFE, 
or METCALFE. Argent, on a bend sable three calves or, 
are those of VEALE. 

The Heads of bulls, oxen, etc., may like those of stags, 
etc., be borne either caboshed, or in profile ; they ar.e 
drawn in profile unless the other form is prescribed in the 
blazon. Argent, a bull's head erased sable, Plate XXIV., 
fig. 2, is the older coat of the Scottish family of TuRN- 
BULL ; in later times three heads were substituted for 
the single one. (See BUFFLE, in French Glossary^} 

GOATS and GOAT'S HEADS are found occasionally as 
heraldic charges. The family of THOROLD of Lincoln 
bears : Sable, three goats salient argent (Plate XXIV., fig. 
3). Sable (or vert\ three goats passant argent, is borne 
by the families of STANSFELD, or STANSFIELD, of 
Yorkshire ; MARSTON of Lincolnshire uses : Sable, 
three goats salient argent (Plate XXIV., fig. 3), as does 
THOROLD. CABRERA, in Spain, bears: Argent, a goat 
rampant sable within a bordure of rocks proper ; a very 
curious example (PlFERRER, Nobiliario de 

E span a, No. 537). 

SHEEP, both rams and lambs, are frequently found as 
allusive charges. The coat of LAMBTON, Earl of 
DURHAM, is : Sable, a fess between tJiree lambs trippant 
argent. Vert, a lamb argent, is the coat of LAMBERT of 
Ireland ; VAN BUTEN ; LAMMENS ; and ADRIANI. LAM- 
BRECHT of Flanders bears the same with the field azure. 
Azure, a sheep argent, is borne by SCHAEP. of Holland ; 
and rampant by the Marquis AGNELLI. 



The sheep which is borne on an azure field by the 
Counts ALESSANDRI of Florence has two heads. 

The Barons von WlEDERHOLD of Bavaria use : Per 
pale or and azure, over all a ram salient argent. Gules, a 
ram passant argent, is the coat of the Franconian Counts 
VOIGT DE RlENECK ; and, with the ram salient, is also 
borne by the Barons BojANOWSKl. In the Wappenrolle 
von Zurich, Or, on a mount vert a ram passant sable, is 
the canting coat of RAMENSPERG (No. 72). Or, tJiree 
lambs sable, is borne by LAMMENS of Holland. 

Vert, three rams argent, is borne by BELIN ; and by 
PASTUREAU. Azure, a chevron between three rams or, is 
the coat of RAMSEY. 

THE PASCHAL LAMB. A lamb bearing on its shoulder 
a flag, or banner, argent charged with a cross gules, and 
having its head adorned with the saintly glory similarly 
charged, occurs not unfrequently in German Armory. 
Gules, a paschal lamb argent, on a terrace vert, is the coat 
of the Bavarian WtJLFER (and, without the terrace), of 
LAMPOINS of Holland. Plate XXIV., fig. 3. Azure, a 
paschal lamb argent, is borne by PASCAL of France, 
PETIT, and WOLTHERS of Holland. A curious use of 
this charge as a symbol of the Resurrection, and as a 
canting coat, is found in the arms of the families of 
OSTERTAG in Bavaria and Suabia : Azure, on a mount in 
base, a Paschal lamb argent. (OSTERHAUSEN, OSTER- 
HAMMER, and OSTERRIETH, also have the Paschal Lamb 
among their charges, and see the arms of PERTH, 
Chap. XXI., p. 632.) 

The late LYON granted to the honourable family of 
LAMB of Brechin, of which ancient city one was Provost, 
the following arms : Azure, a Paschal Lamb proper, on a 
chief argent three hawk's heads erased, also proper. The 
crest is a Paschal Lamb proper, and the motto, Virtus 
sine macula. 

THE ANTELOPE of Heraldry is generally represented 



PLATE XXIV. 





2. Bull's Head. 
Turnbull. 




3. Goats. 
Thorold. 




4. Paschal Lamb. 
Pascal. 




5. Antelope. 
Dighton. 




6. Horse. 

Westphalia. 




7. Hare. 
Cleland. 




8. Otter. 
Meldrum. 




9. Talbot. 
Wolseley. 





11. Mole. 
Mitford. 




12. Ermine spots. 
Henderson. 



in a very conventional manner (see Glossary of English 
Terms] ; its chief use in British Armory is as a 
supporter. Plate XXIV., fig. 5, is an instance of its 
employment as a charge ; Per pale argent and gules 
an antelope passant counter-changed, the coat of DlGHTON 
of Lincolnshire. 

THE HORSE alone, as distinct from its use in conjunc- 
tion with a mounted knight, is scarcely so frequent a 
charge as we might have expected. 

The escucheon of WESTPHALIA, Gules, a horse courant 
argent (Plate XXIV., fig. 6), formed part of the arms of the 
Electors of HANNOVER, and so was borne by the four 
GEORGES, and by WILLIAM IV., as a part of the Royal 
Arms of GREAT BRITAIN. Gules, a demi-horse argent 
hoofed and maned or, issuing out of water (either 
proper, or in its conventional representation barry 
wavy argent and azure} is the coat of TREVELYAN. 
Gules, on a base vert, a horse passant argent, cingled sable ; 
is borne by the Counts BYSTRZONOWSKI. 

One chief use of the horse is as an allusive coat. Gules, 
a horse argent, are the arms of the Roman CAVALLI, and 
salient of the French CHIVALETS, and CHEVALERIE ; Or, 
a horse rampant gules are those of RENNER ; Argent, a 
horse sable, saddled gules, those of POULAIN ; Argent, a 
horse proper of R6SSLER. Argent, a fess between tJiree 
colts courant sable, is the arms of COLT (Baronet). Gules, 
a mule passant argent, is the canting coat of MOYLE. 
The humble ass is the charge of the family of ESEL 
(Sable, an ass argent, a chief of the same) ; and Or, an ass 
issuant from the base sable, is the coat of VAN DER EESE 
of Holland ; Azure, an ass passant sable (? proper] is 
borne by LOVARI of Udine. Sable, a fess (or) between 
three asses argent, are the canting arms of AYSCOUGH. 

The Bavarian family of FRUMBESEL, now extinct, 
used to bear; Argent, an ass rampant gules. 

We have the HARE in the Scottish coat of CLELAND 



of that Ilk (Plate XXIV., fig. 7). Azure, a hare saliant 
with a hunting horn vert, garnished gules, pendent at its 
neck ; and as the canting coat of several German and 
Netherland families of HAAS, etc. HAAS of Bavaria 
bears, Gules, a Jiare leaping argent. Vert, on a mount a 
hare sejant proper, is borne by VAN NOORT. 

THE RABBIT occurs somewhat more frequently still. 
Argent, a chevron between three conies sable, is the coat of 
STRODE of Devonshire. Vert, tJiree rabbits argent, is 
borne by VAN DEN SANTHEUVEL of Holland. 

The family of AYDIE, Marquises de RlBERAC in France, 
bore de Gueules, a quatre lapins d' argent, 2 et 2. Gueules, 
au chevron d'or accoste de trots tetes de lapin d' 1 argent, is 
the coat of DUMONT DE BOSTAQUET, in Normandy. 
Or, a lion rampant gules on a bordure azure seven rabbits 
argent spotted sable, are the armes parlantes of the Portu- 
guese family of COELHO ; sometimes the lion is charged 
with three bars chequy or and azure. (Em campo de ouro 
hum Lead de purpura faxado de tres faxas, empequetado 
de ouro e azul, armado de vermelho ; bordadura azul 
com sete coelhos de prata malhados de prato.) 

King MANUEL granted to NlCOLAO COELHO, a com- 
panion of VASCO DA GAMA, a special coat : Gules, 
between two columns argent (each on a mount in base vert, 
and bearing a sJiield azure charged with the " Quinas " 
of PORTUGAL) in chief a lion rampant or, and in base a 
ship upon the sea proper. 

SEALS are borne by the BENNS of Holland : Gules, 
three seals argent fessways in pale the middle one con- 
tourne ; and by DE WULF : Vert, two seals rampant 
addorsed or. 

OTTERS and OTTER'S HEADS, are occasionally found 
in Scottish Armory. The coat of MELDRUM is : Argent, 
a demi-otter issuant from a bar wavy sable (Plate XXIV., 
fig. 8). Argent, a chevron between three otter s heads erased 
sable, is the old coat of BALFOUR ; and the same with 



239 

the charges gules is that of FuLLERTON. It is also the 
charge in the arms of the Styrian FlSGHL, Gules, on a bend 
an otter holding in its moutJi two fisJi proper. 

THE BEAVER is borne as canting arms by the Swiss 
family of BlBER, Or, a beaver rampant sable ( Wappen- 
rolle von Zurich, No. 294) and also, but sometimes gules , 
by the Barons BlBRA. 

THE BADGER is naturally the charge in the coats of 
the English families of BROCK {Argent, a badger passant 
sable] ; and BADGER (the same but the field or) ; as well 
as in those of the Swiss DACHS, Gules, a badger rampant 
or, and of the Bavarian Counts von DACHSBERG (the 
same but with the charge argenf]. 

THE HEDGEHOG, called anciently an Urchin, appears 
in the allusive coats of HERISSON and HERRIES (Plate 
XXIV., fig. 9), Argent, three urchins sable; and in the 
French coats of LE HERISSE : d'Or, a trois Iierissons 
d'azur ; and d 'Argent, au chevron de gueules accoste de 
trois hcrissons dc sable. } EZ, of Poland, Gules, a hedgehog or. 

The kindred PORCUPINE is the canting coat of the 
French family of MAUPEOU (inal peau], Comtes 
d'ABLEiGES, Marquises de MAUPEOU. SlMON EYRE, 
Lord Mayor of LONDON in 1445, bore : Gules, a porcu- 
pine erect argent, armed, collared, and chained or (probably, 
as sometimes blazoned, an urcJiin in allusion to his name). 
It is the dexter supporter of the DE LlSLES. 

MOLES arebornebythe MiTFORDS (Lords REDESDALE), 
Argent, a fess between three moles passant sable ; and by 
the Polish TRZYKRETI : A rgent, tJiree moles fessways in 
pale sable. UOr, a trois taupes de sable, are the arms of 
FAYDIDE DE CHALANDRAS. MOLL in Holland uses : 
Or, on a mount in base vert a mole sable ; another Dutch 
family of MOLLE bears : Vert, on a chief or a mole sable. 

THE SQUIRREL occurs in some English coats, usually 
as an allusive charge. Or, a squirrel sejant gules, are the 
arms of SQUIRE. A rgent, a squirrel sejant gules, cracking 



a nut, are, with trifling variations, those of several 
families of NUTSHALL, and SQUIRE. Argent, a chevron 
aztire between tJiree squirrels gules (with or without nuts), 
is the coat of LOVELL. 

FOUQUET, the celebrated Finance Minister of LOUIS 
XIV., bore: d' Argent, un tcureuil rampant de gueules 
(often augmented thus : a la bordure de gueules semee de 
fleurs-de-lis d'or) ; with the ambitious motto : " Quo non 
ascendant ? " Or, a squirrel on a mount proper, is the 
coat of STUMPF of Bavaria ; and of SiCHTERMANN in 
the Netherlands. Or, three squirrels gules, is borne by 
SQUIRE, and ASHWEED ; also by the Danish ALKE- 
VEDERS. Or, three squirrels sable, is a coat of DU BoiS. 

THE APE as a charge is more frequently met with 
abroad than in British Heraldry, but there are neverthe- 
less a few examples of its use. Vert, an ape sejant, 
banded and chained to the sinister side of the shield argent, 
is the coat of APPLEGH. Sable, a chevron or between 
three apes argent chained gold, are the arms of LOBLEY. 
Argent, an ape gules, holding an apple or, is the canting 
coat of AFFENSTEIN (Zurich Wappenrolle, No. 412). 
Without the apple this is borne by PASCAL-COLOMBIER 
of France. Apes are used as supporters by the FlTZ- 
GERALDS, Dukes of LEINSTER ; and by the MAXWELLS 
of Pollok, as far back as the reign of ROBERT III. 

RATS. I do not remember any instance in which rats 
occur as a British charge, but they are found in some 
foreign coats. The arms of the See of ARRAS are : Or, 
a rat sable in the centre point between two pastoral staves 
paleways addorsed proper, the whole within an orle of ten 
rats of the second. UOr, a trots rats de gueules, 
is the coat of the Breton family of DE LA BEN- 
NERAYE. Argent, a rat rampant sable, was the coat 
of the Bavarian BlLLlCHS now extinct. Rats support 
the arms of RENAUD DE VELORT, in 1449. 

DOGS. I have left until the last the Dog, the faithful 



companion of man, which appears frequently in armory, 
both at home and abroad ; the talbot (a species of 
mastiff) and the greyhound are the most frequently 
used. 

Argent, a talbot passant gules (in chief a crescent for 
difference), is the coat of Viscount WoLSELEY (Plate 
XXIV., fig. 9) ; Argent, a greyhound courant sable, is that 
of MORETON. Azure, a greyhound (salianf) argent collared 
gules, is borne by the Austrian Counts BLOME ; and with 
the collar or by the French Counts NlCOLAY. 

Vert, a greyhound passant argent collared gules buckled 
or, is ascribed to the Byzantine house of SCYLITZES ; 
Azure, a talbot statant argent, to the Silesian Barons 
HUNDT. 

Three greyhounds courant fessw ays in pale, argent, was 
borne with the field gules, or sable, by various families of 
MAULEVRIER ; and Azure, three greyhounds pursuing 
a stag argent, all bendways and "at random," is the 
coat of YARDLEY. Argent, a chevron gules between three 
talbots passant sable, was used by TALBOT of Norfolk. 
Azure, a chevron or between three greyhounds courant 
argent, is the coat of GRIMMINCK of the Netherlands ; 
and, with the hounds also Or, of DE HONDT of 
Flanders. 




FIG. 62. THE EAGLE OF GERMANY. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. III. 
A. THE EAGLE. B. OTHER BIRDS. 

SECTION A. 

THE EAGLE. In the eagle as a heraldic bearing we 
have a point of contact between ancient Mythology or 
symbolism, and mediaeval Heraldry. The bird of Jove, 
King of gods and men, adopted as the standard of the 
Roman Emperors in heathen times, continued in use 
after Rome had become Christian. 

After the coronation of CHARLEMAGNE in Rome, on 
Christmas Day in the year Soo, that prince, claiming to 
be the successor of the old Roman Emperors, is said to 
have adopted the eagle as his ensign, and placed it 
conspicuously on his palace at Aachen. 

The eagle of the Holy Roman Empire was borne by 
the German Emperors in the attitude known as " dis- 
played ; " that is with the body upright, the wings on 
either side raised to the level of the head, and the legs 
extended beneath them. The eagle thus displayed is 
enamelled on the hilt of the Sword of CHARLEMAGNE, 
still preserved in the Imperial Treasury in the Burg at 



( '43 ) 

Vienna. (See LABARTE, Handbook of the Arts of the 
Middle Ages, fig. 50, p. 114, 1855.) 

The Imperial seal upon which the eagle first appears 
in any shape is that of the Emperor HENRY III. 
(1039-1056) in which the sceptre carried by the prince 
is surmounted by a single-headed eagle. (See Dr 
ROEMER BUCHNER'S Die Siegel der Deutschen Kaiser, 
No. 26, p. 24, whose note is worth transcribing. " Die 
romischen Consuln hatten einen elfenbeinern Stab, mit 
darauf geschnitztem Adler, wie viele Miinzen, und 
diptycha consularia beurkunden. Sollte nicht von den- 
selben HEINRICH III. dieses uralte Zeichen der Herr- 
schaft angenommen haben, und hierdurch der Adler, als 
Reichsadler aufgenommen worden sein ? ") 

At the battle of Molsen on the Elster, in 1080, 
GODFREY DE BOUILLON, afterwards the first Christian 
King of JERUSALEM, is said to have borne the banner 
of the Emperor HENRY, which was charged with the 
eagle "dux cum aquila praecedens Imperatorem" 
(WILLIAM OF TYRE, Historia Belli Sacri, p. 150). 
HENRY'S rival, RODOLPH of SWABIA, who fell in the 
same battle, u-sed, after his coronation in 1077, a Great 
Seal on which he is represented holding in his right 
hand a very short sceptre or staff surmounted by an 
eagle with close wings. (GLAFEY, Specimen decadem 
Sigilloruin,\.-diQ\z iv., p. 25 ; Leipsic, 1749; and ROEMER 
BUCHNER, Die Siegel, etc., p. 26.) 

The earliest appearance of the eagle as a heraldic 
charge, which has come under my notice, is afforded by 
the Great Seal of the Markgrave LEOPOLD of Austria in 
1 136; on it the mounted figure of the Markgrave bears a 
shield charged with the eagle displayed. (HERGOTT, 
Monumenta Austria, torn, i., tab. i.) From about this 
time it was borne not only by the Emperor, and the King 
of the Romans, but by the princes who, as Vicars of the 
Empire, or Lords of its Marches, were charged with the 



244 

government, or defence of its provinces. It was thus 
borne, for example, by the Counts of SAVOY, as Mar- 
quesses, or Mark-graves, of the Empire in Italy, a title 
which constantly recurs upon their seals. (See also 

P- 535-) 

The single-headed eagle displayed of the Empire was 
also borne as the supporter of the escucheon of Savoy. 
See the gold " Doppel Doppia" of CHARLES EMANUEL, 
King of SARDINIA, 1746 ; and it has not yet been 
disused by the Kings of Italy. (It thus appears, for 
instance, on the centre of the reverse of the Cross of the 
Order of the Crown of Italy.) 

Under FREDERICK I. BARBAROSSA (Duke of Swabia, 
elected King of the Romans in 1152; crowned as 
Emperor, at Rome, in 1155), the eagle had become the 
recognised standard of the Holy Roman Empire. 

" At quae Caesareae, signum latiale cohortis 
Regia fulget avis, magnorum densa virorum 
Agmina ceu magni glomeravit viscera regni." 

(Quoted from GUNTHERUS, by DUCANGE, torn, vii., 
sectio xviii.). 

The eagle is embroidered with the Heiligenscheine, or 
"glory" round its head, upon the gloves which formed 
part of the Imperial coronation robes in the twelfth 
century (See BOCK'S splendid work ; Die Kleinodien 
des Heil. Romischen Reiches, etc., taf. viii., Wien, 
1864); and the head of the eagle is for the first time 
thus encircled (diademed} on the Imperial seals, by 
ALFONSO of CASTILE, elected King of the Romans 
in 1257. (ROEMER-BUCHNER, Die Siegel, etc., No. 
48 ; VREE, Genealogia Comitum Flandricz, pi. xvi. ; 
OETTER, Wappenbelustigung, i., 50.) 

The eagle appears on the coins of the Emperor OTTO 
IV., 1208, and on those of several of his successors. The 
Emperor is represented on horseback bearing a shield 



( '45 ) 

charged with the eagle. OTTO was thus armed at the 
battle of BOUVINES : 

" Quar il porte, ce n'est pas fable, 
L'escut d'or a 1'aigle de sable." 
(PH1LL. MONSKES, MS. Historia Francorum.) 

From BOCK'S Kleinodien, etc., we see that OTTO'S 
imperial mantle was powdered with single eagles dis- 
played, and with lions rampant. (Taf. x., 13.) 

In his letters FREDERICK II. (elected King of the 
Romans at the age of three years ; and crowned as 
Emperor at Rome by Pope HONORIUS in 1220) often 
speaks of his victorious eagle banners. A boldly sculp- 
tured escucheon of this Emperor, with the single-headed 
eagle displayed, is still extant in the north aisle of the 
choir of Westminster Abbey (fig. 62, p. 242). 

The secretum of FLORENT V., Count of HOLLAND 
(son of WILLIAM, Count of HOLLAND, who was elected 
King of the Romans in 1247, crowned at Aachen 1248, 
and slain in 1256), bears the lion of HOLLAND in a shield 
placed upon the breast of a single-headed eagle displayed 
(VREE, dt Seghelen der Graven van Vlaendren, pi. Ixxix.). 
This eagle is also one of the charges on the seal of 
WILLIAM'S sister ALICE, wife of JEAN D'AVESNES, and 
on the counter-seal it is curiously dimidiated with the 
lion rampant (Plate XXXVIL, fig. 6). 

The seal of RICHARD, Earl of CORNWALL, and 
POICTOU, brother of our King HENRY III., and elected 
King of the Romans in 1257, bears, circa 1260, his arms 
{Argent^ a lion rampant gules, within a bordure sable 
charged with bezants) supported by the eagle displayed ; 
and his son EDMUND used the same arrangement. 

These arms remain in the painted glass, or appear on 
the encaustic pavement, in many of the churches in 
England with which he was connected. A list of these 
churches will be found in an article on " RICHARD King 



( 246 ) 

of the Romans " in The Gentleman s Magazine, vol. ccviii., 
pp. 1-13, which also contains coloured plates of the 
encaustic tiles to which reference is here made. It is 
curious that, at least in England, RICHARD does not 
seem ever to have used the German eagle as his arms, 
but at Great Malvern the eagle (which is there double- 
headed) is surrounded by the bordure bezantee. At 
Warblington in Hampshire the rampant lion is borne 
in an escucheon without the bordure on the breast of a 
double-headed eagle. It must be noted, however, that 
in many cases the glass and tiles are probably of a later 
date, and we cannot safely appeal to them as affording 
evidence of RICHARD'S own use. 

The coins of ADOLF OF NASSAU, elected King of the 
Romans in 1291, bear the single eagle displayed ; and 
in 1298 the surcoats and housings used at the battle of 
Gellheim by ADOLF and his rival competitor for the 
Imperial Crown ALBERT of AUSTRIA, son of the 
Emperor RODOLPH, were of yellow cloth charged with 
the same figure. 

We learn this from the rhythmical chronicle of a 
contemporary poet, OTTACAR VON STEYERMARCK, from 
which the following lines are quoted in a paper in 
the Cornhill Magazine, 1865, from which I also borrow 
the appended translation. 

" Nu warn auch die Wapperi-Klayt 
Yetweders Kunigs geleich 
Albert der Furst Reich 
Auf ain reiches Tuch gel 
Mangen Swarczen Adaler 
Hies wurcheusz nach Seiner Pet. 
Dieselben er hat 
Wappen Rokh und Degkh 
Von Nazzau der kech ; 
Des Wappen-Klayt man markht 
Geweben, und gewarcht 
In derselben Vart und Gestalt." 



247 

" Now were also the surcoats 
Of each King the same. 
Albert the Imperial Prince 
On a rich yellow cloth 
Many a black eagle 
Distributed according to his wish 
The same he also had, 
Surcoat and housings, 
Nassau the arrogant 
The surcoat was observed 
Woven, and worked 
In the same colour and form." 

SPENER (OpusHeraldicum^^.rs. spec., pp. 66-67, quoting 
from FUGGER, Spiegel der Ehren des Hauses OesterreicJi} 
says that, as Emperor, ALBERT bore, on the breast of the 
single-headed eagle of the Empire, his arms Quarterly ; 
i. AUSTRIA ; 2. STYRIA ; 3. CARNIOLA ; 4. HAPSBURG. 

On the Great Seal of the Emperor LOUIS IV. (Duke 
of Bavaria, elected King of the Romans in 1314, crowned 
as Emperor at Rome in 1328) the throne is borne by 
eagles, and the eagle displayed surmounts the cross on 
the Imperial sceptre. 

This is the first Imperial Great Seal to which a counter- 
seal is attached ; this bears without a shield a standing 
eagle turned to the sinister, but with its head regardant 
to the dexter. (ROEMER-BUCHNER, Die Siegel der 
Deutschen Kaiser, etc., No. 55.) 

On the secretum of MARGARET, Sovereign Countess 
of HOLLAND, second wife of the Emperor Louis, the 
single eagle is represented ; and on others of her seals it 
bears a lozenge shield charged with four lions : two of 
HOLLAND, and as many of FLANDERS : the red lions of 
HOLLAND in chief and base; the sable lions of FLANDERS 
in the flanks. (VREE, Gen. Com. Flandr., p. 58.) The 
pourfilar lines which would have made the lozenge 
quartered per saltire are omitted, as they are also in the 
quartered escucheon of Queen PHILIPPA of HAINAULT 
in Westminster Abbey. (See pp. 462, 463.) 



The eagle properly displayed as a heraldic charge upon 
a shield is shown on a somewhat smaller seal of the 
Emperor GUNTHER VON SCHWARZBURG, elected King 
of the Romans in 1349 (No. 58, of ROEMER BtJCHNER). 

On the Great Seal of the Emperor CHARLES IV. (King 
of Bohemia), elected King of the Romans in 1308, 
crowned at Rome in 1312, this throned effigy is placed 
between two shields, one of the single eagle ; the other 
bearing the lion of BOHEMIA. (ROEMER BUCHNER, 
Siegel der Deutschen Kaiser, No. 59, etc.) 

An Imperial dalmatic of the fourteenth century bears 
golden roundles charged with the single-headed eagle 
(BOCK, Kleinodien, taf. xi., 14). 

THE DOUBLE-HEADED EAGLE. The origin of the 
double-headed eagle displayed is a matter of some 
uncertainty. 

DuCANGE (vol. vii., Dissertatio de Inferioris ALvi 
Numismatibus, p. 151) writes : 

" Quaedam Germanos bicipitem aquilam sibi adrogasse 
existimant ex quo in clade Variana signa Romanorum 
et aquilae duae in eorum venere potestatem ; tertia a 
signifero priusquam in manus hostium veniret, in 
cruenta palude, ut ait Florus, quas quidem binas aquilas 
diis patriis in lucis ii suspenderint. 

Ulricus Huttenus : 

" Vindice ut Arminio, ceteris prope rura Visurgis 
Romanas acies miro Germano motu 
Quintiliumque ducem conciderit, unde birostrae 
Contigerint aquilas, traducti insignia regni 
Excussumque jugum non tantum haec tempora nossent." 

NlSBET thinks that it originated in the arms of the 
Emperors of the East, who, he says, when the throne was 
occupied by two co-regnant princes, placed two eagles, 
one above the other in one shield on their seals and coins ; 
and that it was adopted in Germany " by the Emperors 
of the Western Empire, upon the decline of that of the 



( 249 ) 

East, especially by SlGISMUND who joined both the 
eagles together with their heads separate, to show the 
sovereignties of the two empires conjoined in his person : 
which practice was continued by his successors " (System 
of Heraldry, i., 337-338). The Imperial eagle was " not one 
eagle with two heads, but two eagles, the one laid upon 
the other, and their heads separate, looking different 
ways, which represent the two heads of the Empire 
after it was divided into East and West." 

"Non emin biceps est aquila" subdit Cuspianus "ut 
imperitum vulgus credit, sed duse simul quarum altera 
alteram expansis alis obtegit," etc. 

NlSBET, however, seems to be mistaken when he adds 
to the passage above given from Cuspidion (as he calls 
him) the assertion that this was also the opinion of 
BELLARMINE, as will be seen from : the following quota- 
tion : " Sed hanc sententiam cui adstipulatur Flaccus 
Illyricus, jure exagitat cardinalis Bellarminus, qui non 
duas aquilas in insignibus imperatores gerere, sed unum 
divisum in dua capita, ejusque rei causam esse quod 
Imperium esset inter duos principes, quorum alter in 
Occidente, alter in Oriente, sedem habebat. 

" Cui quidem Bellarmini sentential consentanea sunt 
quae habet loannes Georgius Trissinus, poeta Italicus 
(lib. 2, de Italia a Gothis liberata ) : 

" ' II grande imperio ch'era un corpo solo 
Avea due capi ; un nel'antica Roma ; 
Che regeva i paesi occidental!, 
E 1'altra nella nova, che dal volgo 
S'appella la citta di Constantino. 
Onde 1'aquila d'oro in Campo rosso 
Insegna imperial, poi si dipinse 
E si dipinge con due teste ancora.' " 

The double-headed eagle of gold on a red field, here 
referred to as borne by the Emperors of the East, was 
indeed used by them in later times, and appears in more 



modern days as a quartering in the shield of the Dukes 
of MANTUA to denote their pretensions to the Eastern 
Empire, derived from the Marquesses of MONTFERRAT. 

But DUCANGE very properly remarks that " hse 
recentiores conjecturae ingenii potius acumine quam ipsa 
nituntur rei veritate, cum biceps aquila longe recentior 
videatur praesertim apud Byzantines ; ut pote quae 
uniceps in insignibus gentilitiis Palaeologorum Montferrat- 
ensium descripta sit qua Imperium Constantinopolitanum 
designatur ; deinde in effigie Constantini Palaeologi 
(1041-2), Michaelis imperatoris filii (quam initio hujus 
dissertationis describimus) pallium aquilis cum unico 
capite inspersum conspiciatur." So also on the coins of 
THEODORUS LASCARLS, MICHAEL, and ANDRONICUS 
PAL^OLOGUS, the eagle is single-headed. 

The eagles on a coin of THEODORUS LASCARIS in 1251 
are double-headed : and the letter of DEMETRIUS 
PAL/EOLOGUS to CHARLES VII. of France, circa 1400, 
has a seal of blue wax (according to Imperial custom), 
charged with the double-headed eagle. MENETRIER 
thinks that the use of the double-headed eagle by the 
Emperors of. the East arose in the same manner as that 
of the double cross which appears on their coins. 

He says that as the cross was used as a sceptre, and 
when two Emperors were co-regnant it was represented 
with a double traverse and held by both ; so on their 
seals and coins they united two eagles into one. But it 
appears more likely that the Byzantine princes borrowed 
the double-headed eagle from the Turkish dynasty of the 
Seljooks. This emblem still remains carved over the 
principal entrance of the Turkish fort of Kara Hisar in 
Anatolia. The double-headed eagle, which is the charge 
of the Imperial Arms of Russia, was assumed by the 
Grand Duke IVAN BASILOVITZ of Moscow, who, in 1472, 
married SOPHIA, daughter of THOMAS PALEOLOGUS, 
and niece of the last Emperor of Byzantium, CON- 



STANTINE XIV. It appears first on a seal appended 
to a charter of 1497. (See KOEHNE, Notice sur les 
Sceaux et Armoiries de la Russie, pp. 8, 9, Berlin, 1861.) 

STEPHEN NEMANJA, Czar of SERVIA and BOSNIA, 
had long previously assumed the double eagle of Byzan- 
tium (but silver instead of gold, on a shield gules] ; and 
used it, crowned with an eastern crown, as the crest 
of his crowned helm. (See the account of The Book of 
Anns of the Nobility of Bosnia, or Illyria, and Servza, 
etc., in the year 1340, given in EVANS' tour Through 
Bosnia and the Herzegovina, in 1875, pp. 214-225.) 

The double-headed eagle displayed was borne, with 
variations of tincture and accessories, by several of the 
great Byzantian families : KoRESSIOS bore : Sable, 
beneath the Imperial crown proper, a double-headed eagle 
displayed or, holding in each of its claws a sivord paleways 
argent. VATATZES used : Vert, the double eagle displayed 
or, above each of its heads an estoile argent. LASCARIS 
bore : Or, a double-headed eagle displayed sable armed 
gules, beneath an Eastern crown of tJiree points of the 
last. 

Although, as we have seen, the assumption of the 
double-headed eagle displayed as the arms of the Holy 
Roman Empire has been commonly attributed to the 
Emperor SlGlSMUND, it is quite clear that it had been in 
use at an earlier date. It appears, I think not for the 
first time, on the coins of the Emperor LOUIS THE 
BAVARIAN in 1 3 14. The seals of his sons, Duke WILLIAM 
of BAVARIA, Count of OSTREVANT, and ALBERT, Count 
PALATINEoftheRHlNE,^>^ 1 350, bear the shield of their 
arms (Quarterly, i and 4, BAVARIA ; 2 and 3, FLANDERS 
quartering HOLLAND, vide p. 462), upon the breast of a 
double-headed eagle displayed. (VREE, Gencalogie des 
Comtes de Flandres, plate lix.) Earlier instances still 
are afforded by a shield in one of the windows of York 
minster, circa 1307 ; and in a MS. copy of MATTHEW 



( 252 ) 

PARIS, circa 1250, now preserved in the British Museum, 
this eagle occurs unmistakably for the Emperor of 
Germany. In the Roll of Anns of tJie Thirteenth Century, 
probably written about 1280, its first and third entries 
are : I. L'Empereur d'Almaine ; d'or a ung aigle espany 
ove des deux tetes sable. III. Le Roy d'Almaine, d'or 
un egle displaye sable. (ArcJiczologia, xxxix., p. 378.) 

In the Wappenrolle von Zurich, if No. 12 be (as 
seems pretty certain), the shield of the Empire, the eagle 
is still single-headed. 

The earliest use of the double-headed eagle on an 
Imperial seal with which I am acquainted is afforded by 
a counter-seal of the Emperor WENZESLAUS (King of 
BOHEMIA, elected King of the Romans, and crowned at 
Aachen in 1376, but deposed in 1400). On this counter- 
seal the double-headed eagle bears on its breast a round 
escucheon charged with the Bohemian lion. But on this 
Dr ROEMER BtJCHNER makes the following remark : 

" Irrig ist es wenn dieses Contrasiegel als doppelter 
Reichsadler angesehen wird, schon als bohmischer Konig 
fuhrte er solches, daher kein Reichswappen, wahrschein- 
lich sind die Adler von Brandenburg und Schlesien hier 
vereint." (Die Siegel der deutschen Kaiser, etc., No. 64 
Frankfurt am Main, 1851.) On the Great Seal itself of 
WENZESLAUS the Emperor is seated between two shields, 
the dexter one charged with the single eagle displayed, 
the arms of the King of the Romans ; the sinister bearing 
the double-tailed lion of BOHEMIA. If this view be 
correct, as an undoubted emblem of the Holy Roman 
Empire the double-headed eagle first occurs (so far as 
seals are concerned) on that of the Emperor SlGISMUND 
(son of CHARLES IV., King of HUNGARY and BOHEMIA, 
crowned at Aachen in 1414, and as Emperor at Rome in 
1434, died in 1437). Here, for the first time, the armorial 
shield is charged with the double-headed eagle, of which 
the heads are " diademed " or surrounded by the golden 



( 253 ) 

HeiligenscJieine, (The double-headed eagle, thus adorned, 
also appears on the counter seal with an inscription 
allusive to EZEKIEL xvii. 3 and 7. See ROEMER 
BiiCHNER, Siegel, etc., No. 73.) 

After the adoption of the double-headed eagle as the 
arms of the Empire, the single-headed eagle displayed 
became the distinctive possession of the King of the 
Romans; the second head being added on his attainment 
of the Imperial Crown. See among other examples the 
fine counter-seal of MAXIMILIAN, as King of the Romans,, 
in VREE, Die Seghelen der Graven van Vlaendren, plate 
xlvi., Bruges, 1 640. Here the single-headed eagle with the 
HeiligenscJieine is the charge of his shield, and bears 
on its breast a small escucheon of AUSTRIA, impaling 
BuRGUNDY-ancient (apparently sans bordure). But on 
MAXIMILIAN'S signet (Ibid., No. 56) after his attainment 
of the Imperial dignity the eagle (which bears the correct 
impalement) is double-headed. 

On the Aurea Bulla of CHARLES VI. (1711-1740) the 
HeiligenscJieine is converted into a flat circular plate.. 
It is only on the seal of CHARLES VII. (1740-1745) that 
the sword and sceptre both appear in the dexter claw> 
and the orb in the sinister, of the Imperial eagle. 

The first instance of a Great Seal in which the Im- 
perial Eagle is represented bearing on its breast the 
escucheon of the personal bearings of the Emperor, is 
that of CHARLES V. (ROEMER BUCHNER, Die Siegel, etc., 
No. 88) ; on this the arms of the Spanish kingdoms are 
represented crowned. Many of CHARLES'S seals have 
this escucheon uncrowned (See VREE, Die SegJielen de 
Graven van Vlaendren, plates Ixii., etc.). On one Seal, as 
Duke of BURGUNDY, Plate Ixii., his escucheon is of 
AuSTRIA-modern only. The coats of CASTILE impaling 
LEON are sometimes similarly used alone. 

As a heraldic charge, apart from any connection with 
the Empire, we find the double-headed eagle displayed 



in a lozenge, upon the seal of ISABEL DE ST. VRAIN in 
1262. (DEMAY, Le Costume cTapres les Sceaux, p. 229.) 
On the magnificent encaustic pavement of the church of 
Saint Pierre de Dive, in Calvados, which is probably of 
the early part of the thirteenth century, the double- 
headed eagle displayed occurs with very great frequency. 
(This pavement is engraved in DE CAUMONT, Abea'daire 
d'Archeologie, pp. 384-386.) Argent, a double-headed 
eagle displayed sable, over all a cotice gules, was the coat 
worn by the celebrated BERTRAND DU GUESCLIN, Con- 
stable of France (d. 1380). The Marechal de Bouci- 
QUAUT bore a like eagle, though his arms are differently 
tinctured ; they are: d' Argent, a I'aigle eployee degueules, 
armee d'or (See the Armorial de I'Heraut Gelre]. The 
double-headed eagle occasionally occurs in English 
Heraldry, as in the coat of SPEKE, of Jordans, Barry of 
eight argent and azure, a double-headed eagle displayed gules 
(Plate XXV., fig. 2). 

The consideration of the use of the Imperial Eagle as 
an augmentation may be fitly deferred to the special 
Chapter on AUGMENTATIONS. 

The Eagle now borne for the German Empire is single- 
headed, of sable, armed and langued^W^. Over its head 
is placed the crown of CHARLEMAGNE (fig. 97, p. 617). 
Upon its breast is an escucheon which contains the 
personal arms of the Emperor, viz., the Royal Arms of 
PRUSSIA : Argent, an eagle displayed sable crowned, and 
with klee-stengel or, armed gules, holding in its dexter 
claw the Royal sceptre, and in the sinister the Royal Orb, 
on its breast a small escucheon of the arms of the House of 
HOHENZOLLERN, viz., Quarterly argent and sable (Ein 
von Silber und Schwartz quadrirter Schild). 

The arms of the Kingdom of POLAND are : Gules, an 
eagle displayed argent crowned or. This appears as early 
as the year 1255, on the seal of King BOLESLAS, where 
the shield borne by the royal knight is charged with the 



( '55 ) 

eagle. Later on, since the union of Lithuania to Poland 
in 1385, the arms were quartered with the following coat : 
Gules, a knight mounted on a white horse, and bearing on 
his buckler azure a cross patriarchal or, for LITHUANIA. 

The arms of the imperial city of FRANKFURT are 
identical with those of POLAND. 

The arms of the Markgravate of BRANDENBURG, 
which was given in pledge by the Emperor SlGISMUND 
to FREDERICK of HOHENZOLLERN, Burg-grave of Niirn- 
berg in 1417, and which became the foundation of the 
splendid fortunes of the present Imperial German 
dynasty, were : A rgent, an eagle displayed gules ivith 
" klee stengeln " on its wings or, and armed of the last. 
(In silbernem Felde ein aus gebreiteter rother Adler mit 
goldenem Schnabel, und goldenen Fiissen. Die beiden 
Fliigel des Adlers sind jeder mit einem goldenen Klee- 
stengel belegt.) (For Klee-Stengel, see note, p. 344.) 

As might be expected, both the sable single-headed 
eagle of the German kingdom, and the double-headed 
eagle of the Holy Roman Empire, enter with great 
frequency into the armorial bearings of the Princes, 
provinces, and cities of the Empire. A large and inter- 
esting volume might easily be written which should deal 
exclusively with the Heraldry of the Eagle. It is not 
possible in our limited space to do more than allude 
to a few of the most important examples. 

The coat of the Duchy of SILESIA is : Or, an eagle 
displayed sable, crowned (and often armed) of the field ; 
on its breast and wings a crescent with a cross between its 
Jiorns argent. The Dukes of GLOGAU bore the same 
without the cross. (Plate XLVI.) 

The County of TIROL bears: Argent, an eagle dis- 
played gules croivned, armed, and with " klee-stengeln " or. 
(Im silbernem Felde ein rother ausgebreiteter gekronter 
Adler mit goldenem Schnabel und Ftissen, und goldenen 
Klee-stengeln auf den Fliigeln.) 



The arms of the Markgravate of MAHREN, or 
MORAVIA, in the Austrian Ecu complet are : Azure, an 
eagle displayed chequy argent and gules crowned or (p. 496). 

The Duchy of WESTPHALIA (one of the Saxon and 
Anhalt quarterings) bears : Azure, an eagle displayed, 
crowned or; and the same coat (but often with the 
crown omitted) is used for the Palatinate of SAXONY. 

Azure, an eagle displayed argent, is the coat of the 
Counties of ARENSBERG, and MUHLINGEN ; and, with a 
golden crown, of the House of ESTE, from which our 
own Royal Family derives its descent, and of which the 
Dukes of MODENA are the chief representatives (p. 508). 

The arms of the Duchy of CARNIOLA, or CRAYN, are 
given at p. 495, infra. 

The famous Genoese family of DORIA bore : Per fess 
or and argent, an eagle displayed sable. 

The Princes of LOBKOWITZ quartered with their own 
arms (Per fess gules and argent, the coat of the house of 
ZEROTIN) : Argent, an eagle displayed in bend sable, 
crowned or, and charged on the breast with an eagle of 
the field. A parallel coat to this curious blazon is 
recorded in the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 115, where 
Argent, an eagle displayed in bend gules is the coat of 
SCHONEN. The Marquises of FAGNANI in Italy also 
bear : Azure, an eagle in bend argent. 

The Counts of SAARWERDEN used : Sable, a double- 
headed eagle displayed argent ; a coat which appears in 
the escucheon of the Dukes of NASSAU. 

Gules, an eagle displayed chequy sable and or, is the 
coat borne by Popes INNOCENT III., GREGORY IX., 
and ALEXANDER IV. of the family of SlGNlA at Agnani. 

Per bend argent and gules, an eagle counter-changed, 
is the coat of the Italian family of SECCANO ; and, 
with the tinctures azure and argent, of the Venetian 
LOMBARDI. 

The family of DE LlMESAY in Normandy, from which 



257 

the great Scottish house of LINDSAY, Earls of CRAW- 
FORD, etc., derives its origin, bore : Gules, an eagle 
displayed or, which was also the bearing of the families 
of RYE, Marquess de VARAMBON; VlENNE; FERRONAY 
(banneret of Touraine), etc. Or, an eagle displayed azure, 
the coat of the PRIGNANI, was borne by Pope URBAN VI. 

The French family of COLIGNY (Dues de CHATILLION, 
Marquesses d'ANDELOT, etc.), used : Gules, an eagle 
displayed argent, crowned or. In England in early times 
the eagle was only borne by a very few families of 
distinction. RALPH DE MoNTHERMER, Earl of GLOU- 
CESTER in right of his wife, bore (as in Plate XXV., fig. i), 
Or, an eagle displayed vert, arms which were afterwards 
quartered with those of MONTACUTE in the shields of the 
Earls of SALISBURY and WARWICK. The notorious 
PIERS GAVESTON, created Earl of CORNWALL by 
EDWARD II., bore : Vert, six eagles displayed or. 

The Eagle appears in the coat of QUEEN'S COLLEGE, 
OXFORD, which are those of its founder ROBERT DE 
EFLESFELD, confessor to PHILIPPA, Queen of EDWARD 
III.: Argent, tJiree eagles displayed gules armed or. 
It will be seen from the foregoing examples that the 
heraldic eagle has usually its beak and claws (sometimes 
the beak, legs, and claws) of a different tincture from 
the rest of its body. In the first case it is sufficient to 
use the phrase armed, which includes beak as well as 
claws : in the latter case the term employed is usually 
beaked and membered (in French becqute et membree), the 
legs including the claws. In the Armory of Germany 
and the Low Countries the whole unfeathered part of the 
leg is intended when the term armed is used. 

The arms of the great French family DE LA TRE- 
MOILLE (Vicomtes and Dues de THOUARS, Dues de la 
TRMOILLE, Princes de TALMONT, et de TARENTE, 
etc.), are: d'Or, au chevron de gueules accompagne de 
trois aigles d'azur, becquces et membrees du second. [This 



( =53 ) 

coat is often borne by the chief line en surtout above 
the quartered coats of i. ANJOU-NAPLES ; 2. SlCILY ; 
3. LAVAL ; 4. BOURBON-CONDE ; as representing CHAR- 
LOTTE of ARRAGON, wife of GUY, Comte de LAVAL 
(vide infra, p. 452).] 

The famous CHARLOTTE DE LA TREMOILLE, Countess 
of DERBY (d. 1664), was daughter of CLAUDE, Prince 
de TALMONT, etc., by CHARLOTTE, daughter of 
WILLIAM, Prince of ORANGE (v. i., p. 466). 

In Scotland the eagle displayed occurs at an early 
date. The RAMSAYS bore: Argent, an eagle displayed 
sable, beaked and membered gules. The CARNEGIES, 
now Earls of SOUTHESK, used : Or, an eagle displayed 
azure, beaked and membered gules now charged on the 
breast with a covered cup of the field. But early seals 
of this family show the eagle standing on a barrel, which 
was allusive to their tenure of the estate of KlNNAlRD 
" for the serwise of the kepeing of the Kyngis ale sellar 
within the Schirefdome of Forfar" (STODART, Scottish 
A rms, ii., pp. 137-138). A rgent, three eagles displayed gules ; 
crowned or, is the coat of the DE COURCYS, Barons of 
KlNGSALE, in Ireland. 

The allerion (in French alerion}, originally synony- 
mous with an eagle, was in the hands of some fanciful 
heralds, deprived of its legs and beak, as in the arms 
of the House of LORRAINE still quartered by the 
Emperors of AUSTRIA : Or, on a bend gules three 
allerions argent. The myth which refers the origin of 
this coat to a fowling exploit in Crusading days is 
too absurd for further quotation. The charges are 
really anagrams (alerion) of the name LORAINE (see 
PLANCHE, Pursuivant, pp. 86-91). 

The coat of the great French family DE MONTMOR- 
ENCY is still blazoned with allerions instead of the original 
four eagles : d'Or, d la croix de gueules cantonne de seize 
alerions dazur. . The MONTMORENCY-LAVAL (vide 



supra} differenced this coat by charging the cross with 
five escallops argent. (See Chapter XIV., p. 452.) 

When two or more eagles are borne in a shield they 
are sometimes, but quite needlessly, blazoned eaglets; 
but even the heraldic purists who insist on this distinction 
admit that it need not be made when the birds are 
separated by an Ordinary. Thus : Azure, a pale between 
two eagles displayed argent, is the coat of WOODWARD, 
of Warwickshire and the neighbouring counties. Argent, 
a saltire gules between four eagles displayed azure, is used 
by HOBART, Earls of BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. The great 
Italian house of the GONZAGAS, Dukes of MANTUA, 
bore : Argent, a cross patee-througJiout gules, between four 
eagles displayed sable (vide p. 535). 

Except as a crest, or supporter, the eagle of heraldry 
seldom appears in any other attitude than displayed. 
An eagle volant, i.e., flying bendways across the shield, 
occurs in the armorials as the coat of STAYLTON or 
STALTON ; Sable, an eagle volant argent, but I do not 
remember any other example. 

An eagle rising, that is in the act of taking flight (in 
French essoranf), is almost equally rare. The French 
family of SAFFRES, bear the canting coat ; de Gueules, 
a cinq saffres, ou aigles de mer, essorants d' argent, 2, I, 2. 

The founder of the French Empire deviated from the 
mediaeval idea of the imperial bird, in favour of the pre- 
heraldic and classical type. The arms of the Napoleonic 
Empire are : Azure, an eagle rising (its head turned to 
the sinister) ; grasping in both claws a thunderbolt or. 
(Plate XXV., fig. 3.) The official blazon of this coat was 
simply : d'Azur, a I'aigle d'or, empietant un foudre du 
mcme. (SlMON, V Armorial General de r Empire Fran- 
qais, tome i., page I. Paris, 1812.) 

Parts of eagles occur not unfrequently in armory ; 
MONRO of Foulis bears : Or, an eagle's head erased gules. 
(Plate XXV., fig. 4.) WINGS, presumed to be those of 



( 260 ) 

eagles, are often borne in pairs. Gules, three eagle's wings 
or, is the coat ascribed to Sir WALTER BAND in the 
Roll of EDWARD II. (Their frequent use in German 
crests will be referred to later on.) When the wings are 
thus conjoined they are often termed a vol, and when 
the points are turned downwards this is styled un vol 
abaisse, or the wings are said to be conjoined in lure (that 
is, after the fashion of the instrument used by falconers 
to lure the hawk back after its flight). The coat of the 
SEYMOURS, Dukes of SOMERSET is : Gules, two wings con- 
joined in lure, the tips downward, or (de Gueules, a un vol 
abaisse d'or). Plate XXV., fig. 5. A single wing is often 
termed a demi-vol. Gules, a demi-vol abaisse argent, is 
the coat of the Princes of BEVILACQUA of Italy. (See 
USENBERG, p. 490.) A rgent, two demi-vols addorsed sable, 
is borne by the Prussian Barons von KONIG. 

Per chevron argent and gules, three demi-vols erect 
counter-changed, was used by the important family of the 
Counts von ORTENBURG in Carinthia. 

EAGLE'S LEGS are also borne, couped, or erased at the 
thigh. Of these a single example may suffice : the 
Marquis d'ARCHlAC in France, bore : Or, two eagles legs 
couped at the thigh in pale gules. (SEGOING, Armorial 
Universel : planche 24. Paris, 1679.) 

Among the curiosities of Heraldry we may number 
the coat of the Danish family of STIXEN, now extinct, 
which was : Azure, an eagle displayed, without a head or. 
The family of SCHAD in Wurtemberg bore : Or, an eagle 
displayed, without feet, and having a ribbon tied about its 
neck or. The STAHLIN VON STORKSBURG, in Bavaria 
carried : Azure, an eagle displayed or, its head concealed 
by a tilting helm argent. 

The Norman family of SACQUEVILLE, or SACQUIN- 
VILLE, used, d'Hermine, a Paigle pamee de gueules, that is, 
with drooping wings and head and open beak. The 
Wappenrolle von Zurich gives (No. 503) a curious example 



PLATE XXV. 






1. Eagle displayed. 
Monthermer. 



2. Two-headed Eagle. 



3. Imperial Eagle. 
France. 






4. Eagle's Head. 
Munro. 



5. Wings. 
Seymour. 



6. Goshawk. 
Weele. 






7. Falcon rising. 
Price. 



8. Hawks' Bells. 
JSellchamber. 



9. Owls. 
Prescott. 




10. Swans. 
Wolryche. 




11. Stork. 
Oglander. 




12. Pelican. 
Chantrell. 



( 261 ) 

of the eagle displayed in an unusual position : Or, an 
eagle displayed sable, armed gules ; its body fessways with 
the head to the dexter flank. This coat is attributed to 
EPTINGEN, of Basel. (See also EGGENBERG, Plate 
liv., fig. 5.) 

SECTION B. OTHER BIRDS. 

THE VULTURE. The Vulture appears but rarely in 
armory, but there are some examples of it. Azure, a 
vulture rising argent ; on a chief or, an estoile gules, is the 
coat of the Dutch family of Busc, settled at Berbice. 
Or, on a mount vert, a vulture rising gules, is used by 
GEYER of Bavaria ; Gules, a vulture rising argent, by 
GEYER of Strasburg ; other families of the name have 
similar bearings with different tinctures. 

THE FALCON is generally represented close ; that is, in 
a sitting posture with its wings closed on the body ; an 
attitude presumed with regard to other birds when the 
contrary is not expressed in the blazon. The falcon is 
distinguished from the eagle by being also jessed 'and 'belled, 
i.e., having globular bells attached to its legs by small 
thongs or jesses. These jesses are sometimes drawn flotant 
from the leg, and with vervels, or rings, at the ends. 

Armorists sometimes profess to distinguish the large 
goshawk, or falcon, from the smaller sparrow-hawk ; but 
practically they are hardly recognisable from each other 
in heraldic drawings. When the beaks, claws, jesses, 
bells, etc., are of a different tincture from the bird the 
fact requires to be specified in the blazon. 

Plate XXV., fig. 6, is the coat of WEELE of Staver- 
ton (Visitation of Devonshire, 1620): Sable, a goshawk, 
perched on a stock issuant from the base, armed, jessed, 
and belled or. 

Or, a falcon rising azure, is borne by PRICE of Plas 
Cadrant in Anglesey (Plate XXV., fig. 7). Azure, a falcon 
belled argent, is the canting coat of FALCOZ DE LA 



( 262 ) 

BLACHE, Comtes d'ANJOU (d'Azur, au faucon d' argent 
grillete du meme}. 

The family LE TONNELIER, Comtes de BRETEUIL, 
Marquises de FONTENAY, carried : d'Azur, a un epervier 
essorant d'or, longt* et grillete (lined and belled) du meme. 
HAWKER of Wiltshire bears : Sable, a hawk on its perch 
argent^ beaked and legged or. NOBELAER of Holland 
uses : Or, a falcon sable hooded, and standing on its perch 
in base, gules. DE WEERT of the same country bears : 
Argent, a falcon sable, hooded, lined, and membered or. 

In several coats the falcon is represented seizing on its 
prey (trussing is the English phrase, empietant the French). 
D'Azur, a un faucon d'or, grillete d' argent empietant une 
perdrix du second, becquee et onglee de gueules, is the coat of 
TARLET. Sable, a hawk or, trussing a duck proper, on a 
chief of the second a cross botonny gules, is borne by 
MADAN, or MADDEN, in England and Ireland. Or, tJiree 
falcon's heads erased gules, was the coat of NlCOLSON, 
baronets. 

In Armory OWLS are represented full-faced, as in the 
arms of PRESCOTT, baronets : Sable, a chevron between 
three owls or (Plate XXV., fig. 9). 

THE SWAN besides being the device of the great family 
of BOHUN (vide infra, p. 589), is a favourite bird in the 
old heraldry both of England and of the Continent. 
WOLRYCHE bears : Azure, a chevron between three swans 
argent (Plate XXV., fig. 10). Gules, a swan contourne 
argent, beaked sable, membered or, is the coat of the 
Lombard Counts PARAVICINI. Or, a swan gules, beaked 
and membered sable, was used by the old Westphalian 
Counts von STEINFURT. Gules, a swan argent, beaked 
and membered sable, gorged with a crown or, is the coat 
of STORMARN in the Royal Arms of Denmark. 

The head and neck of the swan, frequently used as a 
crest (Plate XLV., fig. 2) ; also occurs as a heraldic 
charge : Azure, three swan's heads erased argent, gorged 



( 263 ) 

witJi ducal coronets or, is carried by BAKER of Gloucester- 
shire. Gules] three swans heads and necks conjoined in 
pairle argent, is the curious coat of the Counts PRZICHO- 
WITZ of Poland. 

THE HERON, STORK, and CRANE are seldom dis- 
tinguishable in heraldic drawings. Plate XXV., fig. 1 1 
is the coat of OGLANDER : Azure, a stork between three 
crosslets fitchees or. The Barons DOBRZENSKY bear : 
Azure, a stork proper. Gules, three cranes argent, were 
the arms of the Scottish Lords CRANSTOUN. 

THE CRANE is usually represented standing on one leg 
holding in the claw of the other bent one a stone called 
its " vigilance" from a fable that this was so held that the 
noise of its fall might awaken the bird if it fell asleep ! 
This makes it a fitting canting charge for the name of 
WACHTER ! Several baronial families of this name bear : 
Argent, a crane sable with its vigilance on a mount vert. 

SlEBMACHER (Wappenbuch, i., 131) ascribes to the 
Rhenish family of WEILER, the coat following : Azure, a 
double-headed stork argent. A rgent, a heron volant in fess 
azure, memberedor, are the armes parlantes of HERONDON ; 
while families of HERON use, Gules, a heron argent; 
A rgent, a heron sable ; and the reverse. This bird is the 
chief charge in several coats of the Spanish GARCIAS. 

THE OSTRICH is usually depicted in early Heraldic 
drawings with a horse -shoe, key, or nail in its beak. This 
arose from the mediaeval idea, not altogether extinct 
even now, that the bird had the capacity to digest any 
substance however hard, and especially iron. 

The MACMAHONS of Ireland carried : Argent, an 
ostrich sable, in its beak a horse-shoe or. MATTHEWS of 
Cornwall, used simply, Sable, an ostrich argent. Gules, an 
ostrich argent, in its beak a horse-shoe azure, are the armes 
parlantes of the Bavarian family of STRAUSS. Other 
families of the name vary the tinctures. 

OSTRICH FEATHERS are often borne for Crests and 



( 264 ) 

Badges ; the best known instance is afforded by the 
Badge (often erroneously called the Crest) of the Prince 
of WALES (on which see Chapter XVI 1 1.). 

THE PELICAN is represented in both British and 
Foreign Armory with a bowed neck vulning (i.e. wound- 
ing) her breast ; from an old belief that she was 
accustomed to feed her young with her blood. When 
thus occupied, standing in her nest, and surrounded by 
her little ones, she is said to be in her piety, as in Plate 
XXV., fig. 12, the coat of CHANTRELL of Berkshire: 
Azure, a pelican in her piety, argent. Bishop Fox of 
Winchester, who founded Corpus Christi College at 
Oxford bore : Azure, a pelican or, vulned gules ; which 
still forms part of the coat armorial of the college. 
( Tierced in pale : I . Fox ; 2. The See of WINCHESTER ; 
3. The arms of Bishop OLDHAM.) Azure, three pelicans 
argent, vulned proper, is the coat of PELHAM. Argent, 
tJiree pelicans in piety or, their nests vert, was borne by 
the Scottish family of PATTERSON. 

THE RAVEN occurs early in British Armory as a 
canting charge. In GLOVER'S Roll, THOMAS CORBET 
bears : Or, two crows (or corbies] sable. Argent (and or), 
a raven proper (i.e. sable), are the coats of several families 
of this name, as well as of RAVENTHORPE. 

Or, three crows (or ravens] sable, is borne by 
CORNEILLE, and by the Counts de CORNEILLAN, and 
the families of CORBOLI of Tuscany, RAVESCHOOT 
of Flanders, RAVEN and DE ROECK of Holland, 
CRAVEN of Prussia and Saxony, etc. The Cornish 
Chough of Heraldry is a crow of purplish-black colour, 
with red beak and legs. We have it in Plate XXVI. , fig. 
i ; the coat of ONSLOW : Argent, a fess gules betzveen 
six Cornish choughs proper. 

Three such choughs in a field argent are said to be the 
bearings of THOMAS A BECKET, Archbishop of CANTER- 
BURY ; as well as of CORNWALLIS. Argent, a cross sable 



between four Cornish cJwugJis proper, is the coat of the 
Lords AYLMER. 

THE PARROT (Papmgoe,or Popinjay), occurs in GLOVER'S 
Roll as the coat of MARMADUKE DE THWENG or 
TWENGE, " d 'Argent, a trois papegayes de vert ung fece de 
goules" In Scotland its most familiar use is as the coat 
of PEPDIE : Argent, three papingoes vert, beaked and 
numbered gules (Plate XXVI., fig. 2), a coat which is 
quartered by the HUME, or HOME, family in most of its 
different branches. It is also the coat of SORIN in France. 

The same coat, but with the field Or, is borne in 
France by the Counts GuiOT DE PONTEIL, and the 
Marquesses GUIOT DE DoiGNON (d'Or,a trois perroquets 
de sinople, deques et membres de gueules). 

A single popinjay appears in the coat of the French 
family of PARIZOT (cTAzur, a un perroquet d'or). In 
the Zurich Wappenrolle of the I4th century No. 527 
is, Gules, a parrot azure legged or, Jwlding in its beak 
a horse-shoe argent, a coat attributed to HEIDEGK. 

COCKS occur frequently in Armory. Argent, tJiree 
cocks gules, armed, crested, and jelloped (the term applied 
to its gills) sable, is the coat of COKAYNE (Plate XXVL, 
fig. 3). Argent, three cocks gules, is with similar allusive 
intent the bearing of the COCKBURNS of Scotland. 
Argent, a cock gules, armed, crested, and jelloped or, is 
used by the Counts HAHN, of Mecklenburg ; and Argent, 
a cock sable, armed and crested gules, by LE COCQ, Counts 
de HUMBEKE in Brabant. The Marquises de VOGUE 
bear Azure, a cock or. Gules, a cock argent, having 
pendent from its neck a shield azure charged witJi a fleur-de- 
lis or, is the coat of the Marquises de 1'HOPITAL DE VlTRY. 

Or, on a mount in base vert, a hen sable crested gules, 
was borne by the princely Counts of HENNEBERG, and 
appears in the full coat of the arms of PRUSSIA ; as well 
as in those of the Saxon Duchies. 

Azure, three hens or, is the coat of the Dutch family of 



( 266 ) 

KIP ; while LE CAUDRELIER of Artois uses : Azure, a 
hen sheltering her chickens or(d'Azur, a une poule d'or, 
couvante des poussins du mcme]. Argent, tJiree hens sable, 
are the arms of the Counts VON MOLTKE (Denmark, etc., 
see p. 544). 

SWALLOWS (Hirondtlles) were allusively borne by the 
ARUNDELS of Sussex, whose coat, Sable, six swalloivs 
argent, 3, 2, I, is found upon a seal of the twelfth century. 
The Martin, or swift, a species of swallow, is the origin 
of the martlet, one of the best known charges of 
Heraldry. There are early examples of the martlet 
properly furnished with legs, but about the close of the 
thirteenth century the custom arose by which the bird is 
represented without feet, and sometimes without a beak. 
It was early in use as a charge for differencing coats, but 
was employed in a manner quite different from its use as 
a mark of cadency in modern Heraldry, 

THE MERLETTE in Foreign Armory is drawn some- 
what differently from the British martlet ; it is without 
the long cleft tail, and in fact only differs from the 
canette (or duckling) by being represented without beak, 
or feet. The coat of FEN WICK is : Per fess gules and 
argent, six martlets counter changed (Plate XXVI. , fig. 4). 
D*A rgent, a la fasce de sable, accompagnee de trois merlettes 
du meme, rangees en chef, was borne by the French 
Marquises de BEAUHARNAIS, to which belonged the 
Empress JOSEPHINE. The Due de MORNY, who was 
conspicuously associated with the Second French Empire, 
bore : Argent, three martlets sable within a bordure corn- 
pony alternately of the arms of Dauphiny and of those oftJie 
French Empire (vide infra, Chapter XVII.). Or, three 
martlets in fess gules, is the coat of the Counts of VELEN 
in Westphalia. (On arms of EDWARD the Confessor, see 
p. 528.) 

THE PEACOCK occurs in a few instances, and mostly 
as an allusive bearing ; it is borne either with its wings 



PLATE XXVI. 




1. Cornish Chough. 
Onslow. 




2. Papingoes. 
Pepdie. 




3. Coclcs. 
Cokayne. 




4. Martlets. 
Fenwick. 




5. Bream Naiant. 
Breamc. 




6. Salmon hauriant. 
Way. 




7. Dolphin. 
Dauphin of France. 




8. Dolphins. 
Dolfini. 





10. Trout. 
Troutbeck. 




11. Stockfish. 
Iceland. 




12. Escallops. 
Dacre. 



( 267 ) 

close, or with its tail expanded, in the latter case it is 
blazoned as in its pride. 

Or, on a mount vert, a peacock in its pride, is the cant- 
ing coat of DE PAEUW of Holland, and is sometimes 
borne without the mount. Or, four bendlets gules, over all 
a peacock (close) proper, is borne by the Princes of WlED. 

In the Wappenrolle von ZilricJi, No. 476 is a coat 
attributed to HURUS. In it the head and neck of a 
peacock azure rises from a small champagne gules ; and 
the whole of the rest of the field is occupied by the 
feathers of the expanded tail proper. The French family 
of PON NAT use : d' Or, a trois tetes de paon d^azur, and 
have peacocks (close) as supporters. 

Sable, three peacocks close argent, is the canting coat of 
PEACOCK. Another family of the name in Scotland 
uses : A rgent, three peacocks in pride proper, which is also 
borne allusively by PAWNE. 

DUCKS, GEESE, PHEASANTS, MOOR-FOWL, PLOVERS, 
FINCHES, DOVES, and other birds, occasionally appear 
both in British and Foreign Armory, and then usually 
with an allusion to the name of the bearer ; there is 
nothing in their use which makes it needful to enlarge 
this chapter with examples, but the BIRD OF PARADISE 
requires a special mention as a foreign charge. D 'Argent, 
a trois oiseaux de paradis sable, is borne naturally enough 
by the French family of PARADIS DE PAULHAC. The 
Russian families of RjEVSKl ; and YEROPKIN, use : Argent, 
on a terrace vert, a cannon mounted or, supporting a bird 
of paradise proper ; this is also the coat of the Princes 
WlASEMSKl of Livonia. (See KLINGSPOR, Baltisches 
Wappenbuch^ The arms of the family of FlNCKE- 
NAUGEN in Courland are : Or, three finches' eyes proper. 
(Ibid., plate xxxiii.) 

The mythical PHCENIX, represented as an eagle amid 
flames, comes more properly under the head of Chimerical, 
or Mythological Figures (vide infra, Chapter X.). 



CHAPTER IX. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. III. FISH, REPTILES, INSECTS. 

FlSH. The Heraldry of Fish is the subject of a very 
interesting and beautifully illustrated monograph by Mr 
THOMAS MOULE, published in 1842. Under this cate- 
gory are recognised various animals which in modern 
zoology would not be so designed, such are the Whale, 
Dolphin, etc. The kind of fish which forms a heraldic 
charge is often unspecified, though an acquaintance with 
local phraseology would often enable us to determine the 
exact species of the fish intended. Thus the blazon of 
the coat of GARVINE in Scotland is simply : Azure, three 
fishes naiant argent, but we know at once that these fish 
are " garvies," or sprats. Vert, three fishes or, spotted 
gules is borne by DOGGE, and we see that the Dog-fish 
is certainly intended. In the early Rolls of Anns, how- 
ever, we have the Luce, or Pike ; the Herring, Salmon, 
etc. borne allusively by the families of LUCY (Gules, 
three luces hauriant argenf) ; HERINGAUD (Gules, tJiree 
herrings hauriant argent] ; SALMON (Sable, three 
salmons Jiauriant argenf), etc. Hauriant is the term 
employed when the fish are represented paleways, rising 
to the surface for air ; naiant describing them when 
swimming fesseways. 

Azure, three bream naiant or, are the arms of the 
family of BREAME of Essex (Plate XXVL, fig. 5). Azure, 
three salmon hauriant argent: is the coat of WAY of 
Buckinghamshire (Plate XXVL, fig. 6). 

The DOLPHIN is in Heraldry considered the King of 
fish, as the lion is of beasts, or the eagle of birds. Its 



( 269 ) 

form, borrowed from classical mythology, resembles 
but faintly that of the dolphin of zoology. Whether 
blazoned naiant or hauriant, the dolphin is most fre- 
quently depicted as embowed, or in a curved attitude. 

DaupJiin was a title given in France in ancient times 
to certain feudal seigneurs, and was adopted from the 
charge borne in their shields of arms. The old romance 
of GERARD DE ROUSSILLON mentions "dauphins," in an 
enumeration of feudal titles along with " comtes, bers 
(barons), and bannerets." The chiefs who bore this title 
were the Dauphin de VlENNOIS, and the Dauphin 
d'AUVERGNE. 

In 1343 King PHILIP of France purchased the 
domains of HUMBERT III., Dauphin de VlENNOIS. 
The common story that it was a special condition of the 
purchase that the title and arms of the Dauphin should 
be always borne by the eldest son of the King of France 
seems to be without solid foundation. (" Le titre de 
daupliin fut specialement affecte au fils du roi qui regut 
cette province en appanage. Ce fut d'abord le second fils 
du roi qui porta le titre du dauphin ; mais dans la suite 
ce nom fut reserve au fils aine, heritier presomptif de la 
couronne." CHERUEL, Dictionnaire Historique des In- 
stitutions, etc., de la France, tome i, p. 260, Paris, 1855.) 

The Dauphins of VlENNOIS bore : d'Or, au dauphin 
d'azur, cret^ oreille et barbe" de gueules (Plate XXVI., fig. 
7). This coat was quartered in the second and third 
quarters by the Dauphins of FRANCE, with the plain coat 
of FRANCE in the first and fourth ; the addition of the 
quartering of DAUPHINY being a sufficient brisure. The 
fleur-de-lise coronet of the Dauphin was arched in with 
four golden dolphins (Plate XLVIIL, fig. 18). 

The family of LA TOUR DU PlN, who claimed descent 
from the Dauphins d'AUVERGNE, also quartered their 
arms, but the French Heralds make this difference that 
in this latter case the dolphin is borne paint, i.e. lifeless, 



( 270 ) 

with gaping mouth and closed eye, and of the one colour 
only. The normal position of a heraldic dolphin is that 
which it assumes in these coats, viz., embowed, with the 
head and tail towards the dexter side of the escucheon. 
If the dolphin be blazoned as naiant, it is still, if borne 
singly, represented as embowed, but when as in the case 
of the Venetian DOLFINI (Plate XXVI., fig. 8) three dol- 
phins are borne naiant in pale (of or on an azure field 
in this case) the bodies are more nearly straight ; and 
the same is the case when three dolphins are blazoned 
haurianf], as in the arms of VANDEPUT (Or, three 
dolphins Jiauriant azure], 

The Scottish family of MONYPENNY bears : Argent, 
a dolphin naiant azure. Two dolphins hauriant addorsed 
form the charge of several English coats, e.g., Argent, on 
a field vert, HAMNER: Sable, on a field argent, COLSTON ; 
Or, on a field gules, ELLEY, etc. ; and are used as sup- 
porters by the TREVELYANS, BURNABYS, etc. 

THE BARBEL, or BAR, is in favour in French Heraldry, 
the fish being borne in pairs adosses, their backs curving 
towards each other; as in the arms of the powerful 
Counts and Dukes of BAR (BAR LE Due), whose terri- 
tories lay on the Meuse west of Lorraine, they bore : 
d'Azur, seme de croix recroisettees, aupiedficJie, d'or, a deux 
bars adosses de meme (Plate XXVI. , fig. 9 and p. 496). It 
is said that the seal of THIERRY II., 1093-1 104, bears the 
barbel, and that the field was made crusily by RENAUD 
I., d. 1149. CLERMONT-NESLE, bore a similar coat but 
with the field de gueules trefle. DE ROUVILLE carried : 
d ' Azur, seme de billettes d'or, a deux bars adosses d' argent. 
The Counts LAVAULX-VRECOURT bore : d'Azur, a deux 
bars adosses d' argent, accompagnes de quatre croisettes d'or. 
The Counts of BARBY, whose arms are included in the 
Saxon quarterings, used, Azure, two barbel addorsed 
between four roses or. Gules, two barbel addorsed or, is 
the coat of the Counts of MUMPELGARD, or MONT- 



BEILLARD, and of the Counts of PFIRDT, or FER- 
RETTE. (Plate XLV, fig. i.) 

SALMON are sometimes represented in the same 
attitude as by the Princes of SALM who carry : Gules, 
two salmon addorsed between four cross lets argent. 
Argent, tzvo salmon addorsed gules, is the coat of the 
Counts von WERNIGERODE of Prussia. 

PIKE were known as lucies, or geds. Under the 
latter term they form the charge of the GEDDES arms : 
Azure, three geds hauriant argent. Azure, a pike in 
bend argent, is borne by GlEDE, of Denmark. 

A curious Dutch coat is that of the Viscounts JAN 
DE LA HAMELINAYE, etc. : Sable, two pike affrontes in 
bend, biting an eel ondoyant in bend sinister, argent. 

In Foreign Armory three fishes are occasionally 
found in pairle (arranged in the form of the letter Y), 
thus KIPPENHEIM and BERNBACH both bore : Gules, 
three barbels in pairle or, their tails to the centre. So also 
DORNHEIM, Gules, three fish in pairle heads inward 
argent: DIE HINDER bore, Gules, tJiree fisli conjoined 
in pairle with one head argent. Azure, three fish in pairle 
argent, is the coat of KRECHWITZ. An unusual but 
rather tasteful arrangement is shown in the arms of 
TROUTBECK, as shown in Plate XXVI., fig. 10. Azure 
three trout fretted tete a la queue argent. 

A salmon with a ring in its mouth is one of the 
charges of the arms used for the City of GLASGOW ; and 
two such salmon are employed as supporters of its shield. 
It is here connected with a local legend of ST. MUNGO, 
or KENTIGERN, though Mr MOULE (Heraldry of Fish, 
p. 126) reminds us that it occurs in the tale of POLY- 
CRATES, related by HERODOTUS a thousand years before 
ST. MUNGO lived ; as well as in the Koran. 

Gules, tJiree salmon hauriant each with a ring in its 
mouth argent, are the arms of SPROTTIE. 

The arms of ICELAND ; Gules, a stockfish (or dried cod), 



argent crowned with an open crown, or, is borne among the 
quarterings of the Kingdom of Denmark (Plate XXVL, 
fig. 11). 

THE WHALE. Only two or three examples of the use 
of the whale as a heraldic charge have come under my 
notice. The arms of the Dutch family of DOLL are : 
Azure, a whale argent, naiant upon the upper part of a f ess 
wavy of the same, but this seems to be only a variation of 
the coat borne by the DOLKS which was : Argent, a dolphin 
sable crowned or, its tail curved in the air disporting itself 
above the base of the shield barry of four azure and argent. 
Azure, a whale argent finned and tailed gules ; is the coat of 
WAHLEN. (See Fierte, in the Glossary of French Terms.) 

Gules, three whales hauriant each having in its mouth a 
crozier or, were the arms of WH ALLEY ABBEY. Argent, 
three whale's heads erased sable is the coat of WHALLEY. 

In French Blazon the head of a fish (like that of a 
wild-boar) is termed a hure. U Azur, a la fleur-de-lis 
d'or, accompagne de trots Jiures de saumon d' argent, is the 
coat of LE BRIS DE HOUAREE. LE BOURG of Brittany 
bears : de Sable, au sautoir d' argent cantonne de quatre 
hures de saumon du meme. 

The Polish family of BYDANT bear : Gules, two fish 
jaws argent affrontes in pale ; a like coat is borne by 
LUZYANSKI. 

THE EEL occurs not unfrequently in Armory. It is 
represented ondoyant, i.e., with a wavy outline (See 
ANGUILLARA, p. 120). Argent, two eels ondoyants, and 
affrontes in pale between as many estoiles gules : is said to 
be borne by a Scottish family of ARNEEL. Or, three eels 
gules without heads palew ays, 2 and I, is the very curious 
coat of VERGEYLL of Holland. (For eels in Spanish 
coats vide infra, p. 390, sub voce " CAULDRON.") 

Of SHELL-FiSH, or what pertains to them, the most 
prominent and important bearing is the shell of the 
scallop, or escallop. Argent, on a bend azure three 



( 273 

escallops of the field, is borne by the BERNARDS, 
Earls of BANDON, in Ireland. This charge was associ- 
ated with the ancient pilgrims, of whose equipment 
the scallop-shell, probably as a convenient drinking 
vessel, usually formed a part. ( Vide infra, p. 375.) 
The banner of ROBERT DE SCALES at the siege of 
CARLAVEROCK was of Gules, charged with six escallop 
shells argent. An even better known example is 
afforded by the coat of the great family of DACRE : 
Gules, three escallops argent. (Plate XXVL, fig. 12.) This 
is also the coat of the KEPPELS, Earls of ALBEMARLE. 
Azure, three escallops or, was borne by the PRINGLES, 
whose name was supposed to be a corruption of pilgrim. 
Or, on a chief sable three escallops argent is the coat of 
GRAHAM, Duke of MONTROSE ; and Argent, a chevron 
between three escallops sable, is borne by LITTLETON, 
Viscounts COBHAM. Argent, on a bend gules coticed 
vert three escallops or, was the coat of DARWIN, the 
naturalist. When the inside of the escallop shell is 
shown it is called a vannet, and is often drawn without 
the oreilles : the little projecting pieces at the junction 
of the shell. The French VANNELATS bore : Azure, a 
vannet or. 

CRABS, LOBSTERS, CRAYFISH, PRAWNS and SHRIMPS, 
all are found in the armorial menagerie. Azure, 
a chevron argent between two fleurs-de-lis in chief 
and a crab in base or, is the coat of CRAB of Robs- 
law. 

Or, a lobster in pale gules, is the coat which is blazoned 
on the tomb of Cardinal NICOLAS DE CUSA in the church 
of S. Pietro in Vincoli at Rome. THIARD, Marquis de 
BISSY, bears : dOr, a trots ecrevisses de gueules, poses en 
pals 2 and I. 

REPTILES. 

Reptiles of all kinds, serpents, adders, crocodiles, 
T 



lizards, scorpions, tortoises, down to frogs and toads, are 
found occasionally in British Armory, and still more 
frequently are to be met with in the heraldry of Conti- 
nental States. 

Serpents or snakes may be represented erect, or 
erect-wavy (pndoyants en pal), or gliding forward in a 
horizontal line : or nowed, that is tied in a knot, or, in 
the form by which the ancients symbolised eternity, in a 
circular form with the tail in the mouth. Three such 
serpents argent on an azure field were borne by the 
French family of LAUZON. 

Argent^ two serpents erect addorsed sable, are given as 
the arms of LONGSHARE ; and Gules, an adder nowed or, 
the coat of NATHELEY, is represented in Plate XXVI I., 
fig. i. 

Gules, three snakes nowed in triangle argent (Plate 
XXVII., fig. 2), is said to have been the coat of EDNO- 
WAIN, Lord of Llys Bradwen in North Wales, and is 
still borne by several Welsh families who claim him as 
their progenitor. 

The coat of VAUGHAN of Talgarth (Plate XXVI I., 
fig. 3), is, Azure, three boy's heads argent, having serpents 
encircling their necks proper. 

The most famous instance in which a serpent is used 
in Continental Armory is afforded by the arms of the 
family of VlSCONTI, which afterwards became from them 
the recognised coat of the Duchy of MILAN : Argent, a 
serpent ondoyant in pale azure crowned with a ducal crown 
or, and vorant a child gules. (Plate XXVI I. , fig. 4, and 
p. 495.) An absurd fable is of course extant to account 
for the origin of this remarkable coat, but when we find 
it, as we do, among the series of escucheons adorning 
the splendid tomb of JEAN GALEAZZO VlSCONTI in the 
Certosa at Pavia, and accompanied by the name of the 
lordship ANGLERIA or ANGUIVARIA, for which it was 
borne, we see that we have here only another instance 



( 275 ) 

of the adoption of armes parlantes. (See MENETRIER, 
Origine dcs Armoiries, p. 105. DANTE refers to "la 
Vipera" Purgatorio, viii., 81.) 

In the coats borne by the several families of the 
GUZMANS of Spain, of which one is engraved on Plate 
XXXIII., fig. 8, the caldron, or cooking pot, which was 
the peculiar ensign of the ricos hombres, is accompanied 
by a number of serpents issuing from it. This has been 
thought to indicate some legend of African campaigns, 
but I have elsewhere said (" The Heraldry of Spain and 
Portugal") that they have a more prosaic origin, and are 
simply the eels which would find a natural place in the 
caldera (vide post, pp. 389, 390). 

The serpent represented, as in the arms of MILAN, 
ondoyant in pal, is termed in French blazon une couleuvre. 

The celebrated COLBERT, Marquis de SEIGNELAY, 
Ministre des Finances of LOUIS XIV., bore : d'Or, a 
une couleuvre ondoyante en pal d'azur ; and the same coat 
was used by the COLBERTS, Marquises de TORCY, de 
SABLE, de MAULEVRIER, de ST. PONANGE, and de 

COLBERT-CH ABAN N AIS. 

The Roman family of BlCHI, or BlSSl, used : Gules, a 
column argent, its capital and base Or, encircled by a 
serpent azure vorant a child vert(!) Argent, a couleuvre 
vorant a smaller one proper, is one of the quarters 
(formerly the crest) of the Italian CIPRIANI. Several 
Polish houses originating in, or affiliated to, the families 
of WONZ, bear the couleuvre. WONZ I. Azure, a cou- 
leuvre ondoyant in pale or. WONZ II. Gules, a like cou- 
leuvre sable, in its mouth a slip of orange fruited proper. 
WONZ III. The same, but crowned and holding a globe or 
in its mouth. WONZ IV. Gules, a couleuvre crowned Or. 
WONZ V. Like ViSCONTI, but the infant proper. WONZ 
VI. Gules, two couleuvres ondoyants and affrontes en pale, 
eacJi crowned or. 

Argent, two bars gules, over all as many serpents 



affrontes paleways azure, is the coat of the well known 
Breton family DU REFUGE. 

In a good many foreign coats the serpent is repre-r 
sented entwined around the stem of a tree (sometimes 
holding in its mouth the forbidden fruit) as in the coat 
of the Austrian SCHRECKS, the Dutch CRULLS, etc. 
(See also Chapter VI., pp. 195, 196.) Under the system 
adopted in the French Empire by which the dignity or 
office of an individual was indicated by an addition to 
the charges of the shield, A canton azure, on it an antique 
mirror in pale or, wreathed witJi a serpent argent ; was 
the distinguishing badge of a " Count Senator." (See 
L Armorial General de r Empire Fran^ais, tome i., 
planche xv., etc.) 

The Polish family of DziULI bear : Or, three serpents 
ondoyants fessways in pale azure. 

Vert, three asps paleways or, is the canting coat of 
ASPENELL. 

The Heads of serpents, apart from their bodies, are 
sometimes met with as heraldic charges. 

The Castilian GARCINI bear : Or, on a bend gules three 
serpents heads vert. But as there is a French family of 
GARCIN to which the Spanish house probably belongs, 
and which bears the same arms, but with the substitution 
of monstrous or chimerical heads for those of the snake, 
it is pretty clear that the latter was not the original 
bearing. In the coat of the Castilian BEJARANO we 
have, however, undoubted serpent's heads, Argent, five 
serpent's heads or, langued gules. (This coat may be put 
among the examples of armes fausses ; armes pour 
cnquerir, etc.) Another family of the name in Estrema- 
dura bears : Gules, a lion rampant proper, between the 
heads of four serpents vert (or proper) issuing towards the 
lion from the angles of the shield. A cross couped and 
ornamented at its extremities with serpent's heads is 
termed a cross gringolce (See p. 161, Plate XV., fig. 6). 



( 277 ) 

LIZARDS. Azure, tJiree lizards or, is borne by the Irish 
COTTERS. 

The French family of LE TELLIER, Marquis de 
LOUVOIS bore a doubly canting coat : d'Azur, a trots 
lezards d' argent, posh en pals, ranges en fasce ; au chef 
cousu de gueules chargt de trots etoiles d'or. Here notice 
the chef blazoned cousu, or tacked on to the field, to 
avoid the reproach of false heraldry ; the three lizards 
(stelliones) and the three etoiles (stellce) as canting charges. 
Or, three lizards vert, is the coat of ROSVERN in Brittany; 
and of VAN DER HELCK in Holland. Azure, on a plain 
in base a chameleon proper, in chief the sun in splendour, is 
a coat assigned to ORY. 

The CROCODILE, or ALLIGATOR, appears as the charge 
of a few coats. Gules, a chevron argent between three 
alligators proper, is the coat of HITCHCOCK. DUCLAU, 
Barons of the French Empire, bore in their first quarter : 
Or, three grenades sable, inflamed proper, 2 and I , in base a 
crocodile azure. The DALBIACS bear : Or, an olive tree 
eradicated vert, on a chief gules a crocodile is su ant from 
the sinister proper. (This family is of French origin and 
the coat is often blazoned Per f ess gules and or, etc.) 

Sable, a crocodile or, is borne by AUTROCHE of France. 

A crocodile is the crest, and is also the dexter 
Supporter granted as an Augmentation to SPEKE, the 
discoverer of the sources of the Nile (v. Appendix). 

The city of NlMES has for its arms (derived from a medal 
of Nemausus) : Gules, a crocodile vert chained in front of a 
palm tree rising from a terrace vert. On either side are the 
letters COL and NEM (for Colonia Nemausensis], founded 
for the veterans of Africa after the battle of Actium. 

SCORPIONS. Argent, a chevron between three scorpions 
sable, is the coat of COLE. Other varieties exist ; some- 
times the chevron, sometimes the scorpions, are tinctured 
gules. Argent, a scorpion sable in pale, is the coat of the 
CAPRINI of Verona; one of the quarterings of SCORPIONE 



of Milan ; and is also borne by the GUINANDS of Neuf- 
chatel. Argent, a chevron sable between tJiree scorpions 
fes sways gules, is borne by BELLERO in Belgium. 

TORTOISE. The tortoise is borne as the charge in the 
arms of several English families of GAWDEY, either 
passant, or erect : i.e. displayed like the heraldic eagle. 
Vert, a tortoise passant argent, is the coat most frequently 
seen. It has been adopted also as a charge in the coat 
of the Scottish family of GOUDIE : Argent, a chevron 
between two trefoils slipped in chief vert, and a tortoise 
passant in base gules. The French CHAUTONS bear : 
d 1 Azur, au chevron d'or, accompagne de trois tortues du 
meme. HENRION, Barons de PANSEY, bear : Or, a 
chevron azure between three tortoises erect, sable. 

Vert, three tortoises erect, is the coat of HARPENY or 
HALPENY. The French ROSSELS use : d' Azur, a trois 
tortues d'or. 

FROGS AND TOADS. These reptiles occur as Heraldic 
Charges with considerable frequency, and are often 
allusive in some way to the name. The best known 
family in Britain which bears them is probably that of 
the BOTREAUX of Cumberland : Argent, three toads erect 
sable. Argent, a chevron between three powets (or tad- 
poles) sable, is a coat of some Scottish families of 
RUSSELL (the chevron is sometimes gules), and the 
tadpoles are often blazoned as gouttes reversed. 

We may pass over the old fable that the French fleurs- 
de-lis were derived from an earlier coat (borne by 
PHARAMOND ! !), Azure, tJiree toads or; a legend from 
which our neighbours across the Channel have perhaps 
(though by no means certainly) derived the sobriquet of 
"Johnnie Crapaud" Rather it seems probable that 
this appellation is of Flemish origin. PHILIP VON 
ARTEVELDE perhaps had it in his mind when he 
declared that the French soldiers could not pass the 
river Lys to attack him " a moins qu'il ne fussent 



( 2 79 ) 

crapauds," a conviction which cost him dear ; but 
thenceforth "crapauds francJios" appears to have been 
the sobriquet attached to the victorious French. (See 
REY, Histoire du Drapeau, etc., de la MonarcJiie Fran^aise, 
tome ii., p. 32. Paris, 1837.) 

As a canting charge the frog is found in the arms of 
the German families of FROSCH (Sable, on a bend wavy 
or, three frogs proper], FROSCHAMMER, FROSCHAUER, 
FROSCHL, etc. Of the latter name two families in 
Bavaria use : Gules, a frog paleways proper ; and 
Sable, a frog or. Similarly the Spanish family of 
GRANOLLACHS use : Azure, two bends or, on each three 
frogs vert. Argent, . three frogs vert, is borne by 
DE LA RUELLE in Belgium, and by a Breton family, 
GAZET DE BRAN DAY. D'Or, a trois crapauds de gueules, 
is the coat of CoiSPEL. The Saxon family of LOSS, 
Counts of the Empire, carry : Gules, a frog bendways 
within a circular wreath of laurel vert. Vert, three frogs 
seated or, are the arms of the Netherland families VAN 
RYCKEVORSEL. Frogs were used as supporters by Lord 
SOMERVILLE, c. 1570-1580 (SlODART, Scottish Arms, 
i, 309). 

The zoology of Armory makes no pretensions to 
scientific accuracy, and we may therefore include in this 
Chapter LEECHES. Of these PREEDE in Shropshire 
bears three in a field argent. The IGELSTROMS of 
Livonia and Esthonia use : Gules, a river in bend wavy 
argent, thereon five leeches sable. EGLOF DE SCHONAU 
in Swabia : Azure, on a bend argent three leeches sable. 
The French family of DOULLE bears : d 'Argent, a trois 
sangsues de sable posees en pals 2 and I . 

The ordinary Earth worm appears in the coat of 
the REVERONI : de Gueules, a un ver tortille d' argent en 
fasce ; au chef d'azur charge d'un soleil naissant d'or. 
The Barons von FECHENBACH of Franconia use : 
Argent, a worm embowed in pale sable. The DU VERNEY 



of Lyons use : Vert y three silk-worms bendways, 2 and i, 
and charge the chief (? or) with as many mulberry leaves 
proper. The Breton SOUEFF bear : Barry azure and 
or, seme of silkworms counter-changed. 

SNAILS are borne by ALESSO, Marquis d'ERAQUY in 
Italy, etc. (d'Azur, au sautoir d'or accompagne de quatre 
lima$ons a" argent). 

INSECTS. 

BUTTERFLIES. This insect is more frequently found 
as a heraldic charge in French Armory than in our own. 
The PAPILLON, Vicomtes de BRAITEAU, use d'Or, a 
trots papillons de gueules. A family of the same name 
settled in England bear : Azure, a chevron between three 
butterflies argent. Sable, a butterfly volant argent is the 
coat of BOLLORD. The Breton family of BARIN (from 
which came the Marquises of BoiS-GEFFROY ; LA 
GRANDE GUERCHE, and DE LA GALISSONIERE) bear: 
Azure, three butterflies or, as did also the English M US- 
CHAMPS. The AVAZZI of Bologna used : Azure, on a 
pale argent two butterflies {proper or or). DROUALLEN, 
in Brittany, carries: Argent, three butterflies sable. 
Argent, a fess embattled sable between three butterflies 
gules, is an English coat for KERFORD. Gules, 
a chevron between three butterflies argent, is the coat of 
JAGOU, and (but with the chevron or) of ALLAIRE in 
France, and the Channel Islands. 

FLIES. The ordinary House Fly is borne as a 
canting charge in the coat of the Venetian family of 
FlERAMOSCA : Paly gules and argent, over all on a bend 
or, three flies sable. The family of VLIEGE in Flanders 
used : Azure, a cross argent between four flies or. (This 
coat is now borne by a family of GHISELIN, who have 
assumed the name and arms of VLIEGE.) Argent, a 
chevron between three flies sable, is the coat of DE THOU, 
Comte de MESLAY ; and Azure, a chevron between three 



flies or, that of MOUCHARD, Comte de CHABAN, both of 
France. The Florentine VESPUCCI bear : Gules, a bend 
azure seme of flies or. In Santa Maria Novella at 
Florence this VESPUCCI coat appears, with, in the sinister 
chief, a pot of lilies, on the tomb of ANTONIO STROZZI. 
(See also LlTTA, Celebri Famiglie Italiane.) Per pale 
gtiles and azure (or azure and gules] three flies (sometimes 
blazoned gad-flies, sometimes bees} or, are coats used by 
several English families named DORE, DAWRE, or 
DOORE. 

Next to FLIES naturally come SPIDERS, of which 
there are some rather curious examples. Or, tJiree spiders 
azure, is the coat of the English C KETTLES. The 
Russian family of RUKOFF bears : Tierced in bend- 
sinister, i. Vert, a spider in its web proper ; 2. A sure, a 
dragon sable winged gules ; 3. Lozengy argent and azure, 
a dragon, as in 2. The extinct family of RAGNINA at 
Ragusa, used the canting coat : Gules, a bar argent, in chief 
tJiree spiders sable, in base as many bends of the second. 

BEES are often used in Armory as an emblem of 
industry and perseverance, as well as in allusion to the 
name of the bearer. Azure, three bees volant or, is used 
in England for BYE ; and, with a chevron of the same, 
for BEE, and BEEBEE. The flies of MUSCHAMP (vide 
supra} are sometimes blazoned as bees. Argent, a bend 
between six bees sable, is the canting coat of BEESTON. 

The Emperor NAPOLEON replaced the proscribed 
fleurs-de-lis by golden bees, which he used as decora- 
tions for his coronation robes, and also employed in the 
heraldic augmentations hereafter to be described. The 
origin of the assumption of the bee by NAPOLEON as 
an Imperial badge is curious. In the year 1653 there 
was discovered at Tournay a tomb supposed to be that 
of CHILDERIC (d. 480), father of CLOVIS. Among the 
precious articles enclosed therein, or found in proximity 
to it, were about three hundred small objects of gold 



( 282 ) 

and fine stones, which somewhat resembled in shape an 
insect, and to which the name of " bees " was given. 
These, and the other contents of the tomb were pre- 
sented by the Archbishop of Mentz to LOUIS XIV., 
and were long preserved in the Bibliotheque Royale at 
Paris. These so-called bees were stolen in 1832, and 
only two remain at the present day. One of them is 
figured in the separate plate opposite p. 21 of the 
Histoire de rOrfevrerie-Joaillerie, by MM. LA CROIX 
et SERE; Paris, 1860. 

Among those who were present at the discovery, or 
whose attention was immediately directed to it, was 
JEAN JACQUES CHIFFLET, at that time physician to the 
Archduke LEOPOLD, Governor of the Netherlands, and 
afterwards chamberlain of PHILIP IV. (He is best 
known, perhaps, as the author of the Insignia Gentilitia 
Equitum Ordinis Velleris Aurei, printed at Antwerp in 
1632 ; and containing a catalogue of the Knights of the 
Order of the Golden Fleece, with the blazon of their 
arms, etc., in Latin and French.) 

CHIFFLET was charged by the Archduke to write an 
account of the discovery ; and in his opinion these golden 
insects had been employed as the decorations of the 
royal mantle, which very possibly was the case. But 
CHIFFLET went further, and declared that in these 
insects was to be found the origin of the fleur-de-lis. 
This statement occasioned a great literary controversy 
with regard to which it will be sufficient to say here that 
CHIFFLET'S assertion was very hotly contested by 
TRISTAN DE ST. AMAND (Traite du Lis, 1656); and 
later by the celebrated antiquary MONTFAUCON in his 
great work, Les Monumens de la MonarcJiie Frangaise. 
(See the Histoire du Drapeau, etc., de la Monarchie Fran- 
$aise ; par. M. REY, tome, ii., p. 27, Paris, 1837.) The 
Emperor NAPOLEON, whose ambition it was to pose in 
some sort as the successor of Princes anterior to the line 



of CAPET, assumed these bees as the badge of his new 
Empire ; and, as has been stated, caused them to be 
largely employed among its heraldic insignia. 

Not only his coronation mantle, and that of the 
Empress JOSEPHINE were thus semes ; but the mantling 
surrounding the Imperial arms was similarly decorated ; 
as were those of the " Princes-Grands-Dignitaires " of 
the Empire, to whose armorial bearings there was also 
added, as indicative of their high office, a chef d'azur 
seme d'abeilles d'or (SlMON, r Armorial General de 
r Empire Franqais, tome, i., p. v., planches 5, 7, 8). The 
chief azure charged with three fleur-de-lis or, which had 
figured in the arms of Paris, and of so many of the cities 
of the French Monarchy, was replaced by a chief gules 
charged witJi tJiree golden bees. This chief also figured 
for a time in the escucheons of Aachen, Amsterdam, 
Antwerp, Bremen, Brussels, Cologne, Dijon, Florence, 
Genoa, Ghent, Hamburg, Lyon, and Parma. Under the 
" Second Empire " the Napoleonic bee naturally came 
again into favour ; but, so far as my observation extends, 
did not succeed in ousting the restored fleurs-de-lis 
from the armorial insignia of French cities, and corporate 
bodies. 

The Low Country family of NOUST bears: Argent, three 
bees vert ; Or, a bee azure, is the coat of the Castilian 
PECHA. The coat of Sir ROBERT PEEL, Bart. (Prime 
Minister, 1 834- 1 83 5 ; 1 84 1 - 1 846) was : A rgent, three sheaves 
of as many arrows proper banded gules, on a chief a bee 
volant or. Sable, a chevron between three bees argent, is 
used by SEWELL, and GERLINGTON; with the field Azure 
this was the old coat of BYRES (see STODART, Scottish 
Arms, i., 329). 

The Swiss HUMMELS use : Azure, a bee in pale or 
winged argent, its legs sable ; a family of the same name 
in Bavaria, uses the curious coat : Argent, on a bend or 
three bees of the first, their heads downwards. (This is a 



( 284 ) 

curious coat, being what would be styled " false heraldry," 
as composed of metal on metal. The lambrequins of the 
helmet are similarly of argent and or ; whatever may be 
its cause the infraction of the general rule is certainly 
deliberate.) The French FREPPELS bear : Azure, a bee 
or. Gules, seme of bees volant or, is the coat attributed 
to the Byzantine house of SCLEROS. The French family 
of GUESPEREAU has as its armes parlantes, Azure, three 
wasps or. Beehives with bees flying around them occur in 
some very modern coats, and, though improperly, as 
crests. 

ANTS. The family of BlGOT, Counts de ST. QuiNTIN 
in France, have the curious coat d'Azur, a trots fourmis 
d'or posees en fasces rune sur rautre. (The curiosity of 
this coat consists in the fact that whereas the vast 
majority of heraldic charges are necessarily represented 
much smaller than in nature, the escucheon must be of 
a very miniature character in which these charges are 
not drawn on a highly magnified scale.) Another family 
of the name BIGOT DE LA CHAUMIERE has the coat: 
Argent, a chevron gules between three ants sable. As 
armes parlantes the CASSANTS of Piedmont bear : Bendy 
or and vert, each piece of the first charged with an ant 
sable ; a chief or, thereon an eagle displayed sable. A most 
singular coat is that of the family of ALQUERIA DE 
BoiGUES, in Catalonia : Or, eight ants in pale, 2, 2, 2, 2, 
sable, each enveloped in a flame or. (See PlFERRER, 
Nobiliario de los Reinos y Senorios de Espana, iv., No. 
1742, Madrid, 1857-1860.) Argent, six ants, 3, 2, i, 
gules, is assigned to an English family of TREGENT ; and 
A rgent, a bend azure between three emmets sable, to MASSY ; 
I think I have met with no other instances in our own 
Armory. 

GRASSHOPPERS and CRICKETS may be not unfitly 
joined together here. Both are used as armes parlantes. 
The Genoese family of GRILLO (Marquises d'ESTOUBLON 



in France) carry : Gules, on a bend or a cricket sable. 
The GRIONI of Venice used : Azure, on a bend or 
three grass/toppers sable. D' Argent, a une cigale de sable, 
is the canting coat of the SEGALAS of France. The 
WOODWARDS of Kent bear: Argent, a chevron between 
three grasshoppers vert ; but the most familiar example 
of the use of this insect in British Armory is afforded 
by the crest of the GRESHAMS ; a golden grasshopper 
(usually on a mount vert), which forms the vane of the 
Royal Exchange in London. 

Even the unattractive WOODLOUSE has its representa- 
tives in the Armory of the Continent, the arms of the 
French family of MACON being : d' Argent, a un chevron 
accompagnt de trois cloportes de sable. 

Perhaps of all insect coats the most singular is that of 
the PULLICI of Verona : Or, seme of fleas sable, two bends 
gules, over all two bends sinister of the same. This may 
remind us of the jest of HENRY VIII., who affected to 
take the ermine spots in the arms of WISE (Sable, three 
chevrons ermine) for even more ignoble insects, as 
charges " becoming an old coat." The old Heralds, who 
pretended to find in Armorial charges the hieroglyphic 
of the moral character of the bearer, would no doubt 
have discovered in the PULLICI charges the symbols of 
restless activity and relentless bloodthirstiness ! 



CHAPTER X. 

ANIMATE CHARGES. V. MONSTERS. 

IT has been seen that the conceptions of the old heraldic 
writers with regard to many actual animals partook 
largely of the fantastical. But creatures altogether 
imaginary also figure largely in Armory, though perhaps 
not to so large an extent in our own as in that of the 
Continent. A large number of the Supporters of our 
Peers are, however, of this character. The monster of 
most frequent occurrence in English Heraldry is the 
GRIFFIN, or GRYPHON. 

We find the original idea of this creature in classical 
sculpture (probably derived from Assyria), and in 
Teutonic legend : a creature supposed to have been 
originally generated between the lion and the eagle, 
having the body and hind-legs of the former ; the head, 
wings, and fore-legs being derived from the latter. In 
mediaeval times the existence of such a creature was 
no matter of doubt. The "veracious" Sir JOHN MAUN- 
DEVILLE tells us in his Travels that they abound in 
" Bacharia." " Sum men seyn that thei han the body 
upward as an egle, and benethe as a lyoun ; and treuly 
thei seyn sothe that thei ben of that schapp. But o 
Griffoun hathe the body more gret and more strong 
than 8 lyouns of such lyouns as ben o' this half (of the 
world) and more gret and stronger than an 100 egles 
such as we han amonges us . . ." 

" Griffin's claws," probably the horns of a species of 
ibex, were to be found not only in cabinets of antiqui- 
ties but in the treasuries of cathedrals and other religious 



foundations. The grypisJiey, or " Griffin's egg," probably 
that of an ostrich, was often mounted as a drinking cup, 
and esteemed a treasure of the greatest rarity. (See 
Report of Historical MSS. Commission, I., p. 66.) I am 
inclined to think that griffins, and other monsters after- 
wards noticed, may have found their way into Armory 
from the Lombardic style of architecture, in which they 
are continually employed. 

DE CAUMONT (AbeMaire dArcheologie, iii., 184) says, 
" Le basilic, 1'aspic, le dragon, et autres figures sym- 
boliques du demon, meritent d'etre attentivement 
etudiees dans les eglises romanes ou elles se trouvent." 

These grotesque figures were denounced by ST. BER- 
NARD in a letter written to WILLIAM, Abbot of ST. 
THIERRY, about the year 1125 (i.e., just about the time 
of the rise of Hereditary Heraldry). He says : " A quoi 
bon tous ces monstres grotesques en peinture et en 
sculpture ? . . . A quoi sert une telle difformite, 
ou cette beaute difforme? Que signiftent . . . ces 
centaurs monstrueux . . . ces quadrupedes a queues 
de serpent ..." etc. (Quoted by DE CAUMONT 
from MABILLON, inter opera Sti. Bernard^ 

In one of the earliest Heraldic MSS. in the College 
of Arms (L. 14), the arms of SIMON DE MONTACUTE 
are represented. The shield contains a Griffin statant; 
but the usual attitude in British Armory, and the all 
but invariable attitude of the creature in Foreign 
Heraldry, is segreant (the equivalent phrase for rampant] ; 
this charge was afterwards adopted by others of the name 
of MONTACUTE, and was, I suppose, the origin of its use 
as Supporter by the Dukes of MANCHESTER. 

Or, a griffin passant gules, is the canting coat of GRIB 
in Denmark. (The arms of STYRIA are at p. 495.) 

Mr PLANCHE, in his Pursuivant of Arms, gives four 
examples of its use from a Roll temp. EDWARD III. 
" Monsire de GRIFFIN " is there said to have borne, as armes 



( 283 ) 

parlantes, "Sable, a une griffin d' argent beke et pieds d'or" 
Plate XXVII., fig. 5 is the coat of TRAFFORD, of Trafford, 
County Lancaster : Argent, a griffin segreant gules. This 
coat was also borne by the Neapolitan family of GRIFFA ; 
and occurs in the Wappenrolle von Zurich (No. 352) for 
BERNSTEIN. The Russian Princes LAPOUKHIN bear a 
shield Per f ess, in chief the arms of the Russian Empire ; 
in base the coat just blazoned. The Supporters of the 
Austrian Imperial Arms are Two griffins or, the wings 
and plumage of the breast sable. As a supporter the 
griffin appears frequently in British Armory. It is 
thus used by the Dukes of CLEVELAND and MAN- 
CHESTER, the Viscounts BARRiNGTON, Earls of CAITH- 
NESS, Lords DELAMERE, and by the Earls of MAR. 

Or, a griffin segreant sable, is attributed to IVAN AP 
CADIFOR VAWR, a Welsh prince ; and is still borne by 
several families of MORGAN. Argent, a griffin segreant 
azure, diademed or, is the coat of the Italian FRANCIOTI. 
The PERALTAS of Spain bear : Gules, a griffin within a 
chain in orle or. 

The Griffin occurs with considerable frequency in the 
arms of the Baltic Provinces ; and forms, consequently, 
the charge of several quarterings in the arms of MECK- 
LENBURG, and in the full shield of the Prussian Monarchy ; 
thus, Azure, a griffin segreant gules, crowned or, are the 
arms of the Duchy of STETTIN ; Azure, a griffin segreant 
or, are those of the Lordship of ROSTOCK. Argent, a 
griffin segreant barry (or bendy sinister), gules and vert, is 
borne for the Duchy of WENDEN. Argent, a griffin seg- 
reant gules (crowned or), is carried for POMERANIA. With- 
out the crown these arms are used for MONTEPULCIANO. 

The great princely family of the ESTERHAZY-GALAN- 
THA in Hungary use : Azure, a griffin segreant crowned 
and standing upon a crown or, holding in its right claw a 
drawn sword, and in its left a rose branch proper. Azure, 
a griffin segreant or, is the coat of the Portuguese 



PLATE XXVII. 




1. Adder nowed. 
Natheley. 




2. Snakes. 
Ednouain. 



"xx 7 

J. Snake entwined. 
Vaughan. 





4. Serpent Vorant. 
Visconti. 



5. Griffin Segreant. 
Trafford. 




5. Griffins' Heads. 
Toke. 





7. Dragon. 
Dauney. 



8. Wyvern. 
Drake. 




9. Cockatrice. 
Langley. 





10. Unicorns' Heads. 
Preston. 



11. Seahorse. 
T-ucker. 




12. Mermaid. 
Prestmch. 



( 289 ) 

ROBALOS, or REVALDOS ; the Italian RIVARI, and 
AFFAITATI ; of GRATET (Count de BOUCHAGE, and 
Marquis de DOLOMIEU in France), etc. 

Gules, a griffin segreant argent, are the arms of 
English families of BRENT, and SWILLINGTON, and of 
the Polish Jierba, or clan of GRYF ; as such they are borne 
by SzCEPANOWSKI ; OSTROWSKI ; ODORSKI ; and the 
Counts KONARSKI. 

The Silesian GREIFFN (SIEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, 
i., 67), and the Barons von GREIFFENSTEIN, bear : Sable, 
a griffin segreant argent; and the Sicilian ACCORAM- 
BONI : Per fess, gules and or, a griffin counter changed. 
In the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 74, is the coat of 
GRIFFENSTEIN : Or, on a conventional mount vert 
(isolated and of four coupeaux) a griffin statant sable, 
the beak and forelegs gules ; and WlLDENBERG, No. 134, 
bears : Or, a griffin segreant sable, the beak and foreclaws 
gules. 

Although the griffin is usually found singly in Armory 
there are a considerable number of instances in which 
more than one is depicted in the shield. In the Roll of 
EDWARD III., referred to on a preceding page, JOHN DE 
MEUX is said to bear : " d'azure, a vi. griffins d'or," which 
was double the number which sufficed his contemporary 
OLIVER DE WITH. 

In British Armory when three griffins appear they are 
usually represented passant, as in the later arms of 
WITH or WYTHE (with the same tinctures as above). 
Argent, a chevron between three griffins passant sable, is 
the coat of FlNCH, Earl of AYLESFORD. Argent, a 
chevron gules between three griffins segreant vert, is a 
coat of FORSYTH, in Scotland. Azure, two griffins 
segreant and combatant argent, is the coat of CASTELAIN 
in French Flanders. 

The head of the griffin is represented in armory with 
prominent ears ; a feature which requires attention, inas- 



2 9 

much as it is this which distinguishes the griffin's heads, 
borne as separate charges, from the heads of eagles 
similarly used. Plate XXVI I., fig. 6 is the coat of TOKE in 
Kent ; Per chevron sable and argent, three griffin's heads 
counter changed. The DRAKELOWS of Essex, and the 
Counts d'HANE DE STEENHUYSE in Belgium bear : 
A rgent, a chevron gules between three griffins heads erased 
sable. Per pale or and azure, on a chevron between three 
griffins heads erased, four fleurs-de-lis, all counterchanged, 
are the arms of POPE, Earl of DOWNE, and are attributed 
to the poet of that name. 

A variety of the GRIFFIN is found in the Gryphon- 
marine, or Sea-Griffin. In it the fore part of the creature 
is that of the eagle, but the wings are sometimes omitted ; 
and the lower half of the animal is that of a fish, or rather 
of a mermaid. Such a creature is the charge in the arms 
of the Silesian family of MESTICH ; Argent, a sea-griffin 
proper. (SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, i., 69). Azure, a 
(winged} sea-griffin per fess gules and argent crowned or, 
is the coat of the Barons von PuTTKAMMER. One or 
two other Pomeranian families have the like charge 
without wings. GORCKEN bears : Or, a sea-griffin per 
fess sable and gules, and PAULSDORF : Gules, a sea-griffin 
per fess or and argent. GORKE used : Argent, a sea- 
griffin azure, its tail gules. 

THE DRAGON. Before the beginnings of Heraldry 
the winged and four-legged monster known as the 
DRAGON was familiar in legend ; and it is hardly yet 
a settled question whether the Armorial monster, which 
also figures in so many early romances, may not be the 
traditional representation of the last survivors of real 
animals now extinct. As now depicted it has a head 
resembling that of the griffin, a scaled body with four 
legs with claws, bat wings, and a long barbed tail and 
tongue. A monster somewhat of this kind (but with two 
legs only) is found upon some of the shields borne by 



( 291 ) 

the Normans in the Bayeux Tapestry, and in more 
than one instance appears with its head transfixed 
by the Saxon spears. By some these have been 
considered regular banners, but if so they are unique, 
as no other mediaeval examples are known of standards 
cut out to the shape of an animal. Standards of this 
shape, however, are represented as borne by the Dacians 
in the sculptures on TRAJAN'S Column, and on the 
Arch of TITUS at Rome, and a possible exception is 
noted below. 

Mr FRENCH in an interesting pamphlet, On the Banners 
of the Bayeux Tapestry r , etc. (reprinted from the Journal 
of the Archaeological Association, in 1857), very plausibly 
suggests that, as the figures on the Saxon spears corre- 
spond exactly with those nailed upon the Norman 
shields, they were those which had been torn off by the 
spears of the Saxon warriors from the shields of their 
invaders. We may here remark that the term " dracones " 
which is occasionally applied to standards in mediaeval 
chronicles has no reference at all to standards of this kind. 
" Draco " was a general term for a serpent ; and the long 
snake or whip-like pennons were so called (vide infra, 
p. 657). 

In Excerpta Historica, p. 404, there is printed, however, 
a mandate of King HENRY III. in 1244, directing "a 
dragon to be made in fashion of a standard, of red silk 
sparkling all over with gold, the tongue of which should 
be made to resemble burning fire, and appear to be 
continually moving, and the eyes of sapphires or other 
suitable stones, and to place it in the Church of St. Peter, 
Westminster, against the King's coming." 

The Dragon is not a frequent charge in British Armory, 
but is more often met with as a supporter, or as a crest. 

The Arms of the City of LONDON are supported by 
two dragons rampant argent, the inside of their wings 
charged with a cross gules. The Red Dragon is the 



badge of the Principality of WALES. It was used as a 
Supporter of the Royal Arms by all our Tudor Sovereigns, 
and also appears on the Standards of HENRY VII. and 
HENRY VIII. (Excerpta Htstorica, pp. 56, 57.) Two 
dragons sable, ducally gorged and chained or, are the 
supporters of the arms of the Baroness NORTH. 

The English family of DAUNEY bears : Argent, a 
dragon rampant sable (Plate XX VII., fig. 7): and the 
family of RAYNOR is said to use : Argent, a dragon 
volant in bend sable. The Irish O'NEYLANS have : 
Gules, a dragon statant proper. 

The Imperial yellow Dragon of China (gorged with a 
mural crown and chained sable\ is the sinister supporter 
of the arms of Viscount GOUGH. 

The DRAGON of Foreign Heraldry corresponds with 
the WYVERN of British Armory, having only two legs, and 
being usually represented with its tail nowed in a circle. 
The arms of DRAKE of Devonshire are blazoned, 
Argent, a wyvern, its wings displayed, and the tail nowed 
gules ; but these are obviously armes parlantes, and the 
charge is the dragon of foreign armory (Plate XXVI I., 
fig. 8). Gules, a dragon winged argent, inflamed (i.e. with fire 
issuing from its mouth) proper, was borne by the Barons 
von DRACHENFELS. A like coat, but with the dragon or, 
belongs to DRAGE of Denmark. Argent, a dragon sable 
crowned or, holding in its mouth a flaming brand proper, 
is the coat of Austrian Counts von WURMBRAND. The 
Genoese house of DRAGHO used, Azure, a dragon argent ; 
and the DE DRAGO of Rome, Argent, a dragon vert. 
The BORGHESE family, to which Pope PAUL V. (1605- 
1621) belonged, used, Azure, a dragon or (often with a 
chief of the Empire). In the Low Countries the 
Barons de DRAECK carry : Azure, a dragon or; which is 
also the coat of DE DRAGON DE RAMILLIES in Artois. 
The Florentine DRAGOMANNI have, Or, a dragon gules 
(cVOr> a un dragon aile a deux pattes de gueules les ailes 



293 

levees). Two wyverns gules are the supporters of the 
arms of the Duke of MARLBOROUGH. 

The Dalmatian GAZZARI bear: Argent \ two dragons 
aff routes their tails no wed in salt ire rampant against a 
covered cup or, surmounted by a fleur-de-lis of the same. 
The dragons in the arms of the Italian families of 
Pozzo (Princes BELLA ClSTERNA, etc.) correspond to 
our wyverns : Or, a well gules accosted by two dragons 
affrontes vert, their tails nowed in saltire beneath the well. 

A dragon with a human face is known in French 
blazon as a dragon monstreux. The family of 
ANCEZUNE, Dues de CADEROUSSE, bear: Gules, two 
such dragons affrontes or (each holds with one claw its 
beard of snakes, and the tails and each claw of the 
feet are also serpentine). 

Sometimes only a portion of the dragon is represented. 
The Princes BUONCOMPAGNI bear : Gules, a dragon 
naissant or (issuant from the base) ; to this family 
belonged Pope GREGORY XII. (1572-1585). 

Two wyverns inflamed proper, are the supporters of 
the arms of the Earls of EGLINTON. 

. THE COCKATRICE only appears to differ from the 
Wyvern in possessing a cock's head and wattles, with 
a barbed tongue. It occurs in the coat of L.ANGLEY, 
Argent, a cockatrice sable beaked, wattled, and membered 
gules (Plate XX VI I., fig. 9). This creature was, I believe, 
identical with the BASILISK ; it was assumed to possess 
the same deadly powers, and to have been produced in 
a very remarkable way, viz., from an egg laid by a 
patriarchal cock and hatched by a toad ! " Le basilic 
a par devant la forme d'un coq, par derriere celle d'un 
serpent ; ' habet caudam ut coluber, residuum vero 
corporis ut gallus,' selon le texte de Vincent de Beau- 
vais. C'est ainsi qu'il etait represente sur un eglise des 
environs de Lyon." The cut given by DE CAUMONT in 
illustration of this passage, from the Lombardic sculpture 



2 94 

at Lyon, has the name BASILICUS engraved above the 
creature (Abecedaire d* Archologie> iii., 183, 184. See 
also the "Account of the Basilisk" in J. ROMILLY 
ALLEN, Christian Symbolism, p. 390). Or, a basilisk 
vert, is the coat of the Spanish family of BAS : with the 
charge sable it is that of TRAPPEQUIERS in Flanders. 
A cockatrice or, winged azure, is one of the Supporters 
used by the Earls DELAWARE. 

THE SALAMANDER, the well known device of 
FRANCIS I. of France, which occurs with such frequency 
in the chateaux of Fontainebleau, Blois, Chambord, etc. 
is the charge of the Italian family of CENNINO : 
Azure, a salamander or in flames proper. Tinctured vert, 
and in flames, it is the crest of DOUGLAS, Earl of 
ANGUS. The family of BRACCHE has such salamanders 
as supporters. 

THE AMPHIPTERE is simply a winged serpent. 
Azure, an amphiptere or, rising between two mountains 
argent, are the arms of CAMOENS the Portuguese poet. 
Azure, a bendlet purpure (probably originally argent but 
discoloured) between two ampJiipteres or, was borne by 
POTTER of France. These were used as supporters by 
the POTIERS, Dues de TRESMES, and DE GEVRES, who, 
however, used quite different arms : Azure, three dexter 
hands or, over all a canton chequy argent and azure. 

THE CHIMERA is a monster of rare occurrence abroad, 
and does not occur in our own Heraldic menagerie. It 
is depicted as possessing the head and breast of a 
woman, the forepaws of a lion, the body of a goat, the 
hind legs of a griffin and the tail of a serpent. A 
simpler prescription for its composition consists of the 
fore parts of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of 
a dragon. The Chimaera on the mosaic pavement at 
Aosta is thus represented. (See DIDRON, Annales 
Archcologiques, xvii., p. 389.) The family of FADA of 
Verona have their own peculiar recipe : Gules, a winged 



( 295 ) 

chimcera argent, the head and breasts carnation (or proper) 
the feet those of an eagle. 

THE SPHYNX resembles the preceding in having the 
head and breasts of a woman ; as usually drawn the 
rest of the body is that of a lion, though according to 
some writers, it should possess the paws of a lion, the 
body of a dog, and the tail of a dragon. It occasionally 
appears in Foreign Heraldry as a convenient hiero- 
glyphic to commemorate some service in Egypt, and is 
the crest of the British families of ASGILL, Baronets 
LAMBERT, GOATLEY, etc. The GILLARTS of Brittany 
bear : Azure, a spJiynx couchant, winged or, on a chief 
argent three ermine spots sable. The SAVALLETTES of 
Paris use : Azure, a sphynx, and in chief an estoile or. 
The Austrian Counts PROKESCH D'OSTEN carry : Azure, 
a sphynx couche on a pedestal or, on a chief indented 
argent a cross of Jerusalem gules ; and have sphynxes as 
supporters. 

The arms of the families of VRANX D'AMELIN ; HOL- 
BERG ; OSTERBECH ; etc., have the same supporters. 
The old family of FRIES in Austria, has its arms 
charged with a creature which can differ but little from 
a sphynx : Per f ess sable and or, a lion rampant counter- 
changed, the head being that of a girl. 

THE HARPY is somewhat more frequently found in 
Armory. It has a human female head, the body of an 
eagle, and in British Heraldry is, I think, used only as a 
crest (e.g. by TRIMNELL, ASHLEY, etc.) and as the sup- 
porters of the arms of the extinct Lords Hoo. On the 
Continent there are several examples of it in arms. 
Probably the most important is the coat borne by the 
extinct RIETBERGS, Princes of OST-FRIESLAND : Sable, 
a harpy crowned, and with wings displayed all proper ; 
between four stars, two in chief as many in base, or. 
The family of RlTTBERG in Ost-Frisia, probably con- 
nected with the preceding, bear : Or, a harpy proper 



crowned of the field. The Harpy of the Danish REIGS- 
DORPS (or RlGSTRUPS), has a human body and arms, as 
well as the ordinary female head. The body is habited 
gules, and the head is crowned or ; but the rest of the 
charge has the usual sable feathers. The extinct family 
of KNOB in Denmark used : Azure, a harpy proper 
habited or, the arms akimbo. Another Danish family, 
that of KALF, has a coat only varying from this in its 
tinctures ; the field is Or, and the body is habited 
azure. Azure, a harpy or, the head proper, is the coat 
of LAMI in France ; and Or, a harpy gules, is that of 
BAUDRAC of the same country. The City of NURNBERG 
bears : Azure, a harpy displayed armed, crined, and 
crowned or. 

Another classical monster is the HYDRA, a dragon 
with seven heads. D "Argent, a un hydre de sinople, is 
borne by GARRAULT of France. The Marquises de 
BELSUNCE, in Navarre, use the same coat, but one of the 
creature's heads is nearly severed and jets forth blood. 
The Comtes de JOYEUSE used : Azure, three pallets or, on 
a chief cousu gules three hydras of the second. 

THE UNICORN. Of fabulous creatures none is more 
famous than the Unicorn, mentioned by Greek and 
Roman authors as a native of India. It is represented as 
a horse furnished with a single long and twisted horn, and 
having a goat's beard, and cloven hoofs. The supporter 
of the Royal Arms of SCOTLAND for about a century 
antecedent to the union of the crowns, it became at that 
time one of the Supporters of the arms of the United 
Kingdom, and in that function is familiar to all. Its use 
as a charge in British Heraldry is comparatively modern. 
Sable, a unicorn passant argent, is the coat of STEAD. 
In Scotland the coat of the PRESTONS of that Ilk, 
afterwards of Craigmillar, Argent, three unicorns heads 
couped sable, armed or (Plate XXVII., fig. 10) is at least as 
old as the fifteenth century. Gules, a fess vair between 



297 

three unicorns passant argent (or or), is borne by several 
families of WILKINSON on both sides of the border. 

The Unicorn is somewhat frequently used by British 
Peers as a supporter. A unicorn argent, armed, maned, 
and unguled (hoofed) or, is the dexter supporter of the 
Arms of the Duke of RICHMOND. A like creature, but 
gorged with a collar per pale azure and or and chained 
of the last, is the dexter supporter used by the Duke of 
SOMERSET. Two unicorns argent support the arms of 
the Duke of RUTLAND. The supporters used by the 
Earls of STAMFORD are spotted ermine. The Barons of 
KlNGSALE use two unicorns azure each maned, armed, 
gorged with the coronet of an English prince, and 
chained or. There is no more real incongruity in a blue 
unicorn than there is in a red lion ; but the unicorn is so 
generally used of a white colour that this example seems 
strangely exceptional. It is not, however, quite unique ; 
Unicorns are frequently found as supporters in Foreign 
Armory, and those used by the Livonian Barons de 
BRUININGK are green with golden horns. (KLINGSPOR, 
Baltisches Wappenbuch, plate xix.) A unicorn was 
one of the supporters of COLBERT, Minister of Finance 
to LOUIS XIV. (LA PoiNTE, Chevaliers de I'Ordre du St. 
Esprit, planches 128, and s). As a charge the unicorn 
occurs on the armory of Germany with considerable fre- 
quency. Per bend sable and or, a unicorn rampant 
counter-changed is used by KENTZ of Niirnberg. Azure, 
a unicorn salient argent is borne by the Silesian Barons 
von PARCHWITZ, and the Bavarian Barons von WALDEN- 
FELS. Or, a unicorn salient gules, is the coat of DE 
WITH of Holland. Argent, three unicorns sable, is borne 
by CLAIRAUNAY of France. 

A SEA UNICORN, that is a unicorn whose body ends 
in a fish's tail, is borne by the Prussian DIE NlEMPTSCHER : 
Per f ess argent and gules, a sea unicorn counter-changed 
(SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, i., 69): 



THE PHOENIX is represented as an eagle displayed 
issuing from flames. The modern coat of the family of 
SAMUELSON, created baronet in 1884, is: Sable, three 
piles wavy two issuing from the chief, the third from the 
base, argent, on each a pJioenix in flames proper. The 
Phcenix issuing from a ducal coronet is the well known 
crest of the SEYMOURS, Dukes of SOMERSET. It was 
one of the very numerous devices of Queen MARY 
STUART, and also of her rival Queen ELIZABETH. 

THE PEGASUS, the winged horse of APOLLO, is a 
charge somewhat analogous to the unicorn. It is best 
remembered as appearing in the coat granted to 
MICHAEL DRAYTON, the poet : Azure, gutty d' argent 
a Pegasus of the second. Gules, on a mount of three 
coupeaux in base vert, a Pegasus salient argent, is borne 
by WYSS in Switzerland. D'Azur, a un Pegase d' argent, 
aile d'or are the arms of POLLIA in Bresse. The 
Bavarian family of HABERSTOCK, now extinct, bore, 
Gules, on a mount in base argent, a Pegasus statant 
of the last. There is a canting allusion to the name 
in the arms borne by the Prussian HOCHREUTERS : 
Argent, a Pegasus salient sable. Sable, a Pegasus salient 
argent between seven flames or, are the original arms of 
SEEBACH. Two Pegasi are the supporters of the arms 
of the Viscounts MOLESWORTH, the dexter is Argent, 
winged or ; the sinister Gules, seme of crosses crosslet or. 
A Pegasus argent is the sinister supporter of the arms 
of Lord MOUNT-TEMPLE. Two winged stags were the 
supporters of JAMES ELPHINSTONE, Lord COUPER, in 
1620 (LAING ii., p. 58). (See also the French Royal 
supporters, infra, p. 636). 

THE CENTAUR, a monster, half man, half horse, is but 
seldom met with in Heraldry. Gules, a female centaur 
passant without arms argent, the hair plaited en queue, 
is the singular coat of the KRAUTERS of Niirnberg. The 
DE BROUILLI, Marquises de PlENNE, used as supporters 



( 299 ) 

two centaurs gules holding clubs or (as represented in 
LA PoiNTE, CJievaliers de VOrdre du St. Esprit, planche 
57, these have no fore legs but this is, I conjecture, an 
error of the artist. It must, however, be noted that this 
is the earliest type of the centaur, as is evident from the 
bassi relievi at Olympia). When represented discharg- 
ing an arrow from the bow the technical term employed 
is centaur-sagittaire. Vert, a centaur-sagittaire or, is 
borne by the Counts REILLE ; and Per f ess or and azure, 
a centaur-sagittary counter-changed, is the coat of the 
Roman SATURNINI. Such a figure is sculptured on a 
column in the Romanesque cloister of ST. AUBIN at 
Angers. (DE CAUMONT, Abe'cedaire d' Archeologie, iii., 
185; cf. DANTE, Divina Commedia; Inferno, xii., 56, 60.) 

THE SEA-HORSE. The sea-horse is found in the 
Scottish coat of ECKFOORD ; Argent, in a sea vert, a sea- 
horse rampant issuant proper. Per chevron gules and or, 
three sea-horses crowned, counter-changed, is borne by 
ESTON of Eston in Devon ; and Azure, a chevron between 
three sea-horses or, or argent, is the coat of the TUCKERS 
(Plate XXVII., fig. ii). 

THE SEA-STAG was borne by the family of LlNDEN- 
BERG in Prussia, now extinct : Argent, a sea-stag gules. 
Gules, a sea-stag or, its tail curved to the dexter, is the coat 
of the Silesian POGORSKI (correct MOULE, Heraldry of 
Fish, p. 209). 

THE COCK-FISH is a still more curious compound ; it 
is used as the charge in the arms of the Bavarian family 
of GEYSS : Or, a cock sable, beaked of the first, crested and 
armed gules, its body ending in that of a fish curved 
upwards proper. 

THE SEA-LlON. -- This creation occurs in the 
" Mediaeval Bestiaries," under the name of the " Serra" 
it is there usually winged. Without wings it appears in 
the arms granted to Sir ROBERT HARLAND, Baronet : 
Or, on a bend wavy between two sea-lions sable, three 



buck's Jieads cabosJied argent. The crest is a sea-lion 
holding an anchor in pale. The sea-lion is also the 
crest of the Earls of THANET and of HOWTH ; of azure 
and supporting a tower in flames it is that of the DUCK- 
WORTHS, Baronets. Two sea-lions argent, guttees de 
larmes, were the supporters granted to Admiral Bos- 
CAWEN, and his descendants, Viscounts FALMOUTH. A 
sea-lion and a mermaid are the supporters of the arms of 
the ST. LAWRENCES, Earls of HOWTH : Gules, two swords 
in salt ire proper between four roses argent, barbed vert. 

THE SEA-DOG is a supporter of the arms of the 
Lords MOWBRAY and STOURTON. Mr MOULE, 
Heraldry of Fish, p. 149, says: "The sea dog of 
heraldry is no other than the male or dog-otter, being 
a four-footed animal, but is drawn, according to heraldic 
fancy, with a broad fin continued down the back from 
the head to the tail ; the feet webbed, and its whole 
body, legs, and tail covered with scales." This state- 
ment may be correct ; the otter may be the original of 
the heraldic creature known as the sea-dog, but it is 
quite clear that, as represented, the latter finds a fitting 
place among armorial monsters. The otter, of whose 
use in armory The Heraldry of Fish contains a sufficient 
number of instances both as a charge and as a supporter, 
is usually drawn proper, and is thus very unlike the 
heraldic sea-dog. 

THE MERMAID, or SYREN (Sirene), is represented with 
the head, body, and arms of a beautiful girl, but with the 
tail of a fish. 

" Desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne." 

HORACE, de Arte Poetica, 1. 4. 

Such were, perhaps, the syrens of Cape Pelorus who 
failed to lure to destruction ULYSSES and his companions ; 
HOMER, Odyssey, xii., 39, 166; but OVID (Metamorphoses, 
v., 552) represents them as having wings. (On the 



Syren, see the chapter on the " Mediaeval Bestiaries " in 
Christian Symbolism in Great Britain and Ireland, by J. 
ROMILLY ALLEN, 1887, being the " Rhind Lectures on 
Archaeology for 1885.") 

In British and French Armory the mermaid usually 
carries in her hands a comb and a mirror. Gules, a 
luermaid argent crined or, holding a mirror and comb of 
the third, is the coat of PRESTWICK, formerly Baronets 
(Plate XX VI I., fig. 12). Argent, a mermaid gules (or 
proper} is borne by two families of ELLIS. The seal of Sir 
WILLIAM BRUWERE, or BRUERE (temp. RICHARD I.), is 
one of the earliest instances of the use of this bearing in 
British Armory ; in it the right hand rests on the hip ; 
the left touches the head, possibly has the traditional 
comb. (MOULE, Heraldry of Fish, p. 214.) Vert, three 
mermaids, two and one, each with comb and mirror or, is 
the coat of WOLLSTONECROFT. Gules, three winged 
syrens argent, is borne by BASFORD (see p. 303). 

Few of the monsters of Heraldry have so ancient a 
pedigree as the mermaid. Mr MOULE says (Heraldry of 
Fish, p. 2 1 1 ) : " The relation of a being, half-fish and 
half-human, is of the earliest antiquity." It was thus 
that the Philistine idol Dagon was represented. In 
Babylonia a similar idol was worshipped. The mermaid 
is depicted on the ancient Greek Vases ; and occurs 
frequently in Norman and Lombardic Church Architec- 
ture (See the Sculptures of the crypt of the church at 
Parize-le-Chatel, figured by DE CAUMONT, Abecedaire 
d' Archeologie, tome iii., p. 189.) 

In it the syren is usually represented holding in 
each hand the long tresses of her luxuriant hair, some- 
times she bears a comb ; at others a fish. Often 
in ancient sculpture, as still frequently in German 
Armory, the mermaid is represented with a double 
tail, held up in either hand, a tail replacing each leg ; 
and this I believe to be the more correct mode of 



delineation, though it is not, I think, known to British 
Armory, except as the crest of WALLOP. 

Such a mermaid appears in the arms of the Bavarian 
family of BAIBEL (Gules, a mermaid with two tails which 
she holds in her Jiands all proper]. The Bavarian 
BENDERS use : Azure, a mermaid proper, holding her two 
tails sable; and the Augsburg family of FEND carry: 
Gules, a syren proper holding in Jier Jiands Jier two tails or. 
Such a syren (proper) is the crest of the great Roman 
house of COLON N A. The DIE RlETTERof Niirnbergbear: 
Per fess, sable and or, a mermaid holding Jier tails proper, 
vested gules and crowned or. The BERBERICH of Wtirz- 
burg, have as arms : Gules, a syren with two tails, crowned 
and holding in each hand a fish all proper. Or, a syren 
proper holding her two tails vert in Jier Jiands, crowned 
with an antique crown or, is the coat of the Counts DA 
SCHIO. Azure, a syren with comb and glass argent within 
a bordure indented gules, were the arms of the family 
of POISSONIER, in Burgundy. The heiress having 
married into the ancient house of BERBLSSY, the latter 
assumed the syren as a tenant (or supporter), to its 
own punning arms: d'Azur,a une brebis d' argent, sur 
une terasse de sinople, as appears in the stained glass of 
Notre Dame at Dijon (See MOULE, Heraldry of Fish, 
pp. 212, 213). The mermaid, or syren, is frequently used 
in Britain and in France as a crest, and as a supporter 
to the shield. The Viscounts BOYNE thus employ two 
mermaids each holding a mirror proper. The shield of 
the Viscounts HOOD is supported by a merman and a 
mermaid ; the former holds a trident, the latter a mirror, 
all proper. (The supporters of the Earl of HOWTH 
have already been mentioned, p. 299.) The dexter sup- 
porter used by the Earl of SANDWICH is a merman (or 
triton) holding a trident, and crowned with an Eastern 
crown. The SCOTS of Harden had mermaid supporters 
(see STODART, Scottish Arms, i., 383) ; and one is still 



( 303 ) 

used in this capacity by Lord POLWARTH; as the 
dexter supporter it was employed by Sir WALTER 
SCOTT (" the Wizard of the North "). A triton and a 
mermaid were the supporters of the CAMPBELLS of 
Ardkinlas. Mermaids are the supporters of the arms of 
PIERRE, Due de BOURBON in 1352 (DEMAY). They 
were early the supporters and badge of the great family 
of the BERKELEYS (see my Heraldry of Bristol Cathedral}. 

The French THOLOSANI bear : Azure, a siren with 
two tails, and upraised hands proper. The supporters are 
two mermaids with double tails, each holding a banner 
of the arms. The crest is a demi-mermaid, holding in 
each hand a banner argent. The SERENELLI of Verona 
use: Azure, a mermaid proper habited gules, holding her 
two tails argent. The Dutch Barons MEERMAN bear : 
Sable, a merman in armour, holding a sabre, and a circular 
buckler argent. 

In France the family DU BEC, Marquises de VARDES, 
etc., had their arms (Fuzilly argent and gules) supported 
by two mermaids. The like supporters of ST. GEORGES, 
Marquises de VERAC, hold mirrors. (In LA PoiNTE, 
Les Chevaliers du St. Esprit, planches 40, 149, the mer- 
maids in both instances are drawn so as to indicate a 
division of the tail into two.) The latter family also 
used as a crest a syren in a tub, holding a mirror. This 
is the famous MELUSINE, used as crest and supporters 
by the house of LUSIGNAN, in memory of ISABEL, 
the betrothed of HUGH DE LUSIGNAN, Count 
de la MARCHE, who was Queen of King JOHN 
of England, and afterwards wife of HUGH DE 
LUSIGNAN. The same supporters (without mirrors) 
and crest, were used by DE CASTILLE, Marquis de 
CHENOISE ; these, and the supporters of the GIBELLINI, 
also have bat-wings. Mermaids support the arms of 
MONTROSE. 

DEVILS. As some of the monsters described in this 



34 ) 

chapter were taken to be the hieroglyphics of the Evil 
One, we may not unfitly add here a few examples in 
which his personality is represented without the inter- 
position of any veil. 

The German family of TEUFEL naturally bear : Or, a 
devil gules. The TROLLES of Denmark, with equal pro- 
priety, carry the same personage in a less mischievous 
form : Or, a devil in profile decapitated gules, his rig/it 
hand raised, his left clutching his tail ; his head full-faced 
resting against his breast. The H6EGKS, Barons of 
HOEGHOLM, use the same but omit the head. The 
KUGLERS of Wiirttemberg bear : Or, a devil standing on 
a ball, and holding another in eacJi hand, all sable. The 
demon of the SlSSlNKS of Groningen is a personage of 
more elaborate construction : Or, a horned devil having six 
paws, the body terminating in the tail of a fish, all gules. 

The classical FAUN, out of which the modern concep- 
tion of the form of the devil appears to have been 
developed, appears as a supporter of the arms of SWEERTS, 
YSEMBART, and other Low-Country families. 

The Bavarian Counts von FROHBERG have their arms 
supported by creatures which partake of the nature of a 
faun : savages whose legs adjacent to the shield are 
replaced by those of a deer, or goat (TYROFF, Wappen- 
buch des A dels des Konigreichs Baiern, Erster band, 
Taf. 39). 

In the Armory of Germany the grotesque element has 
very much more play than in our own ; and an account of 
its curiosities would contain many examples of monstrous 
beings as wonderful as those which have been described 
above ; but as for the most part they occur in single 
instances only, I have not thought it needful to swell this 
chapter by descriptions of them. I conclude with one 
more classical example. The family of MEDICO DAL 
SALE in Verona bear : Or, a, Cerberus sable, collared 
gules, sejant on a terrace vert. 



CHAPTER XL 

INANIMATE CHARGES. I. ASTRONOMICAL. 

BEFORE treating of the large and important class of 
armorial charges which are taken from the vegetable king- 
dom, it will conduce to clearness if we advert to those 
Heraldic Charges which may be termed "Astronomical," 
consisting for the most part of conventional representa- 
tions of the heavenly bodies, and also of certain repre- 
sentations of what used to be called "the elements," some of 
which impart a semi-pictorial character to heraldic shields. 
THE SUN, surrounded by rays, is described in British 
Armory as being in his splendour. In all but the earliest 
heraldry our great luminary is depicted as a globe of 
gold with the lineaments of a human face, surrounded by 
rays, alternately waved and straight. French Armorists 
tell us that when the sun is depicted of any other 
tincture than or or argent, it is only the ombre du soleil, 
or the sun in eclipse. Nevertheless in the earliest English 
example, the coat of JEAN DE LA HAVE, in the Roll of 
Arms known as ST. GEORGE'S ROLL, the blazon is: 
Argent, the sun in his splendour gules, and the human 
lineaments are not expressed. Azure, the sun in 
splendour or, is borne as a coat of Augmentation for the 
Marquisate of LOTHIAN, being quartered with : Gules, 
on a chevron argent, three mullets of the field for KER, 
Lords of JEDBURGH. It is used by the Austrian 
Barons DIETRICH DE DlEDEN ; and as armes parlantes 
by the French family of SOLACES, and by ZON (or VAN 
SON) in the Netherlands. It is similarly borne by the 
Counts de SONNBERG in Austria, and the families of 



( 36 ) 

SONNEBERG (who however sometimes difference by 
making the sun argent, or bearing it of gules in a silver 
field). In the coat of the Counts von SONNEBERG 
(Plate XXVI II., fig. I.) the sun is clear of the mountain, 
the blazon being Azure, tlie sun or, in base a mount of 
the same ; sometimes the mount is sable, and the Swiss 
family of the name bear : Argent, a sun gules, in base a 
mount of tliree coupeaux vert. 

The Spanish family of BlLQUES DE ORCION substitute 
the quartered arms of CASTILE and LEON for the human 
face ; and some English families of DYSON have as their 
charge the sun half eclipsed, i.e. per pale sable and or. 

Gules, a sun or, is the coat of SONNEMAER. 

Azure, the sun rising from behind a kill or, is the coat 
of the Scottish family of HlLL ; and the same with the 
mount argent is used by the Bavarian family of ANNS. 

There are other coats in which two, or three, suns 
appear. Gules, three suns argent, is the coat of 
CHALANGE in France. D'Azur, a trois soleils d'or, is the 
canting coat of the Breton TRESEOLS, and of VAN SON 
in Holland. Sable, two demi-suns accosted, are the 
curious arms of HAEHNEL of Bavaria. 

THE MOON is represented by a crescent (croissant) 
one of the prevalent figures in Heraldry, both as a 
difference and as a charge ; and one which, perhaps with 
more reason than in other cases, is associated with 
crusading times. Its ordinary position in Armory is 
montant, or with both horns upward, a position which is 
only expressed in French armory when a crescent thus 
depicted is found in conjunction with others not so 
situated. Azure, a crescent argent, was borne as an 
allusive coat by LUCY, by VERNON, Marquis de BON- 
NEUIL, by TOGORES of Spain, and by other families. 

When the horns of the crescent are turned to the 
dexter side of the shield it is called a crescent-increscent, 
(croissant-tourne^; when to the sinister its appellation is a 



( 307 ) 

crescent-decrescent (croissant-contourne"} ; and when re- 
versed croissant-verse. 

We have an example of these three less frequent 
positions of the crescent in the shield of the Austrian 
family of PUCHBERG. (Plate XXVIII., fig. 3.) A sure, 
three crescents, those in chief addorsed, that in base reversed 
or. BANNES, Marquis de PUYGIRON, bears a similar coat, 
but the crescents are of argent, and the single one is in 
chief. The LUNELS of Languedoc, bore : Azure, a 
crescent verse argent ; and the great Arragonese house of 
LUNA : Chequy or and sable, on a chief argent, a crescent 
verse, cJiequy as the field. (For LUNELS, see FrencJi 
Glossary?) 

In Scotland the coat of theOLlPHANTS (Plate XXVIII., 
fig. 2), is Gules, three crescents argent ; Or, three crescents 
gules, that of the EDMONSTONS ; and, Gules, tJiree 
crescents within tJie Royal tressure or, that of the 
SETONS. 

Gules, three crescents argent, is the coat of the ancient 
family of VAN WASSENAER in the Netherlands ; often 
quartered with those of the Burg-gravate of LEYDEN : 
Azure, a fess or. 

The Princes PlCGOLOMlNl of Siena bear : Argent, on 
a cross azure five crescents or. To this family belonged 
Popes PlUS II. and PlUS III. 

The combination of the crescent and cross in the 
shield of CATHCART, Plate XX VI 1 1., fig. 4, Azure, three 
crosslets fitchees rising from as many crescents argent, has 
a pleasing effect. The coat of MlNSHULL combines the 
crescent and star, Azure, an estoile issuing from a crescent 
argent ; these are the arms of the town of PORTSMOUTH. 

Sable, a crescent between two stars in pale argent is the 
coat of the East Anglian family of JERMYN, Earls of 
ST. ALBANS, 1660-1683. 

Some confusion exists in the language of blazon 
between the armorial representation of the stars as 



( 3S ) 

heavenly bodies, and a very different object, the mullet 
(inolette) or rowel of a spur. Mr PLANCHE, Lancaster 
Herald, lays it down as a rule that an estoile or star 
should always have six points, to distinguish it from a 
mullet, which has five, and that these points should not 
be wavy unless the star be said to be rayonnant. 

In most European countries, however, the estoile has 
five straight rays (a single one uppermost, otherwise it 
is blazoned in French renversee) and the molette six. 
I should be inclined to make the distinction consist 
solely in the charge being pierced or unpierced ; in the 
one case a molette, or spur rowel, is obviously intended ; 
in the other a star. In the case of stars of more than 
five points the number should be specified. Gules, a star 
of eight (sometimes of twelve) points argent is the coat 
of BAUX, Due d'ANDREE, quartered by Queen ELIZA- 
BETH WIDVILLE, wife of EDWARD IV.; of six points it 
is used by the Counts von STERN ENBERG. Azure, a 
star of six points within a bordure argent was the arms 
of GOETHE. The Princes of WALDECK bear : Or, an 
estoile of eight points sable (Plate XL I.). Per f ess gules 
and argent, tJiree estoiles of six points countercJianged, is 
the coat of the Counts of ERPACH, who quarter Argent, 
two bars gules for BREUBERG. 

The English coat of DE VERE (Plate XL, fig. 2) 
is usually blazoned Quarterly, gules and or, in the first 
quarter a mullet argent. But the charge in this coat is 
really a star. A beautifully diapered example of this 
shield exists at Hatfield, Broad Oak, Essex, of the date 
1 298, a period when the rowelled spur was not in general 
use. 

Plate XXVI 1 1., fig. 5, is the Scottish coat of SUTHER- 
LAND : Gules, three stars or. The HURRAYS bore : 
Azure, three stars argent ; and the BAILLIES of Laming- 
ton : Azure, nine stars, 3, 3, 2, I argent. The existence 
of the 1 3th century MURRAY seals is sufficient evidence 



PLATE XXVIII. 




1. Sun. 

Sonnenberg. 





2. Crescents. 
Oliphant. 



3. Increscent, Decrescent, etc. 
Puchberg. 




4. Cross and Crescent. 
Cathcart. 




5. Stars. 
Sutherland. 




6. Estoile. 
Ingleby. 




7. Mullets. 
Wollaston. 






8. Mount. 




9. Hill. 
Hinsberg. 




10. Burning Mount. 
M'Leod. 




11. River. 
Lauterbach. 




12. Hedge. 
Fare. 



39 

that, as in the case of DE VERE, the bearings were stars, 
not mullets. 

The Portuguese ROJAS (whence came the Spanish 
Dukes of LERMA) bear : Gules, five stars of six points or. 

When minutely drawn or sculptured, the star is not 
depicted as a plane figure but with each ray raised to. a 
central ridge. This point is much more attended to in 
French Armory than in our own. 

The coat of INGLEBY : Sable, an estoile argent (Plate 
XXVIII., fig. 6) is given as an example of the ordinary 
English estoile or star, and in Plate XXVIII., fig. 7, the 
coat of WOLLASTON : Argent, three mullets pierced sable, 
is given as indicating the distinction referred to above. 

Azure, the sun and moon in chief, and the seven stars in 
base or, is the coat said to have been borne by JOHN 
DE FONTIBUS, Bishop of ELY (1219-1225). (PARKER'S 
Glossary of Heraldry places the stars in orle, and the 
other charges in pale.) 

The PLANETS and even CONSTELLATIONS are occa- 
sionally found in modern coats. The astronomer 
LAPLACE, created a Count by NAPOLEON I., bore : 
d'Azur, a deux planetes de Jupiter et de Saturne, avec leur 
satellites et anneaux places en ordre naturel, posces en fasce, 
d^ argent ; a unfleur a cinq brandies d^or en chef. 

The constellation of the Great Bear appears as one 
of the many charges in the landscape which is called the 
arms of the STOFFELLA of Austria ; and in the coat of 
ADLERSTJERNA of Finland. 

Azure, the stars composing the constellation of the Great 
Bear arranged in bend argent, is a much better coat 
from a heraldic point of view, and is borne by BAR of 
Hannover. The same constellation also figures in the 
arms of the Scottish DlCKSONS, now settled at Gothen- 
berg, etc., in Sweden. (Cf. the arms of MADRID, p. 313.) 

In Swedish Armory occasional use is made of the 
astronomical planetary signs ; and the symbol for MARS, 



$ appears in several coats granted to distinguished 
military officers. In British Heraldry the azure chief in 
the unheraldic coat granted to Sir JOHN HERSCHEL, 
the astronomer, is charged with the planetary symbol 
of Uranus $ irradiated Or. The rest of the shield is 
argent charged with a pictorial representation of the 
"forty-feet reflecting telescope," with all its apparatus 
of ladders, gallery, elevators, and observer's house, a 
sad specimen of the degraded state of heraldic taste at 
the period of the grant. 

The arms of THOYTS in Essex are : Azure, on a fess 
between three six-pointed mullets or, two astronomical 
symbols of the planet Venus. 

A COMET, or blazing-star, occurs in several foreign 
and in .one or two British coats. Azure, a comet in the 
dexter chief, its rays in bend or, is borne by CART WRIGHT 
in Scotland ; and by the Roman MELIORATE The same 
coat, but with the charge in pale, is borne by one of the 
Spanish families of DlAZ ; and identical with the last, 
but with the field gules, are the arms of the Sicilian 
ROSSI, Princes of CERAMI. The Norman family of 
PiGACHE DE LAMBERVILLE bear : Argent, three comets 
gules. 

The arms of the present Pope, LEO XIII., of the 
Counts PECCI, are : Azure, on a mount in base a pine 
tree proper, in sinister chief a comet its tail in bend sinister, 
and in base two fleurs-de-lis or, over all a fess argent. 

RAINBOWS are found in a good many foreign coats ; 
they are conventionally represented as of four bands, or, 
gules, vert, and argent ; unless their tinctures are specified, 
as in the coat of the Barons HACKE, who bear : Argent, 
two rainbows addorsed, moving from the flanks each of 
three bands, gules, or, and the external one azure. Occa- 
sionally the rainbow is borne proper as by the Barons 
PFULL : Azure, three rainbows in pale proper. 

CLOUDS AND LIGHTNING are also heraldically 



( 3*1 ) 

represented. The family of LEESON, Earls of MlLTOWN 
in Ireland bear : Gules, a chief argent in the base thereof 
a cloud proper, and issuant therefrom rays of light pale- 
ways or, 

A more conventional coat is that of DONNERSPERG : 
Sable, tJiree thunderbolts or issuing from a chief nebuly 
argent ; in base a mount of tJiree coupeaux of the second. 
This conventional THUNDERBOLT, of arrow - headed 
rays conjoined with wings, was the canting coat of the 
Danish family of BLIX : the field azure, the thunderbolt 
argent. Two thunderbolts appear in the elaborate shield 
of the family of the Russian Marshal SUWAROFF, Prince 
ITALISKY. 

The family of CLAPS in Flanders have a landscape 
in a thunderstorm ! The Italian TEMPESTA bear a 
storm represented more conventionally : Gules, eleven 
hailstones argent (3, 2, 3, 2, i). 

The conventional representation of the north wind, 
the head of BOREAS, is borne as armes parlantes in the 
escucheon of the BORIAS of Spain ; and also appears in 
that of the BRASCHI, Dukes of NEMI. Pope Pius VI. 
(1775-1800) was of this family. The arms are: Gules, 
a garden lily slipped proper in dexter chief, the conven- 
tional symbol of the wind blowing on and bending down 
the lily ; on a chief argent three estoiles or. 

From the heavens above we descend to the earth 
beneath. Examples already given have shown how the 
earth is represented : (a) by a champagne, a piece in base 
cut off by a straight horizontal line, corresponding to a 
chief, and often counted as an Ordinary by French 
Heralds : (b) by a terrace, which is a champagne repre- 
sented more naturally with a less regular outline and 
usually green in colour ; (c] by a mount (as in Plate 
XXVI II., fig. 8); this is simply a piece of a roughly 
semicircular shape in the point of the shield, but is usually 
blazoned conventionally with three or more coupeaux (in 



French a tertre) one above two, as in Plate XX VI II., figs, 
i and 9. A considerable number of German and Swiss 
coats bear the inount-in-base, after this fashion. 

The conventional representation of WATER is by a base 
or champagne, Barry-wavy argent and azure, as in the 
well known coats of the cities of OXFORD, BRISTOL, 
etc., is frequent in Spanish Armory (Plate XXXIX., 
fig. i). But later the sea is represented rather as in 
nature, at times still, at times un mer agite, and a semi- 
pictorial character is given to the bearings employed. 

In the earliest times of heraldry, the charges depicted 
on the shield were separate and independent, and were 
more or less conventional even when the objects, such 
as birds or beasts, might have been represented 
naturally. The best and most artistic heraldry retains 
this conventional character to the present day. 

A less severe style seems to have been introduced 
upon the Continent at an earlier date than among 
ourselves. Still there are a few pretty old Welsh and 
other coats, of a more pictorial character, usually 
connected with a legendary history. But while our 
own Armory was severe in character that of some of the 
states of the Continent aimed not unfrequently at more 
pictorial effect. For instance, as I have shown in 
greater detail elsewhere, many Spanish coats effloresced 
into the landscape style. Castles rise out of the waves, or 
are placed upon a mount ; armed men appear upon their 
battlements, and beasts of prey ramp against their sides 
or issue from their doors. In the coats granted to 
COLUMBUS and CORTEZ, towns with spires and belfries ; 
and seas strown with palm-clad isles ; replace the conven- 
tional and more artistic charges which had amply sufficed 
for earlier times (Plate XXXIX., fig. i). 

A tree upon a mount in base occurs with great fre- 
quency, birds perch upon it, beasts of prey ramp against 
its trunk (y. p. 317), or are represented passant in front of 



( 3'3 ) 

or behind it. The arms of the city of MADRID are, Argent, 
on a mount in base a tree witJi a bear rampant against 
its trunk proper ', the whole within a bordure azure, charged 
with seven stars of the first. In Italy and Germany the 
same tendency is not so pronounced, at least in mediaeval 
coats, for later the degraded and debased style which 
characterised English Heraldry in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries finds too many counterparts in the 
Heraldry of Germany of the same period. 

It will be sufficient to cite here one or two instances 
in which the tendency to depart from earlier simplicity 
becomes manifest. Plate XXVIII., fig. u is the coat of 
LAUTERBACH : Gules, a river flowing in bend sinister ; 
here the river, represented with the outline of a bend 
sinister wavy, has lost something of its conventionality. 
Its surface is slightly flecked, sometimes even fishes dis- 
port themselves therein. In Plate XXXI I., fig. 8, the arms 
of the ARIGONIO family of Rome are represented as, 
Argent, a lion passant along the tops of three columns 
gules, on a chief azure, an eagle displayed or. The Sile- 
sian coat of BUSCH (Plate XXIX., fig. 5) shows the com- 
mencement of the landscape style. Azure, a lion 
passant or, issuant from, and half concealed by a forest 
proper. 

THE MOUNT IN BASE, which nearly corresponds to 
the French terrasse is not unknown in Scottish Heraldry. 
The coat of WATSON of Saughton (Plate XXVIII., fig. 8) 
is ; Argent, an oak tree growing out of a mount in base 
proper, surmounted by a fess azure ; the WOODS of 
Balbegno bore, Azure, an oak tree issuing from a mount 
in base or ; pendent from one of the boughs by straps gules 
two keys of the second (as Thanes of Fettercairn). 

The conversion of the devices which appeared on the 
Burgh Seals into armorial coats assisted the spread of a 
less pure style of heraldry. Instances of the semi- 
pictorial style will be found in Plates XLIL, and XLIII., 



in the arms of the Highland chiefs ; we have there the 
rock in the sea ; the castle on its mount, the burning 
mountain (as it appears also in Plate XXVIII., fig. 10), 
the coat of M'LEOD of Lewis, Or, a mountain azure 
inflamed proper. It will be noted that here the mountain 
is not, as is usual in Continental heraldry, in the base of 
the shield, but is detached from it. Argent, a volcano 
proper is borne by CHAUMONT in France. The Barons 
GVLDENHOFF, of Sweden and Livonia, have as the 
second quarter of their arms ; Argent, two volcanoes 
in action accostes proper. With these exceptions, we 
have left untouched the element of fire, but it will 
be sufficient to say that the conventional representa- 
tion of it by wavy piles, gules or or, issuing from 
the edges of the shield, degenerated into flames au 
naturel. UOr, a trots flammes de gueules is the coat of 
AROUET DE VOLTAIRE ; d'Azur, a trois flammes d'or 
ombrees de gueules, that of BRANDT, Counts de MAR- 
CON NE. Or, on a chief gules three flames of the field, is 
used by CHAUMELLS in France ; and Sable, on a fess 
argent three flames gules, is borne by DEEGHBROODT (or 
DEYBROOT), of Flanders. Argent, a fire-brand in bend 
azure inflamed proper, is the coat of BRANDIS in Bavaria. 
The Polish clan of BRANT I. has the same charge sable 
on a field or; and the Barons BRANDT, of Baden, use 
Or, three fire-brands paleivays sable each inflamed at the 
top, and in three places on either side, proper. 




FIG. 03. 



FIG. 64. 



FIG. 65. 



FIG. 66. 




FIG. 67. 



FIG. 68. 



FIG. 69. 



FIG. 70. 



CHAPTER XII. 

INANIMATE CHARGES. II. THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

TREES, FLOWERS, FRUITS, ETC. - - The vegetable 
kingdom has largely contributed to Armorial blazonry. 
Entire trees though not found in early examples became 
fairly common by the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries. 
Though sometimes drawn " eradicated," that is, showing 
the branches of the root, they are for the most part 
represented on a mount in base, which in German 
Heraldry is often replaced by the conventional symbol 
of a hill with three rounded tops or coupeaux. Oaks are 
the trees most common in British Armory. 

Argent, on a mount in base a grove of (fir) trees proper, 
appears in the Scottish Registers for the family of 
WALKINSHAW of that ILK. The same coat, with the 
species of tree undefined, is used as canting arms by 
FORREST, and by BUSH. 

In France a family in the Lyonnais, named DUBOIS, 
naturally uses : d 'Argent, a un foret de sinople ; others of 



the name in Lorraine are more simply contented with : 
d'Azur, a une arbre d'or. The family DE LA FORESTIE 
DES AUBAS bears : Or, a forest vert, on a chief azure tJiree 
mullets of the first ; resembling which is a Picard coat: 
Argent, three trees vert, on a cJiief azure as many mullets 
of the field ; DE LA FOREST places these trees on a 
mount, and charges the chief with the three fleiLrs-de-lis of 
France. In Holland the VAN DEN BOGAERT use : Argent, 
on a terrace five trees vert. The coat of the Viscounts 
O'CALLAGHAN of Ireland is : Argent, a mount in base on 
the sinister side thereof a " hurst " of oak trees, therefrom 
a wolf issuant all proper. With this we may fitly com- 
pare the coat given in Plate XXIX., fig. 5 for the Silesian 
family of BUSCH : Azure, on a mount in base vert, a lion 
passant or, issuant from a grove of trees in the sinister 
flank of the second. The DE BuiSSONS of Geneva use : Or, 
three bushes vert, two and one. The French BuiSSONS 
(Marquises d'AussONNE, and DE BOURNAZEL), bear: Or, 
on a mount in base a bush proper, on a chief argent a lion 
issuant sable. 

The family of WOOD of Hareston in Devon bore at 
the Visitation of 1620, Argent, on a mount in base an oak 
tree proper fruited or (Plate XXIX., fig. i). (Vide ante, 
p. 313, for WOOD of Balbegno, and WATSON of Scot- 
land.) Argent, on a mount in base a tree, the trunk 
surmounted by a salmon holding in its mouth a ring; 
from the dexter branch a bell (that of ST. KENTIGERN) 
pendent, and on the top of the tree a robin all proper, are 
the arms of the SEE, also assumed for the City of 
GLASGOW. The salmon and robin refer to miracles 
attributed to ST. MUNGO, or KENTIGERN. An interesting 
historical coat is that granted to the PENDERELLS, who 
hid CHARLES II. in an oak tree after the defeat of 
Worcester : A rgent, an oak tree proper fructed or ; 
surmounted by a fess sable, thereon three Royal crowns. 
( Vide infra, Chapter on AUGMENTATIONS.) Argent, 



an oak tree vert, is the coat of the O'CONOR-DON 
of Ireland. 

Azure, on a mount an apple tree fruited proper, are the 
armes parlantes of the Dutch APPELBOOMS, and of the 
Barons APFALTRER. The coat of M'GREGOR, called 
M'GREGOR of AULD in a sixteenth century MS., is : 
Argent, a fir tree eradicated in bend sinister surmounted 
by a sword proper, supporting on its point an antique 
crown gules (sometimes or) (Plate XXIX., fig. 2). 
Argent, a pine tree eradicated vert, fruited or, is 
borne by the Marquises CHATON DE MORANDAIS 
in France. Azure, a palm tree eradicated or, is the 
coat of TAGLIAVIA of Sicily (Plate XXIX., fig. 3) ; 
Or, a palm tree on a mount vert, are the armes parlantes 
of PALM in Austria. Or, an olive tree vert, is borne by 
the families of VIEDMA, AMBOIX, CHARLES and 
OLIVER. Gules, an olive tree proper, eradicated argent 
and fruited or, is the canting coat of OLIVIERA in 
Portugal ; and the OLIVIERS, of which name there are 
many families in France and the Low Countries, nearly 
all use the olive in some form or other as the charge of 
their arms. Ermine, an olive branch vert, is borne by 
the Barons ZANGIACOMI. Argent, three cypress trees 
eradicated vert, on a chief gules as many besants, was used 
by TARDY, Comte de MONTRAVEL ; Or, three laurels 
vert, on a chief azure as many thunderbolts argent, by the 
LAURES of France (cf. PLINY on the laurel). 

In the Heraldry of Spain, Portugal, etc., a tree on a 
mount in base is a frequent charge, and it is very 
generally supported by one or two animals rampant 
against the trunk of the tree ; or passant in front of, or 
behind it. Gules, a pine tree vert, eradicated argent 
between two lions rampant against it or, is the Portuguese 
coat of MATOS. Or, a palm tree vert, supported by two 
lions rampant azure, is borne by LANARIO of Naples. 
Or, a tree eradicated vert, supported by two lions rampant 



gules, is attributed to the Byzantian house of CAN- 
TACUZENE. 

The wild cherry tree, in French crequier, is depicted in 
the ancient conventional manner in the arms of the 
French Dues de CREQUY (Plate XXIX., fig. 4; and, 
better, on p. 344, fig. 72). UAzur, au crequier d'or, is 
the coat of ANAUT. Argent, a nut tree eradicated -vert, 
is borne by NoziER, and NOGARET in France, and by 
FACCHINETTI in Italy. To the last named family 
belonged Pope INNOCENT IX. (1591-1592.) Or, a 
willow proper, is the coat of the Counts de SALTS. 

Occasionally we find a dead tree used as a charge. 
Argent, on a mount vert a dry tree, is the coat of the 
Barons MtJHL of Brunswick. The KORNKOOPERS of 
Holland use: Argent, a dry tree sable. The stocks, or 
stems of trees eradicated, with or without branches 
sprouting from them ; or the branches alone, are frequent 
Armorial charges. Or, the stem of a tree couped in bend 
sable, is borne by the Counts von SCHONFELD of Austria. 
Or, two trunks of trees erect in pale sable, is the coat of 
DORGELO of Northern Germany ; which seems a corrup- 
tion of D'ARGELO in France, a family which has the same 
bearings. The Portuguese TRONCOSO have the armes 
parlantes of Azure, two tree trunks in saltire or. Argent, 
three tree trunks couped sable, is similarly the coat of 
BLACKSTOCK in Scotland ; and Vert, three trunks of 
trees raguly and erased argent, is that of the English 
STOCKTONS. 

Equally conventional in its drawing with the coat of 
CREQUY given above, is the linden branch which forms 
the charge of the arms of the Counts von SECKENDORFF, 
knotted into a form somewhat resembling the figure 8 
(Plate XXIX.,fig. 6). The Italian family DELLA ROVERE, 
Dukes of URBINO bore: Azure, an oak tree eradicated or, 
its four branches knotted saltireways. These were the 
arms of Pope SlXTUS IV. (1461-1484), and were also 



PLATE XXIX. 




1. Oak Tree. 
Wood. 




2. Fir Tree. 
M l Oregor. 




3. Palm Tree. 
Tagliavia. 




4. Crequier. 
Crequy. 




5. Forest. 
Busch. 



r 




6. Lime Branch. 
Seckendorf. 




7. Hazel Leaves. 
Haderigg. 





8. Laurel Leaves. 9. Lime Leaves adosse's . 
Foulis. Ortlieb. 




10. Trefoil. 
Hervey. 





11. Trefl^. 
Hilinger. 



12. QuatrefoiL 
Ftncew*. 



quartered in the first and fourth by ALEXANDER VI L, 
with his personal arms of CHIGI (Gules, in base a mount 
of six coupeaux, and in chief an estoile or), in the second 
and third places. 

Argent, on a mount in base three hop-poles with the vines 
all proper, is the coat of the English HOUBLONS, or 
HOBILLIONS (originally refugees from France at the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes). 

Palm branches are a frequent armorial charge : Azure, 
two palms in saltire between four estoiles or, is the coat of 
RICHARDOT, Comte de GAMARAGE, Prince de STEEN- 
HUYSEN. Azure, three palm branches or, is the coat of 
the PALMIER:. 

Argent, two vines interlaced, issuing from a mount of 
six coupe aux in base all proper, is borne by the Princes 
RUSPOLI ; and Gules, two vine shoots addorsed, each 
bearing a bunch of grapes proper, is used by the Austrian 
Counts and Princes LlCHNOWSKI. 

Leaves of plants are common in Armory both at 
home and abroad. The family of HAZELRIGG have : 
Argent, a chevron between tJiree Jiazel leaves slipped vert 
(Plate XXIX., fig. 7). Argent, three laurel leaves vert, is 
used by FOULIS (Plate XXIX., fig. 8) canting, of course 
on the French "feuilles." Azure, three laurel leaves 
or, is quartered by the Dukes of SUTHERLAND for 
LEVESON. 

Argent, three holly leaves vert, is the coat of QuELEN 
(Dues de la VAUGUYON, Princes de CARENCY), of France, 
and by TERBRUGGEN, and VAN DER HULST, of Holland, 
LE MASSON, and IRVINE of Scotland. 

Vert, three holly leaves or, and the same coat with 
mulberry leaves, are attributed to two families of 
WOODWARD. 

Allusion has been already made (page 50) to the arms 
of BURNETT ; and the Scottish coat of I RVINE of Drum : 
A rgent, three bunches of holly leaves each consisting of as 



( 320 ) 

many leaves, slipped vert, banded gules, is both ancient 
and well known. 

The English family of MALLERBY used Or (some- 
times Argent), a bunch of nettles vert, canting on mat 
herbe. It is somewhat strange that the French MAL- 
HERBES resisted a like temptation, and preferred, 
Ermine, six roses gules. 

A curious use of the linden leaf as a portion of a 
partition line is shown in Plate XXIX., fig. 9, the arms of 
ORTLIEB of Ntirnburg. The FlGUEROAS of Spain use : 
Or, five fig leaves in saltire vert ; while the FlGUEIREDOS 
of Portugal use the same on a field gules (the stalks are 
usually in chief). 

A single leaf is not often found as a heraldic charge, but 
Argent, a linden leaf vert, occurs in the Zurich Wappen- 
rolle, No. 273, for REGROLTZWILE (REYNOLDSWYLE) ; 
and the like coat, but, with the charge in bend, and with 
the stem in base, is the coat of the Austrian Barons 
DEBSCHUTZ DE SCHADEWALDE. Argent, an aspen leaf 
proper, appears in the Armorials for ASPINALL ; and the 
German family of EwiG are content with a single oak 
leaf argent on a field gules. The Dutch VAN HULSTS 
also bear : Or, a holly leaf in bend gules. The coat of the 
Counts von BlSMARK, to which family Prince BlSMARK, 
the late great Chancellor of the German Empire, belongs, 
are : Azure, a trefoil without a stalk or, in each of the spaces 
between the foils an oak leaf argent (See p. 545). 

The TREFOIL is usually blazoned slipped (i.e. stalked), 
Gules, on a bend argent three trefoils slipped vert 
(Plate XXIX., fig. 10), is the coat of the HERVEYS, 
Marquesses of BRISTOL, and was borne by JOHN 
HERVEY (apparently their ancestor) before 1407, as is 
apparent from the proceedings in the GREY and 
HASTINGS controversy. 

The Irish national badge of the shamrock, is identical 
with the trefoil. A curious example of the trefoil in 



conjunction with a partition line may here be given as 
a pendant to the somewhat similar coat of ORTLIEB 
already referred to. It is that of the extinct family of 
HlLINGER of Bavaria, and is given on Plate XXIX., 
fig. n. (On Klee-Stengel, see note at end of chapter.) 

The rue leaves of the Crangelin, or Rauten-kranz, to 
which allusion has been already made, p. 131, are undis- 
tinguishable from trefoils. 

In French Armory the trefoil is especially frequent as 
a charge in Breton coats. It is also often met with in 
Low Country arms, but is seldom found in those of other 
countries. 

In German Heraldry a charge known as the nenuphar 
leaf, which resembles a trefoil without a stalk, occurs in 
the charge of some important coats. This leaf, which 
is that of an aquatic plant, has given rise to some curious 
divergences of blazon. It is sometimes found described 
as a " heart ; " as the bouterol of a sword ; and even as 
the horns of a species of beetle, SchroterJwrner! These 
variations have been the result of the ignorance of artists 
who gave themselves licence in depicting a charge of 
whose true meaning they were in doubt. 

The coat of the Duchy of ENGERN, or ANGRIA : 
Argent^ three (such charges) gules (sometimes the field is 
gules and the charges or), which appears in the coat of 
the Princes of ANHALT ; in the cu Complet of PRUSSIA, 
and in the escucheons of the Saxon Duchies, for the 
County of BREHNA, is blazoned in all the ways referred 
to above. (See SPENER, Opus Heraldicum, pars, spec., 
p. 26, etc., who leaves the question of the real meaning 
of the charge in an uncertainty which I shall not pretend 
to remove.) The nenuphar leaf as now borne is usually 
slipped. Gules, two leaves of nenuphar their stalks 
twisted in saltire argent, is the coat of the Austrian 
Princes von KAUNITZ. Azure, three leaves of nenuphar 
slipped or, is borne by the Swedish Barons KOSKULL ; 



( 3" ) 

Argent, three nenuphar leaves slipped vert, is the coat of 
the Dutch VAN DER MEER, and DE JONG. In German 
coats linden leaves are often found in pairle, the points 
of the leaves directed to the two upper corners and the 
base of the shield. Argent, three linden leaves in pairle 
gules issuing from a ball in the centre or, is used by the 
Barons ROMBERG. 

The flowers called QuATREFOILS, and ClNQUEFOILS, 
are of very frequent use as heraldic charges. (In these 
names the syllable foil imports petal, not leaf, in the 
botanic sense.) Neither of these charges is furnished with 
a stalk. ' ^ Azure, three quatrefoils argent, is the coat of the 
VINCENT family (Plate XXIX., fig. 12), sometimes with 
the addition of two bars of the same between the charges. 
Per f ess azure and argent, two quatrefoils in pale counter- 
changed, are the arms of the MOCENIGO family of Venice : 
the Barons BlEDERMANN of Austria and Saxony use, 
Per pale sable and argent, two quatrefoils (otherwise roses] 
counter-changed. Azure, three quatrefoils or, appears in 
early English Rolls for BARDOLF. Per bend dancetty 
azure and argent, four quatrefoils counter changed, is used 
by the Yorkshire family of CHAYTOR, Barts. 

Cinquefoils appear at an early date as an Armorial 
charge, and they are usually, though by no means invari- 
ably, drawn pierced, i.e. having a small central circular 
aperture. A cinquefoil ermine appears on the seal of 
ROBERT DE BELLOMONTE (or BEAUMONT) Earl of 
LEICESTER, in the earliest days of Heraldry, and even 
in the thirteenth century cinquefoils were used in the 
arms of several families related to, or feudally connected 
with, the Earls of LEICESTER (who bore the ermine 
cinquefoil on a field gules. Azure, a cinquefoil ermine, is 
the coat of the Lords ASTLEY (temp. EDWARD I.). 
Gules, crusily, a cinquefoil or, was borne by GILBERT DE 
UMFRAVILL, Earl of ANGUS in 1290 (his seal see LAING, 
ScottisJi Seals, i., No. 87, has ten crosses in orle). 



( 323 ) 

Gules, three cinquefoils ermine, often argent (Plate XXX., 
fig. i) is the coat of the great family of HAMILTON in 
Scotland, whose alleged descent from the Earls of 
LEICESTER is, however, doubtful. Argent, three cinque- 
foils sable are the coat of the Lords BORTHWICK. 
Gules, three " narcissuses " argent, pierced of the field (or 
cinquefoils), are the arms of LAMBART, Earl of CAVAN. 
In Foreign Armory the cinquefoil, like the trefoil, is 
found chiefly in Breton and Low Country coats. 

A charge resembling the cinquefoil is the FRAISE, or 
strawberry flower, which in Scottish Armory is recognised 
as a distinct bearing : the difference in representation is 
that the foils are somewhat less widely separated, as in 
Plate XXX., fig. 2, the arms of FRASER : Azure, three 
f raises argent, a coat in use in the thirteenth century, but 
with this difference that the number of charges is more 
frequently six (borne three, two, one), than the present 
number. 

In the earliest Heraldry, cinquefoils, sexfoils, and 
roses, are hardly distinguishable from each other, thus 
in the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 343, is the coat of 
ROSENBERG, Argent, a rose gules seeded or. There are no 
barbs and it might as well be blazoned a cinquefoil 
pierced did we not know from the name of the bearer 
the flower intended. The heraldic history of the rose 
has been in later times quite distinct from that of the 
other charges. 

Azure, crusily, three cinquefoils argent, is one of several 
D'ARCY coats, varying only in tincture for difference, but 
the charge is often drawn as a sexfoil in early Rolls of Arms. 

THE ROSE. The Rose, which is now esteemed the 
national floral emblem of England, appears to have been 
first used as a badge by EDWARD I., who probably 
inherited it from his mother, ELEANOR of PROVENCE, or 
assumed it in memory of his descent from her. The 
Rose of Provence was, according to tradition, introduced 



( 324 ) 

into that country by THIBAULT IV. and the returning 
Crusaders. 

On a Great Seal of EDWARD III. in 1340, small roses 
appear between the words of the inscription. Under 
RICHARD II. in 1377, the garters prepared for the King 
and the Earl of DERBY had roses thereon (BELTZ ; 
History of the Order of the Garter, p. 244), and there are 
other instances of its use ; but it was not, it seems, one 
of the prominent Royal Badges until the " Wars of the 
Roses;" these derived their names from the Red and 
White Roses which formed the respective badges of the 
rival houses of LANCASTER and YORK. 

It is not at all clear under what circumstances the 
roses were assumed as the emblems of the rival factions. 
The red rose has been thought to be a badge of the 
Lancastrian honour of RICHMOND. With perhaps 
greater probability, the use of the white rose has been 
traced to RICHARD of CONINGSBURGH, Earl of CAM- 
BRIDGE, second son of EDWARD III. He married, as his 
second wife, MAUD, daughter of Lord CLIFFORD, whose 
family are said to have assumed the white rose as a 
badge in memory of "Fair Rosamond" CLIFFORD. (See 
Chapter on BADGES infra.) 

As a heraldic bearing the rose seldom appears as a 
sole charge in English Armory ; but abroad it was used 
by several important families. Argent, a rose gules, 
barbed and seeded proper, was borne by the old Counts, 
now Princes, of LlPPE. It is quartered in the Saxon 
Arms for the Burg-gravate of ALTENBURG ; and was 
the annes parlantes of the Barons, Counts, and Princes 
of ROSENBERG. These are also the bearings of the 
ancient Royal Burgh of MONTROSE. 

Azure, a rose or, is the coat of COSSINGTON ; Ermine, 
a rose gules, barbed and seeded proper, is borne by BOS- 
CAWEN, Earls of FALMOUTH, and was the original coat 
of NIGHTINGALE. Or, a rose sable, is the coat of the 



Lordship of WlLDENFELS quartered by the Counts zu 
SOLMS. 

As early as the thirteenth century roses (possibly then 
not clearly distinguished from cinquefoils) were borne by 
the Earls of LENNOX ; and at a comparatively early date 
by other families feudally connected, or allied, with them, 
e.g. the NAPIERS, and MACFARLANES ; besides WEDDER- 
BURNS, and BLACKADDERS in Berwickshire. Plate XXX., 
fig. 3, is the coat of LENNOX : Argent, a saltire between 
four roses gules. The conventional representation of a 
rose, has five (occasionally six), fully opened petals, 
between which are barbs to represent the calix; and 
stamina, or seeds, in a small circular centre. Thus 
borne, it is not represented as slipped or leaved, unless 
these facts be expressed in the blazon. When a rose is 
said, as above, to be barbed and seeded proper, it is 
meant that the barbs are green ; and the stamens, or 
seeds, of yellow. The colour of the rose always requires 
specification. In the Wappenrolle von Zurich the arms 
are twice given (Nos. 142, 213) of the family of 
GtJTINGEN : Argent, a rose gules, barbed, seeded and 
slipped proper (at the latter place the seeding seems to be 
argent). No. 265 of the same MS. is the coat of 
ROSE NECK : Or, a fess azure between six roses gules, 
stalked proper. No. 33, the arms of BUCHEG is: Gules, 
on a pale or three roses of the first slipped and seeded 
proper. 

In the early Heraldry of England the. rose is not 
generally slipped. The arms granted in 1450, to 
KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, by HENRY VI. are: 
Sable, three roses argent ; a chief per pale azure and gules, 
in the first a fleur -de- Us, in the second a lion passant 
gardant or ; but in later grants, as in the coat granted to 
WILLIAM COPE, cofferer to HENRY VII., Argent, on a 
chevron azure between tJiree roses gules, as many fleurs-de- 
lis or (Plate XXX., fig. 4), the roses are slipped. 



( 3*6 ) 

THE FLEUR-DE-LIS. Of all the floral devices used in 
Heraldry the most famous is the fleur-de-lis, now gener- 
ally identified with the iris. Its floral character has been 
altogether denied by some writers who have professed to 
trace its origin to the head of a lance, spear, or sceptre, 
to an architectural finial ; to a frog, a bee, a sacred mono- 




FIG. 71. EARLY SWEDISH COAT 
(FROM HILDKBRAND, Dct Srcnska Eiks Vapnet). 

gram, etc. (The student who is interested will find all 
these suggestions stated, and refuted, in the excellent 
work of M. REY ; Histoire du Drapeau, des Couleurs, et 
des Insignes de la Monarchic Franqaise, 2 vols. 8vo., 
Paris, 1837, and can hardly fail to be surprised at the 
prodigious number of treatises which have been published 
on the subject.) 

It is at first sight so difficult to explain the reason why, 
when other great potentates were assuming for their 
armorial emblems the lion, the eagle, etc., the sovereigns 
of France should have preferred the apparently humble 
iris-flower, that we are hardly surprised to find the fact 
accounted for by the tradition that it was brought from 
heaven itself by an angel to CLOVIS, King of the Franks, 
on the occasion of his baptism, as a special mark of 
favour on the part of the BLESSED VIRGIN, whose 



peculiar symbol the lily has always been. The tradition 
has many variations of place and circumstance. It is, 
however, somewhat surprising to find that the French 
Bishops at the Council of Trent, when disputing for the 
precedence of their Sovereign, fortified their claim by 
alleging that the King of FRANCE had received the 
fleurs-de-lis direct from heaven : " Gall(or)um regem 
unctum esse et lilia divinitus accepisse ! " (DE LA 
ROQUE ; Traite singulier du Blason, p. 47, as quoted in 
REY, ii., 17.) 

The most probable explanation of the origin of the 
fleur-de-lis as the device of the Kings of France is that 
put forth by M. REY, which has received the approval 
also of Mr BLANCHE, " that the Fleur de lys, or Flower 
de Luce was merely a rebus signifying Fleur de Louis." 
Up to the time of LOUIS VII. the kings of that name 
(identical with CLOVIS) called themselves, and signed 
themselves, Lois or LOYS. Even after the name had 
settled into its present form, " Loys " was still the signa- 
ture of the Kings of France up to the time of LOUIS 
XIII. (REY, loc. dt., ii., 44). LOYS, or Louis, VII. 
received from his father the surname of " FLORUS." 

The coins of LOUIS VI. and LOUIS VII. are the 
earliest on which the fleur-de-lis appears. But it also 
appears at that time on the coins of FLORENCE (a city 
which was the mint of many European sovereigns, and 
whence the designation of florin is derived). M. REY, in 
view of these facts, inquires : " Ne peut-on pas dire 
alors que cette coincidence du surnom de Florus avec le 
nom de Loys ou lis, de celui de Florence avec celui de 
fleur de lis, et enfin de tous ces noms et surnoms entre eux, 
a donne lieu a la formation du nom de notre illustre 
insigne ? " 

M. REY traces the fleur-de-lis as an artistic ornament 
to very early times ; centuries antecedent to its adoption 
as an armorial ensign. (It is curious that on a coin of 



HADRIAN, Gaul is personified by a woman bearing in 
her hand a lily : the legend is Restitutori Gallice^} On 
a medal of GALBA the fleur-de-lis forms the head of the 
sceptre. MONTFAUCON gives an example from an 
ancient diptych in which the crown of the Empress 
PLACIDIA (daughter of THEODOSIUS THE GREAT), who 
died in 450, is ensigned with a fleur-de-lis. These, and 
a multitude of other early instances, are given in his 
plates by M. REY, to whose work I again refer the 
curious reader. 

In France, as in many other countries, the sceptre 
borne by the prince was, at a very early date, ornamented 
by a floral emblem, varying in details but bearing a 
general resemblance to \h& fleur-de-lis of later times. 

The seals of the Emperors HENRY I. (d. 1024) and 
CONRAD II. (d. 1039) afford early illustrations of the 
custom. (See GLAFEY, Specimen decadem Sigillorum, 
etc., tab. iv., Lipsiae 1749; and ROEMER-BtJCHNER, 
Die Siegel der deutschen Kaiser, etc., pp. 22, 23, Frank- 
furt am Mayn, 1851.) In France the germ of the 
armorial fleur-de-lis may thus be traced to the fleurons 
which adorn the sceptres and the crowns of HENRI I., 
PHILIPPE I., and LOUIS VI. A signet of LOUIS VII. 
bears a fleur-de-lis florenc^ee, but the charge first takes a 
definite heraldic shape on the seals of PHILIP AUGUSTUS 
(d. 1223); whose Great Seal represents him crowned 
with an open crown of fleurons and holding in his right 
hand a fleur-de-lis (several of his successors are similarly 
represented), in his left a sceptre surmounted by a 
lozenge charged with the like emblem. On his counter- 
seal is engraved in an oval a fleur-de-lis entirely of the 
heraldic shape. (M. DEM AY, in his book so often cited 
in previous pages, points out, pp. 194-196, the analogy 
which exists between the fleurons, held in the hand, or 
surmounting the sceptre as well as adorning the crown, 
of the effigies of the BLESSED VIRGIN depicted on the 



seal of the chapter of Notre-Dame at Paris in 1146, 
and on that of the Abbey of Faremoutiers in 1197, with 
those borne by ST. LOUIS IX. in 1226.) On the occasion 
of the coronation of his son PHILIP (in his own life- 
time), the king, Louis VII., regulated the details of the 
ceremony, and among other things prescribed that the 
prince should wear " ses chausses appelees sandales ou 
bottines de soye, couleur bleu azure semee en moult en- 
droits de fleurs de lys d'or, puis aussi sa dalmatique de 
meme couleur et ceuvre" (GOURDON DE GENOUILLAC, 
L'Art Heraldique, p. 224). 

On the counter-seal of LOUIS VIII. (1223-1226) there 
is a heart-shaped escucheon seme de fleurs-de-lis (Plate 
XXXVI L, fig. 5). The counter-seal of ST. LOUIS IX. 
bears a single fleur-de-lis. The shield and caparisons of 
the horse of his brother CHARLES, Comte d'ANJOU (after- 
wards King of SICILY), as borne on his Great Seal, have 
FRANCE-ANCIENT (i.e. seme de fleurs-de-lis) within a 
bordure of CASTILE, derived from his mother BLANCHE, 
daughter of ALFONSO VIII. of CASTILE. On her seal of 
vesica shape Queen BLANCHE is represented holding a 
fleur-de-lis in her hand, and the space between the legend 
and her effigy is occupied by two fleurs-de-lis. On her 
circular counter-seal the field is occupied by a large castle 
for CASTILE, having on either side a small fleur-de-lis (see 
Plate XXXVII, fig. 6), and a third fleur-de-lis sur- 
mounts the castle on the inscription band which bears 
the words " BLACHA FILIA REGIS CASTELLE " (VREE, 
Genealogie des Comtes de Flandres, plate xxxix.). By an 
edict, dated 1376, CHARLES V. reduced the number of 
fleurs-de-lis in his shield to three " pour symboliser la 
Sainte-Trinite." On the counter-seals of LOUIS XII. 
and FRANCIS I, the escucheon is surmounted by an 
open crown of fleurs-de-lis, is supported by two kneeling 
angels, and the point rests in the petals of a garden lily, 
slipped and budded proper. (Plate XXX VII., fig. I.) 



( 330 ) 

On the first Great Seal of EDWARD III. (Jan.-Oct. 
1327) a small fleur-de-lis is placed above each of the 
castles which had appeared on either side of the throne 
in the Great Seal of his father EDWARD II. (The 
same matrix had served for EDWARD I. and EDWARD 
II. with slight additions.) On his second Great Seal 
(1327-1336) a fleur-de-lis alone appears on either side 
of the throne. 

The fourth Great Seal (Feb.-June 1340) is the first on 
which his arms appear : Quarterly, I and 4, FRANCE ; 
2 and 3, ENGLAND. The shields upon the canopy of 
the obverse have but three fleurs-de-lis ; but on the 
reverse the shield surcoat and housings have the 
French quarter seme de fleurs-de-lis. On the second 
Great Seal of HENRY IV., in 1411, the fleurs-de-lis 
in the quarters of FRANCE, are reduced to three 
(Plate XXX., fig. 5). The French quarter was only 
removed from the arms of the Kings of ENGLAND 
in 1 80 1. (See the Catalogue of Seals in the Department 
of MSS., British Museum, Vol. i., Nos. 160, 161, 182, 

2590 

In Scotland, Queen MARY, in 1564, has on her 
counter-seal the shield charged with the arms of FRANCE 
(dimidiated), and SCOTLAND (entire) (LAING, Scottish 
Seals, i., No. 64). 

At the head of this Chapter are indicated several of 
the many forms in which the beautiful bearing of the 
fleur-de-lis has been represented in the arms of FRANCE, 
up to the close of the Monarchy. 

The arms of FLORENCE are : Argent, a fleur-de-lis 
florence'e gules, as in Plate XXX., fig. 7. 

The family of CHATEAUBRIAND, who used originally 
the arms : de Gueules, seme de pommes de pin d'or, are 
said to have received permission from ST. LOUIS IX. to 
substitute for them de Gueules, seme de fleurs-de-lis d'or, 
in reward for the valour displayed by GEOFFREY DE 



CHATEAUBRIAND at the battle of Mansourah in 1250, 
with the proud motto, " Mon sang teint les bannieres de 
France? 

The letters of nobility granted by CHARLES VII. in 
December 1429 to the brothers of LA FUCELLE, 
JEANNE D'ARC, with the surname of DU Lis, are : 
Azure, between two fleurs-de-lis of France, a sword in 
pale proper, kilted, and supporting on its point an open 
crown, Or. 

The Fleur-de-lis appears early, but not frequently, 
in British Armory, in which somewhat later it was to 
become a favourite charge. Allusion has already been 
made to its adoption by the MONTGOMERIES (ante 
p. 50). 

In the Roll of Arms known as GLOVER'S Roll, said to 
be of the time of HENRY III., WILLIAM DE CANTELOWE 
(CANTELUPE) bears : Gules, three fleurs-de-lis or (vide 
ante, p. 225) ; and ROBERT AGULON, Gules, a fleur-de- 
lis argent. Others of this name bore : Azure, a fleur- 
de-lis argent, afterwards the coat of the DlGBYS, Earls 
of BRISTOL. Or, a fleur-de-lis azure, are the arms of 
PORTMAN. Or, a fleur-de-lis sable, is the coat of 
TlLLY, Marquis de BLARU in France. Per pale azure 
and or, two fleurs-de-lis accostes counter changed, are 
the arms of the FuGGERS, the merchants and bankers 
of Augsburg; Counts in 1507, and in 1803 Princes 
of the Holy Roman Empire. Gules, three fleurs-de- 
lis or, was also borne by the family of BROWN of 
Colstoun. 

Azure, fleury (or seme de fleurs-de-lis] argent, is an 
old coat of MORTIMER ; and was also borne by 
BAZENTIN, and the MALAPERTS, Barons de NEUFVILLE. 
Some important Low Country families bear : Argent, 
fleury gules, e.g. the Barons d'HAULTEPENNE; KERCKEM, 
Barons de WYER ; and OUPEY. (In the Armorial de 
Gelre, the arms of the last-named family are drawn as, 



( 33' ) 

A rgent, six fleurs-de-lis gules.) A sure, six fleurs-de-lis and 
a chief or, was borne by the Princes of PORTIA, of the 
Holy Roman Empire. 

Several ancient families in the Low Countries bore 
fleurs-de-lis dimidiated by a horizontal line, i.e. with the 
lower half of the flower wanting. In the thirteenth 
century MS. just quoted (L 'Armorial du Heraut Gelre, 
or Gueldre}, the arms of " Le Sire de LlNTRE " are : 
d' Argent, a trois fleurs-de-lis au pied coupe de sable. The 
Sires de WESEMAEL bore the same, Gules and argent, 
and those of BERGEN OP ZOOM, Or, the flowers gules. 
The French DE VlGNACOURTS, of whom were two Grand 
Masters of the Knights of St. John, ALOF DE VlGNA- 
COURT (1601-1612), and ADRIAN (1690-1697), bore : 
Argent, three fleurs-de-lis dimidiated gules. 

The Barons VENNINGEN bear (Plate XXX., fig. 6) 
Argent, two staves or sceptres, ending in fleurs-de-lis 
gules. A similar coat is that of the DELBENE of 
France who bear : Azure, two fleurs-de-lis in saltire, 
each of the long stalks ending in three roots argent. 
The Veronese DEL BENE bear : Azure, two garden lilies 
in saltire argent, so these are only varieties of drawing 
the same coat. 

The fleur-de-lis has been represented in a hundred 
different ways, as may be seen in the plates of KEY'S work 
already referred to, rHistoire du Drapeau, des Couleurs, 
et des Insignes de la Monarchic Franc^aise. 

From these most of the characteristic examples 
engraved in the woodcut at the head of this chapter 
are taken. 

No. i is from the demolished church of ST. HiLAlRE 
at Poitiers ; and also appears on the tombs of the Comtes 
d'Eu, at that place. (REY, Plate ii., fig. 12). 

No. 2 is from a portrait in panel in the Sauvageot 
Collection, dating from the close of the fifteenth century 
(REY, Plate ii., fig. 85). 



PLATE XXX. 




1. Cinquefoils. 
Hamilton. 




2. Fraises. 
Fraser. 




Lennox. 




4. Roses slipped. 
Cope. 




5. Fleurs de lis. 
France. 




6. Fleur-de-lise. 
Venningen. 




7. Fleur de lis florenc^e. 
Florence. 





9. Chaplet. 
Lascelles. 




10. Pomegranate. 
Granada. 




11. Rye. 
Riddell. 




12. Garb. 

Grosvenor. 



( 333 ) 

No. 3 is from stained glass in the Depaulis Collection 
(KEY, Plate iv., fig. 16). 

No. 4 (REV, Plate iv., fig. 31). 

No. 5 is from the seal of Falaise (REY, Plate iv., fig. 

33)- 

No. 6 appears on the seal of the Chatelet of Paris in 
1 3 37 (REY, Plate L, fig. 8). 

No. 7 (REY, Plate xvii., fig. 210). 

No. 8 is the bulging and ungraceful form affected 
under the latest Bourbon Kings. 

The association of the fleur-de-lis with a leopard's ('or 
lion's) face in the arms of the CANTELUPES, and of the 
See of HEREFORD is alluded to elsewhere (p. 225). 

The fleur-de-lis in early examples was often drawn 
with a globular centre, as in fig. 65, and Mr PLANCHE 
(in the Pursuivant of Arms, p. 103) suggests that this 
may have originated the bearings just referred to, the 
globular space being filled up with the leopard's head to 
denote some family alliance. 

Argent \ on a chief azure, two fleurs-de-lis or, was borne 
by CLINTON of Baddesley. Azure, a cross argent 
between four fleurs-de-lis or, is the coat of SEVASTOS of 
Byzantium. Gules, a cJievron between three fleurs-de-lis or, 
is the coat of BROUN or BROWN of Scotland (cf. p. 331). 

The earliest known armorial shield in Sweden bears a 
fleur-de-lis between two stag's attires, connected by the 
crane, or scull plate in base (vide fig. 71, p. 326, and 
p. 52, ante]. Sable, a chevron between tJiree fleurs-de-lis 
argent, is borne by several important Welsh families 
(VAUGHAN, Earls of LISBURNE ; WYNN, POWELL, 
EVANS, WILLIAMS, GRIFFITHS, etc., who claim descent 
from EDNOWAIN AP BLEDDYN). Sable, a fess between 
six fleiirs-de-lis or, is borne by the Barons de la MOTTE 
FOUQUE. 

With \^^ fleur-de-lis in its conventional form we may 
fitly couple its prototypes the iris and garden lily. In 



. ( 334 ) 

their botanical forms both are occasionally found as 
heraldic charges. The Picard family of LlHONS bears : 
Azure, two garden lilies argent. The Marquises of 
ANJORRANT in France, now extinct, used : Azure, three 
garden lilies argent, slipped and leaved vert. HENRY VI. 
in 1440, granted to the COLLEGE of ST. MARY at ETON, 
the coat : Sable, three garden lilies argent, on a chief pet 
pale azure and gules, a fleur-de-lis of France, and a lion of 
England. Sable, three lilies proper, are the arms attri- 
buted to WINCHESTER COLLEGE. Azure, three lilies 
argent, is the canting coat borne by LlLLlE of Scotland. 

The arms of the City of DUNDEE are : Azure, a pot of 
tJiree lilies proper. 

The natural lily supports the shield of France in the 
counter-seals of LOUIS XII. and FRANCIS I. (vide supra, 
p. 329; and Plate XXXVIL, fig. i). 

THE THISTLE, now the national emblem of SCOTLAND, 
has no place in the early Armory of that country. It was 
unknown as the badge of Scotland prior to the reign of 
JAMES III., 1460-88 when, in 1474, it appears first on the 
groats in the silver coinage. In an inventory of the 
effects of that prince made at his death in 1488, a 
coverlet " of variand purper tartar browden with thris- 
selis " is one of the items. On the altar diptych preserved 
at Holyrood, which contains the portraits of JAMES III., 
and his Queen, MARGARET of Denmark, the arras 
behind the kneeling figure of the Queen is powdered 
with thistles. The picture, or at least this portion of it, 
was probably painted by MABUSE about 1485. (See 
Dr LAING'S Historical Description of the Altarpiece, 
Edinburgh, 1857. This should be read with the Athe- 
nceum criticism on the picture, then exhibited at the 
STUART Exhibition in London, No. 3199, Feb. 16, 
1890.) The thistle only appears on the gold coins of 
Scotland in 1525. 

THE ORDER OF THE THISTLE was instituted by 



( 335 ) 

JAMES V. in 1540. On the counter-seal of Queen 
MARY, 1542-1567, the shield of the Royal Arms of 
Scotland is surrounded by the collar of the Order ; and 
behind each of the supporters is a badge of the crowned 
thistle. (LAING, Scottish Seals, i., 59.) The signet of 
Queen MARY (No. 66) similarly has the collar of the 
Order of the Thistle around the shield. It need hardly 
be said here that the legend attributing the date of the 
foundation of the Order of the Thistle to the year 809 is 
as mythical as the person, King ACHAIUS, who is said 
to have been its founder. 

The reader may gauge the real ignorance which exists 
as to the reason for the assumption of the thistle as the 
badge of Scotland by consulting the articles on the 
subject stored in that most useful of all periodicals or 
magazines, Notes and Queries. In it the question has 
been raised, over and over again, but we never get one 
step further than the well-worn story that at the battle 
of Largs one of the Danish invaders trod with bare foot 
on the prickly flower, and that his cry of pain caused the 
failure of the attempted surprise ! 

After the thistle had become the national badge we 
naturally find it often introduced into new coats of arms, 
and augmentations granted to old ones. It was usually 
slipped and leaved, as in the coat of concession granted 
to the first Earl of LEVEN (Plate XXX., fig. 8), Azure, a 
thistle ensigned with an Imperial Crown, all proper ; and 
its use is pretty frequent in the somewhat debased 
heraldry of the close of the last century and the beginning 
of the present. Or, three thistles vert flowered gules, is 
the coat of the Scottish family of ROMANES. 

The thistle is found also as a charge in Foreign 
Heraldry, and, usually, as an allusive one. For example, 
Gules (or Azure), three thistles or (often with a chief 
of the Empire), is the coat of the CARDONAS of Spain. 
(Plates XL and XLI.) Or, three thistles vert flowered 



( 336 ) 

gules, is borne by CARBON and DlBBITS in Flanders, 
CHARDON DU HAVET in France. Argent, three thistles 
proper is the coat of the French DONODEI and TRICARDS 
(d* Argent, a trots chardons au naturel). FOURNILLON 
uses : Gules, on a bend or tJiree thistles proper. 

DAISIES, OR MARGUERITES ; ASTERS. Argent, three 
daisies gules stalked and leaved vert, is attributed as armes 
parlantes to DAISIE, or DEISIE, of Scotland. The 
Marquises de MARGUERIE in France similarly use : 
d* Azur, a trois marguerites, tigees et feuillces d* argent. 
MARGUERIT in Franche Comte uses' : Vert, three 
marguerites or. The Dutch MATELIEFS bear : Azure, 
on a mound in base vert three daisies proper. The 
Bavarian SPRUNERS have used since 1571, Per f ess azure 
and or, in base three marguerites argent slipped vert. 

The Bavarian HORNUNGS had a grant in 1589 of 
Gules, on a mount in base vert three asters azure, slipped 
proper. 

WREATHS, or CHAPLETS OF LEAVES or FLOWERS, 
or of both combined, are found both in British and 
Foreign Heraldry. Argent, three cJiaplets gules (Plate 
XXX., fig. 9) is borne by LASCELLES ; and by HILTON, 
in early Rolls of Arms. 

Argent, three chaplets of roses gules leaved vert, is the 
coat of the Irish HEARNES, and of HOEDE in Flanders. 
A well known coat of this class is that borne by 
FlTZWILLIAM, and the Barons of GREYSTOCK : Barry 
(of six, eight, or more) argent and azure, tJiree chaplets 
of roses gules (leaved vert). Gules, three chaplets argent, 
are the canting arms of GARLAND. ScHIECK of Hesse, 
uses Or, three chaplets of roses gules. Gules, a wreath of 
white roses leaved proper, is the coat of the German 
GRANTZ, or KRANTZ (SIEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, ii., 75). 

The Counts WREDE in Germany use : Or, a laurel 
wreath set with five roses gules (on a canton azure a 
sword in pale proper]. Azure, tJiree lattrel wreatlis, is 



( 337 ) 

borne in France by MlLLY. Or, a cJiaplet of oak leaves 
proper banded gules, is the surtout of the arms of the 
Princes CAROLATH-BEUTHEN (of the Holy Roman 
Empire) by whom it was borne for the Barony of 
SCHONAICH. Azure, three oak-wreaths or, is the coat of 
CHAMPREDONDE. Sable, three chaplets argent, is the 
coat attributed to VAN ARTEVELDE of Flanders. 

Or, a crown of thorns sable (quartering in the 2nd and 
3rd Azure, three bezants] are the arms of BuROSSE of 
Gascony. Argent, five crowns of thorns sable, 2, 2, and 
i, was borne by the Vicomtes de MEAUX. (Salle des 
Croises, a Versailles, 1248.) 

GILLYFLOWERS, PINKS, ETC. Argent, three gilly- 
flowers slipped gules within a Royal t res sure vert, was 
the coat of the LIVINGSTONES, Viscounts KlLSYTH. 
Argent, three carnations gules, slipped vert, is borne by 
NOYCE. The Earls of ROSEBERY now bear : Quarterly, 
i and 4. Vert, tfiree primroses within a double tressure 
flory counterflory or (for PRIMROSE) (v. p. 1 80) ; 2 and 3. 
Azure, a lion rampant double queued sable (for CRESSY). 

CORNFLOWERS, ETC. Argent, a chevron gules between 
tJiree "blue bottles" slipped proper, is borne by BOTHELL; 
with the chevron azure this is also the coat of BOTHELIER 
in France. 

TULIPS. As might be reasonably expected a con- 
siderable number of families, and especially in Holland, 
have this flower as a heraldic charge. VAN GENNEP 
uses, Or, on a terrace vert a tulip gules, slipped proper and 
crowned of the first ; LORE in Zealand has : Argent, on a 
terrace vert a tulip or, slipped and leaved proper. The coat 
of D'ARRIPE of Amsterdam is, Or, a chevron azure between 
three tulips proper. BLUMERT of Niirnberg, and ISNARD 
in Provence bear : Azure, three tulips slipped and leaved 
or; and THUMERY : Or, a cross engrailed sable between 
four tulips gules slipped and leaved vert. 

THE PANSY AND VIOLET. These flowers which are 



( 333 ) 

almost, if not entirely, unknown in our own Armory, 
are not very scarce as Continental charges. Gules, tJiree 
violets slipped argent, is the canting coat of VlLLY in 
France. VAULTIER (dit BEAUREGARD) of Brabant uses : 
Sable, a chevron argent between in chief two violets slipped 
and leaved, and in base an anchor, all or. VAN GROENEN- 
DYK has : Or, a chevron between three violets gules, slipped 
proper. VERGNIES of Holland bears : Azure, a chevron 
between three pansies or. The Barons de LEUZE, in the 
Low Countries have for arms: Argent, a chevron gules, 
between three pansies slipped and leaved proper. 

SUNFLOWER AND MARIGOLD. The arms of the Dutch 
family of BLOM are : Argent, on a terrace a sunflower 
proper ; and of VAN BLOMMESTEIN : Sable, three mari- 
golds slipped and leaved or. The DADVISARDS, Marquises 
de TALAIRAN bore : Azure, a sunflower on a terrace ; 
and turning towards a sun in dexter chief, all or. The 
Marquises d'ESPAGNET in Provence use : Azure, three 
marigolds on one stalk leaved or ; on a chief gules a 
sun in splendour. The Counts de MAISTRE use : Azure, 
three marigolds or (XAVIER DE MAISTRE' was of this 
family) ; another Dutch family of BLOM use the same. 

Many other flowers are found as heraldic charges, 
especially when they can be employed as armes parlantes ; 
e.g. the arms of the family of GlAClNTO are : Gules, a 
hyacinth proper. The Dutch VLASBLOMS have : Argent, 
on a terrace a flax plant with three flowers all proper. 
The cotton plant is the charge of the arms of COTONER 
of Majorca ; Or, a cotton plant of five shoots vert, each 
flowered argent ; to this family RAFAEL and NICOLAS 
COTONER, Grand Masters of the Knights of ST. JOHN 
( 1 660- 1 680), belonged. The Counts JACQUEMINOT bear : 
Or, an orange branch vert, flowered argent and fruited 
proper. 

I have only noted two or three examples of the use of 
the tobacco plant, which appears to me somewhat un- 



( 339 ) 

grateful on the part of nouveaux ricJies who have made a 
fortune by its sale. As an honourable exception I 
may quote the arms of CARDOZO : Sable, five bezants in 
saltire, on a chief indented argent tliree tobacco plants vert. 
Baron MtJLLER, the great Australian botanist, had a 
grant of the following appropriate coat : Or, two branches 
of the eucalyptus accosted ', the feet interlaced proper. 

This section maybe fitly closed with the coat of RAMERA 
of Spain : Or, a bouquet proper, tied with ribbons gules. 

FRUITS. Various fruits appear in the Armory of our 
own and Foreign nations. Argent, a pomegranate gules 
(originally vert], seeded and slipped proper, are the well- 
known armes parlantes of the Kingdom of GRENADA 
(Plate XXX., fig. 10), and the escucheon of the Spanish 
Royal Arms is usually ente en point of this quartering. 
Gules, a pomegranate or, is used in England by families 
of GRANGE and GRANGER. Or, a fess indented ermine 
between three pomegranates leaved proper, is the coat of 
BARR. Azure, tJiree pomegranates or, is borne in France 
by GRANDIN ; and, with a fess argent, by VlLLERS. 
Argent, three pomegranates proper, is the coat of GRENIER, 
and GRANIER, another family of the same name (GRANIER 
DE CASSAGNAC) uses : Gules, three pomegranates slipped 
and leaved or, seeded of the field. The Sicilian family of 
GRAN ATA bears : Azure, a pomegranate or, seeded gules. 

BUNCHES OF GRAPES are of frequent occurrence. 

Argent, a bunch of grapes pendent stalked and leaved 
proper, was the coat of VlNEY ; and the same between 
two flauncJies sable, on each a boar's head argent (for 
EVANS), was borne by Viscountess BEACONSFIELD 
(1868- 1 872), wife of BENJAMIN DISRAELI, Prime Minister 
of the United Kingdom. Gules, two vine shoots addorsed 
each bearing a bunch of grapes, leaved proper, are the arms 
of the Princes LlCHNOWSKI in Silesia. Or, a fess gules 
between tJiree bunches of grapes azure, is used by the Dutch 
UYTREDERS. 



( 340 ) 

ORANGES are occasionally found, mostly as canting 
charges, but not often in British Armory. The Breton 
family, ORENGES DE LlMEROU uses : Pale d' argent et 
de gueules, a la bordure de sable, chargee de Jiuit oranges d^or. 
(Another French family D'ORANGE DE LA FEILLEE bears 
this coat slightly differenced : Argent, tJiree pallets gules, 
and the bordure with five oranges^] Azure, three oranges 
or, leaved vert, is the coat of WlCHERS of Holland. To 
LIVINGSTONE, Viscount TEVIOT, there was granted 
as an augmentation to be borne in the 1st and 4th 
quarters of his arms : Azure, three oranges slipped proper 
within an orle of thistles or. Vert, tJiree lemons or, is the 
coat of LlMOS of Spain ; and with the field azure of LlMO- 
JON of France. The bezants of MELUN are melons (?). 

APPLES and PEARS. These fruits appear in a con- 
siderable number of coats at home and abroad. Argent, 
a fess between three apples gules is borne by APPLETON 
(many families of this name bear the same coat with 
variations of the tinctures). Argent, tJiree apples slipped 
gules, is the coat of APPLEGARTH. In France, POME- 
REU, Marquis de RlCEYS, bears : Azure, a chevron argent 
between three apples slipped and leaved, the stalks in chief, 
or. The Venetian MEMMI used : Per fess or and azure 
six apples counter-changed (three and three). PERROTT 
bears : Gules, three pears or, on a chief argent a demi-lion 
issuant sable. U Azur, a trois poires d' or feuillees du metne 
is the coat of POIRIER in France. Two curious examples 
of the manner in which charges were converted into armes 
parlantes are the following : CRESTIENNOT in Paris 
bears: Argent, a chevron between tliree "bon chretien " 
pears azure; and WARDEN in Scotland: Argent, a 
chevron gules between three warden pears leaved proper. 

ACORNS occur not unfrequently. Argent, tJiree acorns 
slipped vert, is the coat of AlKENHEAD of that Ilk. 
Azure, tJiree acorns 0r, was used by PORET, Marquis de 
BLOSSEVILLE ; VAN EYCK ; and DU CHESNE ; and, with 



the addition of stalk and leaves, by Barons von GREINDL; 
VAN AELST ; and with the field argent by Barons CLOEPS 
DE HEERNESSE in Belgium, etc. Azure, a chevron between 
three acorns or, is the coat of VERREYCKEN, and with the 
cups vert is borne by IFELD or I FIELD. Sable, on a fess 
between six acorns or, three oak leaves proper, is the coat 
of OKE, and OKEDEN. 

PINE APPLES are often not distinguishable in Armory 
from FIR CONES which are a pretty common bearing. 
Argent, three pine apples vert, stalked or is a coat of APPLE- 
TON. Argent, three pine cones vert, is that of KEROULLE 
in Brittany. Gules, three pine apples or, was borne by the 
French Marquises de PlNS, and by ARGENSOLA of Spain. 
Or, three pine apples vert is used by the Spanish PlNOS. 
Azure, three pine cones or is the coat of the Counts and 
Princes von WALDBURG. The original coat of the 
CHATEAUBRIANDS has been referred to already on p. 330. 

Instances appear in Armory of the use of many other 
fruits. Walnuts, cherries, strawberries, ananas, elder- 
berries, melons, pepper-pods, etc. are all found as charges 
at home or abroad. 

Ears of rye and of barley appear in very early English 
coats ; one for the name of RYE, Gules, on a bend argent 
three rye stalks sable ; the other for GRANDORGE, Azure, 
tJiree ears of barley or. The Scottish family of RlDDELL 
uses, Argent, a chevron gules between tJiree ears of rye 
slipped and bladed proper (Plate XXX., fig. 1 1). 

GARBS, or WHEAT SHEAVES, belong to the earliest 
class of English bearings ; they appear first on the seal 
of RANULF BLUNDEVILLE, Earl of CHESTER, who died 
in 1232. The garbs thus becoming the arms of the Earls 
of CHESTER were largely assumed as charges by families 
related to, or feudally dependent on them. In 1389, 
when the SCROPE and GROSVENOR controversy was 
decided, the GROSVENORS being found not legally 
entitled to the disputed coat (Azure, a bend or} assumed 



( 34* ) 

in its stead ; Azure, a garb or (Plate XXX., fig. 12) as 
suggesting a descent from the Earls of CHESTER. This 
coat is still quartered by the GROSVENORS, Dukes of 
WESTMINSTER. It was also the coat of the family of 
the Counts de ST. PAUL, who fought in the First Crusade 
(Salle des Croises a Versailles), and, with a bee volant in 
chief gold, of the Polish Counts KAMAROWSKI. Among 
the families referred to above as feudally connected with 
the Earls of CHESTER were the CHOLMONDELEYS of 
Vale Royal, who bear : Gules, a garb, in chief two 
helmets or (Plate XXX I., fig. 4) (Marquises CHOLMON- 
DELEY ; Barons DELAMERE). The Earldom of CHESTER 
is now one of the dignities of the Prince of WALES. 

Azure, a garb, and in chief two mullets or, is the coat 
of WAUCHOPE of Niddry in Scotland. 

The garb in Heraldry is often banded of another 
tincture, thus the COMINS, or COMYNS, of Yorkshire bore : 
Argent, tJiree garbs gules, banded or. The arms of the 
ancient family of COMYN (Earls of BUCHAN, etc.), of 
such note and so ramified in Scotland in the thirteenth 
century, is Azure, three garbs or ; the sheaves were 
originally of cummin, and borne allusively to the name, 
but they have long been understood and blazoned as 
garbs, or sheaves of wheat. Similarly the PEVERELLS 
bore : Azure, tJiree garbs argent, which were originally 
sheaves of pepper (vide infra, Chapter on BADGES, p. 586). 
Sable, three garbs argent, was borne by M'MURROUGH, 
King of LEINSTER in Ireland, as well as by the old 
families of SEGRAVE, and DELAFIELD ; these are also the 
arms of the County of BtiCHHEIM in Germany now 
quartered by the Counts von SCHONBORN. 

The Vicomtes de BROSSE, dit DE BRETAGNE, chevaliers 
bannerets of Touraine, afterwards Comtes de PENTHI- 
EVRE, and Dues d'ETAMPES bore, Azure, three garbs or, 
banded gules (quartering 2 and 3, BRETAGNE, Ermine 
plain]. 



( 343 ) 

Argent, a chevron between three garbs gules, is the coat 
of SHEFFIELD, Duke of BUCKINGHAM, in 1703 ; and 
Azure, a chevron between tJiree garbs or, is that of the 
HATTONS of Cheshire (Earls of WINCHELSEA). 

Gules, a chevron between three Jiandfuls of wheat 
(glanes) or, are the armes parlantes of the French 
GLANNES, Barons de VILLERS-FARLAY. 

The coat of the family of LE SERGEANT DE MARSIGNY 
in Artois is worthy of note because in it (d ' Aznr, a trots 
gerbes mal-ordonnes a"or) the charges are arranged one 
and two, instead of in the almost invariable fashion two 
and one. 

VEGETABLES, the humbler but more important fruits 
of the earth, are only very occasionally met with in 
British Armory ; but in Continental Heraldry their use 
is much more frequent. The humble cabbage and 
turnip and others are employed, usually indeed in the 
manner of which we have already seen such a multitude 
of instances, as allusive to the name of the bearer. 

COOLE, or COELEN, in Brabant uses only Argent, three 
cabbage leaves vert ; but another family DE COOLE, in 
Holland, bears : Azure, three cabbages or, a coat which is 
borne by the Russian family of KATCHENEVSKI with 
the addition of a chief of the last tJiereon a harp gules. 
The Dutch COOLMANS have as arms : Gules, tJiree 
cabbages argent. Argent, three cabbages vert, is borne by 
KUMPSTHOFF of Rhenish Prussia. 

THE TURNIP, AND BEETROOT, are more frequently 
used than the preceding. The Italian RAPACCIOLI and 
RAVANI, and RAEPSAET in Flanders use, Azure, a turnip 
argent leafed vert. RAPE or RASPE, of Tournay, the 
same on a field gules. 

BEANS, AND BEAN CODS are found in British Armory. 
Azure, three beans or, is assigned to MERTON, while 
Argent, three bean cods fessways in pale vert, is borne by 
HARDBEANE. Azure, a chevron between three bean pods 



( 344 ) 

paleways argent, is used by LE FEVERE DE MANEGHEM 
of Flanders ; and Or, three bean pods azure, by FAVIERES. 

I have in my collection instances of the use of Maize, 
Lettuce, Fennel, Sage, Artichokes, Truffels, Celery, 
Carrots, Peas, Cucumbers, etc., but it would lengthen out 
this chapter unreasonably were I to give instances of all 
One more, however, ought not to be passed over, the 
MUSHROOM, as being about the last bearing which we 
would fancy a novus homo would be likely to assume, 
yet I have seven or eight instances. The Count de 
LESSEPS bears, Argent, on a terrace two vine shoots fruited, 
and at tJieir base as many mushrooms vert ; in the 
sinister chief a radiant sun proper. LAUNAY DU VALAY 
bears: Gules, six mushrooms argent; and GlJYOT 
D'ANFREVILLE : Azure, a chevron argent between three 
mushrooms or. 

NOTE. The Klee-Stengeln which appear on each of 
the wings of the eagles displayed of PRUSSIA, BRANDEN- 
BURG, etc., in the form of a golden trefoil with a long 
curved stalk reaching to the breast, appear to be only 
the development of some simple lines which are found 
in early examples of the I3th century to indicate the 
anatomical construction of the eagle's wings (See Plate 
XXXVIII., fig. i, and HlLDEBRAND's Heraldisches 
Musterbuch, Plate xxviii., fig. 9). 




FIG. 72. ARMS OF CREQUY. 





FIG. 73. FIG. 74. 

(HELMETS FROM WOBSAAK, Nordiskc Oldsager, fig. 570.) 



CHAPTER XIII. 

INANIMATE CHARGES. III. MISCELLANEOUS. 

MILITARY CHARGES. Heraldry being military in its 
origin, and connected in its early development either 
with military expeditions, or with the jousts which were 
preparatory for them, it is natural that the implements 
of warfare, and other objects connected therewith, 
should find an important place among its emblems. 

First of these naturally comes the knightly sword. 
As a heraldic charge this has a long straight blade with 
a cross handle ; its hilt and its pommel are often of a 
separate tincture, usually or, or gold. Or, a two-handled 
sword in pale azure, is a coat of the Scottish SPALDINGS. 

The family of KlLPEC, of Kilpec in Herefordshire, 
bear : Argent, a sword in bend sable (Plate XXXI., fig. i). 
The heiress of this family married PHILIP MARMION, 
Baron of SCRIVELSBY, temp. HENRY III., Hereditary- 
Grand Champion of England. From this family the 
Championship passed to the DYMOCKS, who bore : 
Sable, a sword in pale argent, hilted or, as their official 
coat, quartered with their personal arms : Sable, two lions 
passant in pale argent crowned or. It seems probable 
that the MARMYONS had similarly used the coat in 



( 346 ) 

combination with their personal arms : Vair, a fess 
gules. 

The ERSKINES of Dun quartered in the 2nd and 3rd 
places : Gules, a sword in pale argent, kilted and pommelled 
or, with the well known ERSKINE coat : Argent, a pale 
sable, in the 1st and 4th. In British Armory, if the 
contrary be not expressed, the point of the sword is in 
chief. Azure, a sword argent, is the coat of the Genoese 
FERRI ; and the same, but hilted or and with the point 
in base, of GOUDELIN, Vicomtes de PLE"HEDEL in 
Brittany. The arms granted to JEANNE D'ARC have 
been already noticed at p. 331, ante. The arms borne 
by Marechal LANNES, Due de MONTEBELLO, were : 
Vert, a sword in pale or, and a chief with the insignia of 
a duke of the French Empire (vide ante, Plate X., fig. 3). 

Gules, an antique sword in bend, point in base proper, is 
the coat of VlLLENEUVE (Salle des Croises 'at Ver- 
sailles). 

The Arms of the City of LONDON are : Argent, a 
cross gules ; in tJie first canton a sword (often called a 
dagger] of the second. It is often said that this " dagger " 
commemorates the despatch of the rebel JACK CADE, by 
Sir WILLIAM WALWORTH, then Lord Mayor. Like too 
many heraldic legends this story is without foundation 
in fact The sword is simply the well known emblem 
of ST. PAUL, patron saint of the city ; and Gule's, two 
swords in saltire argent, hilted and pommelled or, are still 
the arms of the See of LONDON. They are also borne 
by HlTROF of Russia. Azure, two swords in saltire 
argent hilted or, are the ancient arms of BONAR of 
Kimmerghame in Scotland ; and, with the points in 
chief, are borne by the family of SPADA of Lucca. 

Per fess sable and argent, over all two swords in 
saltire gules, are the arms of the Arch-Marshalship of 
the Holy Roman Empire, held by the Electors, now 
Kings, of Saxony. (Hence came the two red swords so 



PLATE XXXL 




1. Sword. 
Kilpec. 




2. Spear. 
Shakespeare. 




3. Battle Axe. 




4. Helmet. 
Cholmondeley. 






7. Pheon. 
Sydney. 




8. Battering Rams. 




9. Caltrap. 
Trapper. 




10. Chains. 
Navarre. 




11. Chains. 
Cadenat. 




12. Water Budget. 



( 347 ) 

familiar to all collectors of Dresden china.) Azure, tJiree 
swords in pile argent (kilts in chief], is the coat of MlNI- 
BERTI of Italy, and ODET of Brittany. Sable, three 
swords in pile, points in base argent, hilts and pommels 
or, is the coat of PAULET, or POWLETT, Marquess of 
WINCHESTER. 

When swords are borne barwise, i.e. fessways in pale, 
the blazon must specify to which side of the escucheon 
the points are directed. CHUTE uses : Gules, three 
swords barwise, points to the dexter, proper, hilted or. 
Gules, three swords barwise argent, hilted or, the centre 
one pointing to the sinister, is a coat of O'SHEA ; another 
has the swords two in saltire, points downwards, sur- 
mounted by a third in pale its point in chief. The Roman 
SPADAS bear : Gules, three swords bendways in pale 
argent, the hilts to the chief or ; on a chief azure tJiree 
fleurs-de-lis or. 

Of SPEARS and LANCES we find a good example in 
the canting coat granted to our great dramatic poet 
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE ; Or, on a bend sable a spear of 
the first, steeled (or pointed], argent (Plate XXX I. , fig. 2). 
Azure, a lance or, is the coat of the Italian SOLDATI ; 
the same, enfiled at its point by an annulet argent, is 
borne by DANBY of France. 

Argent, a broken spear bendways between two pierced 
mullets (or spur-rowels} of six points all azure, is the coat 
of AUCHMUTY of that Ilk. Gules, tJiree tilting spears, 
erect in fess the points argent, is borne by AMHERST, 
Earls AMHERST. 

Gules, tJiree tilting spears or, armed argent, two in 
saltire tlie third reversed in pale ; are the arms of 
the herba, or clan, of JELITA in Poland, as such 
they are borne by the Counts BlELSKl ; and ZAMOISKY, 
etc. 

CRONELS, which are the blunted ends of lances used 
in jousts and tournaments, are found in the coat of 



( 348 ) 

WISEMAN, Sable, a chevron ermine between three cronels 
argent. 

JOGHEMS of Holland bears : Gules, tJiree cronels argent, 
(vide infra, p. 388, under CHESS-ROOK.) 

Or, a pike head in bend sable, is the coat of the Counts 
von REICHENSTEIN ; with the field argent it is found in 
the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 490, for MAZINGEN ; 
Gules, a lance head bendways argent, is the coat of the 
Counts LAINCEL in France. Sable, tliree spear heads 
argent gutty de sang, is the coat of APREECE, or PRICE, 
and is also borne with the addition of a chevron argent 
by other Welsh families of PRICE, WILLIAMS, REES, 
WATKINS, JONES ; the Squire of the Black Prince, Sir 
DAVID GAM, bore the same. 

Sable, a battle axe or, headed argent, is the coat of 
OLDMIXON. Gules, a LocJiaber axe between three boars 
heads erased argent, is borne by RANKEN of Scotland. 

Azure, an axe argent in bend sinister, is the coat of 
the Barons BlEL of Mecklenburg. Gules, a broad axe 
argent, the handle or (the blade turned to the sinister), 
are the arms of the Polish herba of TOPOR, and as such 
are borne by the Counts OSSOLIN-OSSOLINSKI; TARLO; 
MORSKI ; and ZABIELLO. The Polish Counts OKSZA- 
GRABOWSKI, and the family of OKULICZ in Russia, bear 
the like ; but the blade is turned to the dexter, and 
the handle is sable. 

Argent, two halberts in saltire azure,was used by ECCLES 
of Kildonan. Gules, two Jialberts addorsed or, is borne by 
the Marquises ACHEY DE THORAISE in France. Argent, 
three doloires, or broad axes, gules, those in chief addorsed, 
is the coat of RENTY in Artois ; quartered from early 
times with Argent, tJiree bars gules, by the great house 
of CROY, Princes de CHIMAY (MAURICE, Toison d'Or, 
planches xv., xxii., etc., and v. infra, p. 549). 

CONGREVE of Congreve bore: Sable, a cJievron between 
three battle-axes argent (Plate XXXI., fig. 3). 



( 349 ) 

HELMETS, as external appendages to Armorial Coats, 
will be dealt with elsewhere (Chapter XIX). Plate XXXI., 
fig. 4, are the arms of CHOLMONDELEY already blazoned 
on page 342. Gules, a close helmet argent, is ascribed to 
ROBERTOUN in FONT'S MS., and in MACKENZIE'S 
Science of Heraldry, p. 66. Argent, tJiree morions sable 
banded gules, are the arms of the Barons KETELHODT. 
Azure, three helmets argent, is the coat of the ANTELMI 
of Venice, and G-UIBERT of France. Sable, three tilting 
helms argent, is an old coat of DAUBENY. 

Of BOWS we have an example in Plate XXXL, fig. 5. 
Ermine, three bows bent and stringed paleways in fess 
sable, the armes parlantes of BOWES, Lords BOWES of 
Clonlyon in Ireland. With the bows gules this coat is 
quartered by the Earls of STRATHMORE, for BOWES of 
Streatham in Northumberland. These are long-bows, 
but the crossbow is also used in British Heraldry, and 
is that which most generally appears in the Armory of 
Continental nations ; as an exception we find, Or, tJiree 
long bows fessways in pale azure, stringed sable, the coat 
of the Bavarian Counts d'ARCO. (TYROFF, Wappenbuch 
des Adels des Kb'nigreichs Baiern, Erster Band, Plate xiv., 
Niirnberg, 1818.) 

Gules, a crossboiv or, is used by BALISTE of France, 
and by ZMODSKI of Poland. Ermine, a crossbow bent in 
pale gules, is the coat of ALB ASTER in England, a curious 
corruption of the original ARBALESTIER. The ARBA- 
LESTES, Vicomtes de MELUN, bore : d'Or, au sautoir 
engrele de sable cantonne de quatre arbaletes tendues de 
gueules. 

ARROWS, if not otherwise blazoned, are borne paleways 
with the points downwards, and are said to be barbed of 
the tincture of the points, and feathered, or flighted, of 
that of the feathers. In Plate XXXL, fig. 6 is the coat 
of HALES of Norfolk : Gules, three arrows or, feathered 
and barbed argent. Vert, an arrow argent, the point 



( 35 ) 

upward, is said to be the ancient coat of M'ADAM ; but 
the coat registered is, Vert, tJiree arrows argent. 

Argent, an arrow in bend-sinister or, winged sable, is 
the curious coat of ALE, in Denmark. Several baronial 
families DE HEUSCH in Limburg use : Or, an arrow in 
bend gules the point in chief. Azure, two arrows in saltire 
or, is the coat of PlLLERA, and BULING, both of the 
Netherlands. Azure, three arrows argent, is the canting 
coat of ARREAU, in France ; the same, but with the 
charges or, is that of the English ARCHERS. Gules, 
three arrows or, feathered and headed argent, is the coat 
of HALES. 

ARROWS IN BUNDLES (usually of three only) are 
called sheaves, and are said to be banded. 

BIRD-BOLTS, or QUARRELS, are names given to the 
shorter arrows used with the crossbow : Azure, three 
bird-bolts or, are the armes parlantes of BOLTON (the 
bird-bolts have blunted heads). Argent, three bird-bolts 
gules, appears in CHARLES'S Roll for RALPH DE BOZON. 

A BROAD ARROW and a PHEON are represented 
similarly, except that the Pheon has its inner edges 
jagged, or engrailed. In English Heraldry the Pheon is 
represented with the point downwards, as in Plate XXXI., 
fig. 7, the arms of SYDNEY, Earl of LEICESTER : Or, a 
pheon azure. In French Armory the pheon is drawn 
with the point uppermost. The Breton Counts WALSH, 
originally from Ireland, use : Argent, a cJievron gules 
between three pheons sable. 

SCYTHES. The scythe-blades, which appear in the 
coats of several great Polish houses, would scarcely seem 
to be of military origin, and fitly to claim a place in this 
section. This is however the case. The scythe-blade 
fixed vertically at the end of a long pole, was the arme 
blanche of the Polish peasantry ; and those who have 
read the history of their attempts to regain national 
independence will hardly need to be reminded how very 



( 35' ) 

efficient a weapon this proved itself to be at close 
quarters, and especially against cavalry, in many a san- 
guinary conflict The Counts ALEXANDROWICZ, bear: 
Gules, t^vo scytJie-blades in saltire between two broken 
swords in pale, the hilt of the one in chief, that of the other 
in base proper. The families which compose the house, 
or Jierba of ROLA, bear : Gules, three scythe-blades in 
pairle, issuing from a rose in the centre point, all argent. 
This coat is borne by the Counts ROLA-WOLSKI. 
Another great Polish house, that of PRUSS II., has the 
coat : Gules, two scythe-blades in oval, the points crossing 
each other argent, and tJie ends in base tied together or, the 
whole surmounted in chief by a cross patriarchal-pate e, of 
which the lower arm on tJie sinister side is wanting. 
These are the arms of the Counts JEZIERSKI. 

SHIELDS differing in shape from the Sub-Ordinary 
already referred to as the Escucheon (Chapter V., p. 169), 
are sometimes found in Continental Heraldry. 

The Polish clan of JANINA bore : Or (often gules], an 
oval buckler of bronze (or purpure], the coat used by 
SOBIESKL 

Gules, a round (or oval] target, with pointed centre 
argent in bend-sinister, is the surtout of the Barons 
ROTHSCHILD, now Lords ROTHSCHILD in the Peerage 
of the United Kingdom. 

Gules, a round target between tliree antique crowns or, 
is the coat of GRANT, of Ballindalloch. 

TENTS. Sable, tJiree tents argent, is borne by 
SABCOTT of Northamptonshire ; and TENTENIER of 
Holland uses : Azure, on a terrace vert, a tent argent, sur- 
mounted by a weatJier cock or. Sable, a chevron between 
three tents argent, is borne by TENTON, and Azure, 
three tents or, by the French family DE LA CHASTRE. 

MILITARY BANNERS occur chiefly in comparatively 
recent heraldry in Great Britain, as in the present coat 
of BANNERMAN : Gules, a banner displayed argent, thereon 



( 352 ) 

a canton azure charged with a saltire of the second, which 
seems to have superseded in the i/th century the 
insignia formerly borne by that family (STODART, 
Scottish Arms, ii., 396). The coat of the English 
GARBETTS is said to date from 1486 ; it is : Gules, on a 
knightly banner flowing to the dexter argent, an Imperial 
eagle sable. The Counts and Dukes of WURTTEMBERG, 
since 1336, quartered with their arms the official insignia 
of Great Standard Bearer of the Empire : Azure, the 
Imperial banner (charged with a single-headed eagle 
displayed) in bend proper. The Portuguese family of 
B AN DEI R A use : Gules, on a banner argent, its lance and 
fringe or, a lion rampant sable. Gules, a banner gathered 
round the splintered staff in bend or, is borne by the 
Austrian Counts CETTNER, and by PRZEROWA of Poland. 
KINGDOM in England bears : Azure, three banners bend- 
ways in pale, to the sinister, or. Azure, tJiree pennons argent 
in pale and saltire, are the arms of STANDAERTS in 
Belgium. (For GONFANONS, v. p. 372.) 

BATTERING RAMS appear in the coat of the family 
of BERTIE, of which were the Earls of ABINGDON, the 
Dukes of ANCASTER and KESTEVEN, and the Earls of 
LlNDSEY in England ; they are : Argent, three battering 
rams fessways in pale proper, armed and garnished or 
(otherwise and more correctly azure}. (Plate XXXI., 
% 8.) 

BEACONS, used to convey intelligence of the approach 
of an enemy, or to muster troops, appear in two or 
three British coats. Sable, three beacons inflamed proper, 
with ladders or, are the arms of DAUNT ; and the like 
coat, but with the field azure, is that of GERVIS. 

The CALTRAP, or CHEVAL TRAP (chausse-trape], was 
a military instrument of iron, with four sharp points so 
arranged that however it lay one point was uppermost. 
It was placed to defend a post against the approach 
of cavalry. The family of TRAPPE (whose arms are * 



( 353 ; 

recorded in the Visitation of London in 1563) bore: 
Argent, three caltraps sable (Plate XXXL, fig. 9). Or, 
three caltraps gules, is a coat granted to HORSEMAN in 
1 590. The French family of GUETTEVILLE DE GUENON- 
VILLE bore : d' Argent, seme de chausse-trapes de sable. 

CHAINS as a Heraldic Charge are directly associated 
with military affairs. They are mostly found in the 
armory of the southern countries of Europe, especially 
in the Peninsula. The most illustrious example of their 
use occurs in the arms of the Kingdom of NAVARRE 
(Plate XXXL, fig. 10), Gules, a cross, saltire, and double 
orle of chains, linked together or, the coat which according 
to tradition was assumed by SANCHO " the Strong" in 
memory of a successful attack in 1212 on the camp of 
the Moorish army under MiRAMOMELlN, which was 
defended by a strong barricade of chains through which 
SANCHO and his followers cut their way. MENETRIER 
points out that this coat is an allusive one to the name 
of NAVARRE ; una varra, or 'na varra, in the Basque 
patois being the name of a chain. Notwithstanding this 
I have elsewhere ("The Heraldry of Spain and Portugal," 
p. 2) given my reasons for the opinion that this story is 
not lightly to be relegated to the ordinary limbo of 
heraldic myths. In any case, the chain was assumed 
into the coat of many of the noble families who were 
said to have been present with SANCHO on this 
occasion. (See ARGOTE DE MOLINA, Nobleza del 
Andalusia, L, cap. 46.) 

The MENDOZAS bore : Gules, a bend vert bordered or, 
over all an orle and saltire of chains of the last. ZuNIGA 
adopted a chain in orle or over the plain coat, Argent, a 
bend sable ; and MENESEZ assumed, Or^, a chain in 
bend azure. Among the other families using chains 
as charges are PERALTA, SOTO, URBINA, TELLEZ, etc. 
Many others bore it as a charge on a bordure, e.g., 
BERMUDEZ, MUNOZ, FERNANDEZ, IRIARTE, YRUSTA, 

2 A 



( 354 ) 

VARELA, etc. (See PIFERRER, Nobiliario .... 
de E span a.) 

On the counter-seals of Kings Louis V., PHILIP V., 
and CHARLES IV., of France, the shield of FRANCE- 
ANCIENT is placed within an 8 foil upon a device of the 
chains of NAVARRE, in memory of their mother, JEANNE, 
wife of PHILIP IV. (le Bel] and daughter and heiress of 
HENRY I., King of NAVARRE. (See VRE"E, Gencalogic 
des Comtes de Flandre, Plates xli., xlii.) In later times, 
as by LOUIS XIV., the arms of NAVARRE were not 
quartered with those of FRANCE, but were borne on a 
separate escucheon, the two shields being accoles, under 
one helmet and crown. (The dalmatic worn by the 
sinister supporter, and the banner borne by it, are alike 
charged with the arms of NAVARRE. See a good con- 
temporary example in DE LA PoiNTE, Chevaliers de 
VOrdre du St. Esprit, planche i., Paris, 1689.) 

.The chains of NAVARRE came in time to be con- 
founded, by some ill-informed heraldic writers, with a 
carbuncle or escarbuncle, and we accordingly find them 
sometimes so blazoned. (I have in an earlier chapter 
pointed out that this heraldic charge originated in the 
metal boss and bars with which an ancient shield was 
strengthened, and was no portion of its heraldic bearings, 
though in some cases it afterwards became an integral 
part of them, as in the case of the arms of the Dukes of 
CLEVES, Gules, an escucheon argent, over all an escar- 
buncle or. Possibly the name of the bearing may have 
originated in a precious stone set as an ornament in. the 
central boss of the shield.) FERRET of France uses : 
Azure, a chain bendways or. Chains are borne in the 
English coat of ANDERTON ; Sable, tJiree c]iains argent. 
The coat of the French CADENETS : Azure, three chains 
bendways or, is given in Plate XXXI., fig. 1 1. Argent, two 
chains in saltire gules (or azure), is borne by ZANCHINI of 
Tuscany; and Azure, two chains in saltire, attached to an 



( 355 ) 

amulet in tJie centre-point argent, is the well known coat of 
the ALBERTI. Sable, a cJiain, of two links and as many 
half links, in pale argent, were the arms of the Barons 
von NEUHOFF (or NEUENHOF), to which belonged the 
unfortunate adventurer, THEODORE, King of CORSICA. 

THE WATER BUDGET (bouse], is a conventional repre- 
sentation of the leather bags in which water was carried ; 
and probably dates from crusading times when such 
vessels were employed in the marches across the deserts. 
It was depicted with considerable variety of form in the 
early Rolls of Arms. It is very seldom met with except 
in English Heraldry, where its primary use appears to 
have been as a canting coat. The TRUSBUTS, Barons 
of WARTRE in Holderness, bore, a" Argent, a trois boutz 
deau de gules, and thereby symbolised both their family 
name, and their baronial estate. ROSA, heiress of the 
TRUSBUTS, married EVERARD DE Ros ; and, as was 
usual in the case of great heiresses, her arms were 
assumed by her descendants, and were borne with 
variations of tincture by several families of DE Ros, or 
DE ROOS, of these an example is given on Plate XXXI., 
fig. 12. The water budget is found as a charge in a 
few Scottish coats mostly of modern date, in which as 
in several modern English coats, borne by families of 
the name of ROSE, it was probably assumed without any 
other connection as associated with the name of DE Ros. 

The Lords ROSS bore : Or, a chevron cJiequy sable and 
argent between three water bougets of the second. The 
ROSES of Kilravock bear, Or, a boars head couped gules 
between tJiree water bougets sable. 

Of the equipment of a knight the shoes of his horse 
formed a very important part and we may therefore in- 
clude them in this section. A horseshoe being the 
badge of the MARSHALLS (See PLANCHE, Pursuivant, p. 
114) horseshoes were assumed as armes parlantes by 
their descendants the FERRERS who appear to have 



( 356 ) 

borne, Sable, six horseshoes argent. (Sometimes the 
colours are reversed.) Later they bore (as Earls of 
DERBY) Vaire or and gules, on a bordnre azure six Jwrse- 
shoes argent. Or, tJiree horseshoes sable, is the coat of 
STAEL and VAN DER HOVEN in Holland ; it is also 
that of FERRIER in Scotland, and forms the foundation 
of several modern grants in that country. 

The early coat of HENRI DE FERRIERES appears on 
his seal in 1205 (DEMAY, p. 205). It bears an escucheon 
with a bordure charged with six horseshoes. I have 
engraved it page 453, fig. 90. Azure, a horseshoe argent, 
is the coat of the Counts, and Princes, von TRAUTSON. 
D' Argent, a trots fers de cJieval de gueules clones d'or, is 
the coat of LA FERRIERE. FERRAGUT in Spain bears, 
Gules, a Jiorseshoe and in base a passion nail paleways or. 

It is perhaps in the Armory of the great houses of 
Poland that the horseshoe occupies the most prominent 
place. The family of the Counts DOLENGA bear: Azure, 
a horseshoe argent ensigned at the top with a small cross 
patee or; and between the branches of the shoe, an arrow in 
pale of the second flighted of the third, point in base. (Plate 
LIIL, fig. 12.) The Counts GUTAKOWSKI bear: Azure, 
between tJiree estoiles, a horseshoe argent, surmounted by a 
plume of tJiree ostrich feathers proper. The Counts de 
RYTWIANY-ZBOROWSKI, of the great family of JASTRE- 
ZEMBIEC, bore : Azure, a Jiorseshoe reversed (that is with 
the points in chief) between its branches a small cross 
pattee en abime. (It must be noticed that French 
Armory differs from our own with regard to the 
position of the horseshoe ; in our blazon the horseshoe 
is borne with the semicircular curve towards the chief, 
but in French blazon this is un fer de cheval verse.) 

The family of POBOG, bears: Azure, a horseshoe argent, 
ensigned in chief with a small cross patce or; to this 
house belong the Counts ZAPOL-ZAPOLSKI. The 
family of KRZYWDA bear the same coat, except that the 



( 357 ) 

cross patee on the horseshoe lacks its sinister arm, and 
that another gold cross patee is placed en abime. 

BREYS, or BARNACLES, a twitch to curb horses, occur 
in the arms of DE GENEVILLE, or JOINVILLE, Seigneurs 
de BROYES ; and this coat appears in several early 
English Rolls of Arms. 

Azure, tJiree breys or, on a chief argent a lion issuant 
gules. These are said to be the chief arms of the family 
(to which DE JOINVILLE the chronicler of the Crusades 
belonged). But in GLOVER'S Roll, No. 103, and Second 
Nobility Roll of EDWARD III., No. 77, this coat with a 
chief ermine is attributed to GEOFFREY DE GENEVILL. 
The Lords GENEVILE in Ireland appear to have 
borne the same, and in the Armorial de Geldre the 
chief is distinctly ermine. So also in PLANCHE'S Roll, 
and in the Rolls of the Thirteenth Century, and 
CHARLES'S Roll. SIMON DE GENEVILLE (No. 102 in 
GLOVER'S Roll) bears the coat first given, but differenced 
with the field sable. Gules, a barnacle argent, is borne 
by WYATT (Plate XXXII., fig. i). Argent, a barnacle 
sable, is the coat of BARNAKE, and of POYLE ; the first 
named also bore, Argent, three horse barnacles sable. 
Per fess gules and azure (one or) three barnacles argent, 
was another coat of WYATT, or WYOT. 

STIRRUPS are generally borne attached to a leather 
thong and buckle, as in the coat of SCUDAMORE, 
Plate XXXII., fig. 2. Gules, tJiree stirrups leathered and 
buckled or, borne by the Viscounts SCUDAMORE in 
Ireland. The GlFFORDS used the same but on an azure 
field. Gules, three stirrups leathered argent, are the 
arms of the Barons d'HEMPTINES in Belgium. 

Gules, a stirrup (without a leather) argent, is the 
coat of the herba of STRZEMIE in Poland, borne by 
the JANISZEWSKI, etc., and (within a bordure or) by the 
Counts BRZOSTOWSKI. 

CASTLES. This may be as convenient a place as any 



( 358 ) 

in which to speak of Castles and other buildings, many 
of which were of course military in their nature ; and 
are frequent Heraldic charges. The Castle is generally 
represented by an isolated wall, above which appear 
towers usually, though not invariably, three in number, 
and this fact requires specification in the blazon. 

The best known example is afforded by the armes 
parlantes of the kingdom of CASTILE, now and for many 
generations back occupying the first and fourth quarters 
in the shield of the Spanish Monarchy. They are repre- 
sented on Plate XXX 1 1., fig. 3, and are, Gules, a castle 
triple-towered or. Later refinement has specified that 
the gate, or port, is azure. By modern rules we find 
that the colour of the masoning, or marks of mortar 
between the stones, should also be indicated ; this is 
almost invariably sable, and as its mention is by no 
means general, I do not advise the student to cumber 
his blazon therewith ; though I give the example of 
Gules, a castle triple-towered argent masoned sable, which 
is the blazon of a quartering of LINDSAY for the feudal 
title of LlNDORES. Occasionally the field is thus 
masoned as in the coat of PEREZ, of Portugal, Argent, 
masoned sable a f ess gules. (Vide p. 362.) 

Gules, a castle argent, is one of the quarterings 
of M'LEOD. This was the coat of the Marquises 
of CASTILLON, and was also the bearing of the 
CASTILLES, Marquises de CHENOLSE ; and of DE CASTEL- 
LANE. It was also that of SALVIAC (First Crusade). 
Gules, a castle with two towers argent, the port and 
windows sable, are the coat of the Lordship of 
HOMBURG, quartered by the Counts of SAYN. 

The Yorkshire family of RAWSON bears: Gules, rising 
out of water in base azure a square castle in perspective, 
Jiaving at each angle a tower and cupola argent. If the 
cupolas of towers are surmounted by a vane they are 
said to \tegirouettis of such a tincture. 



PLATE XXXII. 




1. Barnacle. 
Wyatt. 




2. Stirrup. 
Scudamore. 




3. Castle. 
Castitte. 




4. Tower. 
Towers. 




5. Tower triple towered. 
Aberdeen. 




6. Castle. 
Chdtelain. 




7. Column. 
Colonna. 




8. Columns. 
Arigonio. 




9. Ladder. 
Scala. 




10. Stair. 
Gradenigo. 





11. Lymphad with Fire. 12. Lymphad under Sail. 
Lorn. Earl of Caithness. 



( 359 ) 

The French nobles used these vanes, generally banner- 
shaped and gilded and painted, or pierced, to represent 
their family arms, as a sign of their noblesse ; DU VlEUX- 
CHATEL DE KERLEORET in Brittany, bears : d'Azur, a un 
chateau cTargent girouette d'or. The CnATELAINS of 
France use : Azure, a chateau of three towers girouettes 
azure, as in Plate XXXIL, fig. 6. 

In many old representations the Heraldic Castle 
stretches across the whole field from one edge of the 
shield to the other, as still in the arms of the great 
Polish herba of GRZYMALA. (See NlESIECKI, Korona 
Polska, Warsaw, 1728-1743.) Or, a castle triple-towered 
gules, the port open, the portcullis sable (now borne, but 
not originally, on a terrace vert). These arms with slight 
variations are borne by the Counts GRZYMALA (DE 
GRUDNA-GRUDZINSKI); the Counts JABLONOWSKI; and 
the Count POTULITZ-POTULICKI. (Some add a knight in 
armour at the gate.) The Castle is thus borne in several 
City arms (e.g. those of Prague and Cracow) and in the 
bearings adopted for several of the Tuscan Comparti- 
menti (See Le Armi dei Municipj Toscani, Firenze, 1864). 

TOWERS are frequent in Armory ; and, like castles, 
are often placed upon a mount in base, or rise out of 
water, treated either naturally, or conventionally, i.e. 
Barry argent and azure. Or, a castle gules, in base the 
sea argent, is the coat of BROUCHIER of Provence ; and 
the same, but with the base wavy azure and argent, is 
borne by FERNANDES DE CASTILLO of Spain. The 
Tower is, however, often represented as an isolated 
charge, as in Plate XXXII., fig. 4, the coat of TOWERS : 
Azure, a tower or. If the tower be surmounted with 
turrets, as is often the case, the fact is mentioned. Or, 
a tower triple-towered azure, is a coat of BLUNT, or 
BLOUNT. In modern blazon the castle and tower are 
not so distinctly defined as in earlier instances. I subjoin 
examples of both bearings. Azure, fleury or, over all 



a castle argent, was borne by LA TOUR D'AuvERGNE 
(Vicomtes de TURENNE, Comtes d'AuvERGNE, Dues 
de BOUILLON, Princes de SEDAN). 

Gules, on a mount or, a tower argent, roofed azure, is the 
coat of the Bavarian Barons HARSDORF. 

Vert, a tower argent, is the coat of LESVAL in Flanders ; 
and with a chain of the last bendways over all of the 
Spanish CATENAS (vide ante, p. 353). The French 
Marquises D'APCHIER, bore : Or, a castle triple-towered 
gules, from each of the exterior towers a battle-axe 
issuant azure, the edge of each turned to the flanks of t/te 
shield. This may have been the model for the Irish 
coat of HlCKS : Argent, a tower sable, issuant from the 
top four axes two turned to the dexter, as many to the 
sinister azure. 

A rgent, a tower gules, in front of two sceptres in sallire 
azure, is the coat of the Princes von THURN. 

Azure, a tower or, is borne by CANO, Barons de 
MEGHEM ; and by the Spanish CASTELLETS ; also (with 
a naked woman issuing therefrom and holding a flower 
azure) by the Bavarian Barons von FtJRSTENWARTER. 
Azure, on a rock a castle triple-towered argent, is the coat 
of Prince POZZO DI BORGO. The arms of the city of 
EDINBURGH are : Argent, on a rock proper, a castle triple- 
towered sable, masoned of the first, topped with vanes 
gules ; the windows and portcullis closed of the last. 
In the blazon of these arms in the last edition of 
BURKE's General Armory (which had, if I mistake not, 
the supervision of the late Mr STODART, Lyon Clerk- 
Depute, so far as Scottish coats is concerned) the blazon 
is as above, except that the towers are said to be " topped 
with three fans gules " / I have ventured to turn these 
into vanes; but I have a strong suspicion that the "fans" 
of the official blazon are really only the red pointed roofs 
of the three towers, which as drawn would have some- 
what the shape of an inverted fan. The arms of the city 



of ABERDEEN as confirmed by Sir CHARLES ERSKINE, 
LYON, in 1674 are : Gules, three towers triple-towered, 
within a double tressure flory-counter-flory argent (Plate 
XXXI I., fig. 5). 

In some Irish and Spanish coats the castle is borne 
supported by two lions or other animals rampant. The 
arms borne by the O'KELLYS are : Gules, on a mount vert 
a tower supported by two lions rampant argent. A family 
of GONZALES bear : Azure, on a mound in base, a castle 
argent, supported by two lions or, a bordure engrailed of 
the last. The Portuguese CAMARA use : Sable, on a ter- 
race in base vert, a tower supported by two greyhounds 
argent ; a variation is : Sable, out of the sea in base a 
tower argent supported by two seals proper. 

In the Wappenrolle von Zurich there is given the 
curious coat of WILL : Or, on a rocky base bendways gules 
a castle azure. (No. 326.) 

It need hardly be mentioned that castles entered 
largely into the so-called arms of cities. These arms 
were usually derived from the Common Seal of the 
Burgh, on which a castle was naturally the prominent 
figure. 

The arms of HAMBURG are : Argent, on a terrace vert a 
castle triple-towered gules, the port open. Those of the city 
and Marquisate of ANTWERP are : Gules, three towers in 
triangle connected by walls argent : in chief two liuman 
right hands couped, in bend and bend sinister. To this 
was often added a chief of the Empire. 

The arms of the City of DUBLIN are : Azure, three 
towers argent inflamed proper. Gules, three towers triple- 
towered argent, is the coat of COUDENBERG, one of the 
seven patrician families of Brussels. Or, tJiree castles 
azure, is used by TORELLES of Spain. Or, five castles in 
saltire sable, within a bordure gules thereon nine saltires or, 
is borne by the PENERANDAS of Spain. Azure, three 
towers argent, is the coat of the Marquise de POMPADOUR. 



The Vicomtes von DAM in Flanders use : Per fess 
gules and sable tJiree towers argent mal ordonnes (i.e. one 
in chief and two in base). 

THE CASTLE or TOWER sometimes occurs in con- 
junction with other buildings, or with a projecting wall. 
In the Armorial de Geldre, the arms of TURPIN DE VlNAY 
are represented with "un pan de mur" stretching towards 
the sinister flank of the shield. In the later Supple- 
ment which follows M. VALLET'S edition of the Armorial 
de Berry, the coat of VlGNAY or LA TOUR DE VINAY is 
blazoned : de Gueules, a une tour d' argent, et un avant- 
mur crenele du meme (No. 1950, p. 198). Azure, a bridge 
argent supporting a castle or, is borne by PONTAUT ; this 
resembles the eighteenth century English coat of TROW- 
BRIDGE, Bart. Or, over water in base a bridge of three 
arches embattled thereon a tower proper, its flag flying 
azure charged with a cross potent of the field ; on a canton 
of the third two keys in saltire gold. 

Of bridges without castles there are a good many 
instances. The Scottish family of BRIDGE naturally 
bears : Gules, a bridge of one arch argent, streams trans- 
fluent proper. Azure, a bridge argent, is a coat of 
PlERREPONT, and (with square arches) PONTBRIANT. 
Gules, a bridge of two arches or, is borne by the Marquises 
of PONTEVES in France. Or, a bridge of three arches 
sable, is used by the Prussian BRUCKNERS. The 
Venetian Counts da PONTE carried Azure, a bridge of 
one arch with steps (? the Rialto) or. In the coat of 
REYNELL of Devon the whole field is Argent, masoned 
sable, with a chief of the second (vide ante, p. 358). 

WALLS are occasionally found alone without towers 
thus, Argent, a wall gules, is the coat of the Danish 
Counts REVENTLOW. Azure, in base a wall embattled or, 
is the coat of the Markgravate of OBER-LAUSITZ, 
quartered in the arms of the Saxon Duchies. Or, a 
broken wall in fess proper, on a cJiicf sable three escallops 



( 3^3 ) 

of tJie first, and in base a rose gules, was borne by 
GRAHAM of Inchbrakie. Of other buildings there is a 
great variety borne usually with some canting reference. 
Azure, a Jiouse argent, is the coat of CASANOVA; Gules, 
a portal or, appears for LA PORTE ; Or, a palace azure 
for DESPALAU of Spain ; PALAU has Or, a palace vert, 
a b ordure company of the colours. Gules, a church argent, 
for KlRCHNER ; Azure, a chapel or, for LA CHAPELLE. 
Gules, three single arches or, is a coat of ARCHER. Sable, 
three dove cotes argent, appears for SAPCOTE in the Visita- 
tion of Huntingdon by CAMDEN in 1613. We have one 
or two instances in which a whole town is represented. 
The arms of the Spanish Kingdom of VALENCIA are : 
Gules, a city argent. One of the quarterings granted to 
CORTEZ was : Azure, rising from a champagne barry 
wavy azure and argent, a representation of the city of 
MEXICO proper. The escucheon of PIZARRO contains 
two such coats ; one Sable, a town rising out of waves 
argent ; the other Sable, a town on an island, the spire of 
the church crowned with an Imperial crown proper: 

In contrast with these almost the slightest shelter 
possible, a mere roof supported on four posts, called in 
Polish by the name of Brog, appears in the arms of the 
illustrious Polish family of LESZCZYC ; Gules, a square 
roof or, on four posts argent, borne by the Counts 
LESZCZYC DE RADOLIN-RADOLINSKI, and by the 
Counts SUMIN-SUMINSKI. 

COLUMNS and PILLARS, are not of frequent occurrence 
as heraldic charges, but there are a few instances in 
British armory and more abroad. 

In Plate XXXII., fig. 7, are the arms of the great Roman 
family of COLONNA, Princes of PALESTRINA, Dukes of 
PALIANO, etc. ; Gules, a column argent, its base and 
capital or, surmounted by a crown of the last. This 
coat is also used by the COLONNA, Counts WALEWSKI 
of Poland. Or, a pillar sable enwrapped with an adder 



( 364 ) 

argent, is an English coat for MYNTER. Gules, a 
column crowned or, round it a serpent twined azure engoule 
of the first, is the coat of BlSClA of Rome. The same, but 
the snake replaced by a vine shoot, is borne by BAISNE 
of Provence. Azure, three pillars or, is used by the 
GASTINELS of Normandy, and Sable, three pillars, the 
centre one crowned or, by EzEL of Silesia. Or, a column 
gules between three Cornish choughs proper, is used by 
KVNDER. A Scottish coat, that of EDWARD, is, Azure, 
a fess argent, surmounted of a pillar gules issuing from 
the base wavy azure. The Cornish TREMENHEERES 
bear: Sable, three columns paleways in fess argent. The 
MAJORS of Suffolk use, Azure, three Corinthian columns 
each surmounted by a ball, two and one, argent. 

A curious Italian coat that of ARIGONIO of Rome ; 
A rgent, three columns paleways in fess supporting a lion 
passant gules, on a chief azure, an eagle displayed or, 
Plate XXXII, fig. 8. 

LADDERS in British Armory are invariably scaling 
ladders having hooks at the top of the perpendiculars. 
Argent, three scaling ladders bendways gules, is a coat of 
KlLLINGWORTH ; Or, three scaling ladders bendways 
throughout gules (that is they touch the edges of the 
shield) is borne by CHEPSTOW, otherwise SCHIPSTOW. 
The ordinary ladder without hooks appears as a canting 
charge in the coat of the Princes della SCALA, of 
Verona. Anciently they bore: Gules, a ladder of four 
steps in pale argent. The more modern coat is that 
given in Plate XXXII, fig. 9; Gules, a ladder of five 
steps in pale, supported by two greyhounds rampant argent, 
langued, collared and crowned or. 

The SCALIGERS, who pretended descent from the 
SCALA Princes, used : Or, an eagle displayed sable, 
holding in its claws a ladder of tJiree steps gules. The 
Florentine SCALI bore : Azure, a ladder in pale or, and 
another SCALA family used the reverse. 



( 365 ) 

In the Zurich Wappenrolle there is an early instance 
of the use of a ladder as a charge ; No. 430, the coat of 
WERIANT, is, Argent, a mount in base of tJiree coupeaux 
vert supporting a ladder of four steps in pale gules. Or, 
a scaling ladder in bend sable, is used by the Barons 
von LtJTZOW ; Argent, a scaling ladder gules barred or, 
is the coat of the Counts BREDOW. Gules, a ladder in 
bend or, was borne by MAYA (GOUSSENCOURT, Le 
Martyrologe des Chevaliers de S. Jean, ii., 12). 

The Barons von DONOP bear, a scaling ladder gules 
consisting of a single pole hooked at the top, and with 
traverses as steps, on a field argent. The GRADENIGHI 
of Venice appear to have borne originally, Gules, a 
ladder in bend argent, but in process of time the ladder 
has been converted into a regular stair, filled up azure ; 
as in Plate XXXII., fig. 10, the coat of the Counts GRADE- 
NIGO. In the Wappenrolle von Zurich No. 322, is the 
canting coat of LAITERBERG, Argent, two ladders in 
saltire gules. 

THE CATAPULT, or BALISTA is known in Armory by 
the old name of a swepe. I am only acquainted with 
one instance of its use. MAGNALL bears : Argent, a 
swepe azure, charged with a stone or. 

THE SLING, which was in effect a catapult on a small 
scale, occurs in the British coat of GARDEN : Sable, a 
sling between two pheons argent ; and in a very few 
foreign coats. CHARBONNEAU in France bears : de 
Gueules, a une fronde tortillee en triple sautoir d'or, mise 
en pal, chargee d'un caillou d 1 argent ; et accostee de deux 
autres de meme. 

THE PORTCULLIS or HERSE (/terse sarasine], so well 
known as a Tudor badge (v. post 596) occurs not very 
frequently as an armorial charge. Argent, a portcullis 
sable, chained proper, is a coat of REYNOLDS in England ; 
and in Scotland is recorded in WORKMAN'S MS. as the 
armes parlantes of WlNDYGATE (!) more generally borne 



( 366 ) 

as Gules, a portcullis or, which is also the coat of APEL- 
VOISIN in France (de Gueules, a une herse sarasine dor]. 

In CARR'S MS., printed as an appendix to TONGE'S 
Visitation of the County of Durham (Surtees Society) 
is the coat of ROBERT LEWEN, Sheriff of Newcastle : 
Argent, a bend bretesse gules, over all a portcullis in chief 
azure. Here the portcullis is not an isolated charge, 
but it occupies the whole chief with its two horizontal 
and five vertical bars, the latter ending in spikes. 

In later times CANNON, and other fire-arms, have 
found their way into the list of Armorial charges. 
Argent, a culverin in fess sable, is the coat of LEIGH. 
LEVERSAGE bears : Gules, tJiree lions heads erased argent, 
in the centre a matchlock or. MARCHAL DE SAINCY uses : 
Azure, on a mound argent flory vert, a cannon mounted 
proper. Gules, three cannon fessways in pale argent, is 
the coat of GUNNING. Gules, six cannon mounted acules 
2, 2, 2, argent, are the arms assigned to the Province of 
GUIPUSCOA in Spain. 

The coat of arms granted in 1864 to JOHAN NICOLAS 
DREYSE, inventor of the needle gun, is interesting though 
not a good specimen of heraldic skill : Gules, two needle 
guns in saltire proper, surmounted by an escucheon of tlie 
Prussian arms. In base an old-fasJiioned musket proper. 
On a chief azure the rising sun irradiated or. 





FIG. 75. 



FIG. 70. 



( 36? ) 

SHIPS occur in Armory first on the semi-heraldic 
seals of maritime burghs. In early examples they 
are usually of the fishing boat type, with a single 
mast carrying a large square sail, either furled or 
set. The Lymphad, or ancient galley, thus equipped, 
and also furnished with oars, is a characteristic and 
important bearing in the early heraldry of Scotland, 
especially in the arms of the families of the Hebrides 
and Western coast. It is frequently carved on the 
crosses and memorial slabs of lona and the Western 
coast (See Figs. 75 and 76 from Sculptured Monuments 
of lona and the West Highlands, by JAMES DRUMMOND, 
R.S.A., Plates XVII., XXV., XXXV., XXXVI, etc.). 

In all these examples the boat is of one type, single 
masted, apparently undecked, and having the high prow 
and stern characteristic of the Viking age. (See the 
Bayeux Tapestry, and the engravings of the chapter on 
War Ships in DU CHAILLU'S Viking Age, vol. ii.) 

On a seal of ANGUS OF THE ISLES of the year 1292, 
appended to a Homage Deed in the Chapter House at 
Westminster, the lymphad, or galley with furled sail, 
appears, but is not included in a shield (LAING, Scottish 
Seals, i. No. 79). The seal of ALEXANDER, Lord of the 
ISLES and Earl of ROSS, in 1338 has a shield borne on 
the breast of an eagle displayed, and charged 1st and 
4th with a galley under sail ; 2 and 3 with the arms of 
the Earldom of ROSS (Gules, three lions rampant argent). 
(LAING, ii., No. 537.) On the handsome seal of ALEX- 
ANDER, Lord of the ISLES and Earl of ROSS, the shield 
is thus charged : i. A galley surmounted by an eagle 
displayed (Lordship of the ISLES) ; 2. ROSS, as above ; 
3. Azure, three garbs or (BuCHAN) ; 4. On a bend between 
six cross lets, tJiree buckles for LESLIE, all the quarters 
within a Royal Tressure (LAING, i., No. 451, Plate XII., 
fig. 6). In the seal of JOHN, Lord of the ISLES and Earl of 
ROSS in 1454, ROSS and the ISLES are quartered within 



( 368 ) 

the Tressure, precedence being given to the Earldom 
(LAING, ii., No. 452, Plate XII., fig. 4). On a later seal 
of the same person in 1476, after his resignation of the 
Earldom of ROSS, the galley alone appears and is sur- 
mounted by an eagle displayed, all within the tressure. 
In no later representation of the galley of LORN, or of 
the Lord of the ISLES is it represented under sail. It is 
often drawn with sail furled, and oars in action ; but 
sometimes as at anchor, with the oars in saltire across 
the mast ; sometimes with no visible oars, and with 
flames in the crow's nest at the top of the mast. (This 
is sometimes, but without any reason at all, called " St. 
Anthony's fire" probably it was only the beacon intended 
to mark out the position of the chief's galley.) This is 
represented in Plate XXXII., fig. 11, a coat of LORN. 
The Lords of LORN claimed seniority to the Lords of 
the ISLES in descent from SOMERLED ; and their arms 
(generally considered feudal rather than arms of descent) 
are quartered by the families of ARGYLL and BREADAL- 
BANE in the simpler form, i.e., the galley alone without 
the eagle displayed. The Earls of ATHOLE and of 
ARGYLL have borne the coat somewhat differently ; 
ATHOLE had Argent (or more generally Or), a lymphad 
sable with fire at the top of the mast ; ARGYLL bore 
more generally, Argent, a lymphad, sails furled and oars 
in action sable, flags flying gules. 

A similar coat to the last was quartered by the HAMIL- 
TONS as the feudal arms of ARRAN after they became 
Earls of that island. The old feudal coats of the Earl- 
doms of ORKNEY and CAITHNESS also consisted of a 
ship, or lymphad, of different tinctures, which we find 
marshalled in different ways in the coat of the SlNCLAiRS 
after they came into possession of the latter Earldom 
and resigned the former. 

On the seal of JOHN, Earl of CAITHNESS in 1292, 
the galley is represented without a sail, and is sur- 



( 369 ) 

rounded by the Royal Tressure. (LAING, Scottish Seals, 
i., No. 149.) On that of HENRY SINCLAIR, Earl of 
ORKNEY, 1407, the shield is: Quarterly ist and 4th 
(Argent) a cross engrailed (sable] for SINCLAIR ; 2nd and 
3rd (Azure] a galley with sails furled (or) no tressure, for 
ORKNEY (LAING, i., No. 745). The coat of CAITHNESS : 
A sure, a lympJiad or, under sail argent, is given in Plate 
XXXII., fig. 1 2. The seal of AGNES, Countess of BOTH- 
WELL, daughter of HENRY, Lord SINCLAIR, in 1564, 
bore : Quarterly ist and 4th a galley within the Royal 
Tressure ; 2nd and 3rd a galley under sail ; over all, in 
an escucheon en surtout, the engrailed cross of SINCLAIR 
(LAING, ii., 907). The seal of Bishop THOMAS MURRAY 
of CAITHNESS (1348-1360) has on it a shield containing 
a lymphad within a tressure (LAING, ii., 1094). The 
modern arms of the Earls of CAITHNESS combine both 
the coats given above : Quarterly, i, the galley at rest, 
oars in saltire, within the tressiire ; 2 and 3, Or, a lion 
rampant gules, SPAR ; 4, the galley under sail. The quarters 
are divided by the engrailed cross sable of SINCLAIR 
(vide infra, Chap. XV., page 511, and Plate XLIIL). 

On the seal of EDWARD PLANTAGENET, Earl of 
RUTLAND, Admiral of ENGLAND, 1395, the ship, of one 
mast, bears a sail charged with his arms : Per pale (a) 
the arms of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR differenced by a 
label of three points ; (b) FRANCE ANCIENT quartering 
ENGLAND, differenced by a label of five points (vide 
p. 474). I have engraved the ship from DEMAY on 
Plate XXXV., fig. 4. The Arms of the City of PARIS are 
Gules, a galley under sail argent, on a chief azure three 
fleurs-de-lis or. 

Boats, and ships fully rigged, with three masts, occur 
in late coats. Argent, a three-masted galley, sails furled 
sable, is the coat of MEARES ; and Azure, a three-masted 
galley, sails furled or, flags gules, that of JoWETT. 

Argent, a boat sable, with two paddles or, occurs in the 

2 B 



( 370 ) 

Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 43 5 , for OBERREIDERN. The 
Danish families of BOTH and BOTHMER bear : Argent, a 
boat, the former gules, the latter sable ; but the coat of 
the Counts BOTHMAR in Germany is : Azure, a boat 
argent. Gules, a boat or is borne by the Polish Jierba 
of LODZIA, of which are the Counts LoDZIA, the Counts 
SZOLDRSKI, and the Princes PONIN-PONINSKI. The 
Princes GlOVANELLl in Austria use : Gules, on a sea 
in base azure a boat argent, tJierein two young rowers 
ppr. Gules, on a sea azure a ship with three sails argent, 
on each a cross of the field, is the coat of the Counts 
HENNIN of Baden. The Danish Counts STRUENSEE 
bore : Argent, on the sea a ship proper flying Danish flags, 
all within a b ordure or. Or, three boats in pale sable 
(sometimes manned) is a coat of BAAD in Denmark, 
and the French ALLEMANDS bore : Azure, tJiree ships or, 
rigged, etc., argent. 

THE ANCHOR, though frequently found as an armorial 
charge in British Heraldry, is not remarkably more 
frequent in it than in the coats of other nations, some 
of which have no sea-board. 

Azure, an anchor argent, is borne by OFFER in 
Scotland, by LANGLOIS in Bavaria, OESTERREICH in 
Pomerania, and PlOT in Dauphiny. The Barons von 
LUDERITZ of Prussia use : Argent, an anchor bendways 
gules, the flukes in chief. Or, an anchor sable, is the coat 
of CHAPPELL in England, of CROELS in Brabant, of 
GROONENDYCK and POLANEN of Holland, and the 
Barons van der HOOP (the last of course is a canting 
coat on the anchor as the emblem of Hope). Argent, 
two anchors in saltire sable, on a chief azure three mullets 
or, was borne by the Comtes de ST. CRICQ in France. 
Or, three anchors in pairle sable (without rings), is the 
Dutch coat of BON. 

Azure, on a bend argent three anchors sable, is used by 
LANSER of Luxemburg. Sable, a chevron between three 



anchors or, are the armes parlantes of ANCRAM. Argent, 
a fess wavy between tJiree anchors azure, is a coat of 
JAMIESON. The Greek family of ZALLONI bear : Or, a 
Greek cross gules between four anchors sable. 

We ought not to pass from things nautical without 
recording that Noah's Ark is found as the charge of 
several foreign coats. Azure, on waves in base NoaJis 
Ark, surmounted by the dove volant bearing an olive leaf 
proper is the coat of the French family of L'ARCHEL. 
The Sicilian family of BONO have a coat which shows 
the charge under other circumstances ; Azure, on a mount 
in base the Ark of Noah or, surmounted by a rainbow or, 
gules, vert, azure, and argent. The Polish clan of KORAB 
bear : Gules, the Ark of Noah, prow and poop ending in 
lion's heads, the ark having also a tower {!\ as such it is 
borne by OSTROWSKI, BOGUSLAWSKI, FALEBOWSKI, etc. 

Of the useof things ECCLESIASTICAL as heraldic charges, 
the best examples are found in the arms used for Episco- 
pal Sees, and other ecclesiastical foundations. In them 
naturally the pallium, the mitre, the pastoral-staff, or 
crozier, the sword of St. Paul, the keys of St. Peter, 
occur with considerable frequency. The Arms of the 
See of LONDON have already been given (p. 346 ante) ; 
those of the See of EXETER : Gules, the keys of St. Peter 
in saltire or, wards in chief, surmounted by the sword of 
St. Paul in pale proper, Jiilted gold, are depicted in Plate 
XXXIII., fig. 6. 

But these ecclesiastical charges appear also in personal 
arms. A rgent, a crozier, or pastoral staff, in pale sable, is 
the coat of the Scottish M'LAURINS, who claim descent 
from an Abbot of Achtow, in Balquidder. (See SKENE, 
Celtic Scotland, iii., 343-4.) BENOIT in Dauphiny bears, 
Gules, a pastoral staff argent. The Breton DES AUBRAIS, 
use Gules, three croziers or. As a canting charge the 
crozier appears naturally in several Swiss and German 
coats of families of BlSCHOFF, e.g., those of Basel use : 



( 372 ) 

Azure, a crozier or; a family of this name from the same 
city now settled in England uses, Argent, on a pile sable 
a crozier or (this coat is often found blazoned : Sable, a 
crozier or, the field cJiape-ploye argent (vide ante, p. 88). 

The Dutch family of PABST bear : Gules, tJie papal tiara 
proper. Another in Germany uses the same, but with 
the field sable. The VAN DER HELLEN have a coat 
which we should be inclined to pronounce decidedly that 
of some ecclesiastical foundation : Azure, a chevron 
between three chalices or, each surmounted by the Sacred 
wafer. The Kingdom of GALICIA, in SPAIN, has as its 
armes parlantes: Azure, crusily (or between six cross- 
lets) a monstrance (originally a covered chalice) or. 

The family of ARRAS uses : Gules, a church candlestick 
or. GlSSEY in France bears : Gules, three such candle- 
sticks, each surmounted by an estoile, or. Or, tJiree candle- 
sticks sable, is the Scottish coat of KYLE, but whether 
these are ecclesiastical or secular I have no means of 
determining. Gules, a lighted candle proper, guttering on 
the sinister side, is the coat of BERNALEZ in Spain. 

The family of LE SENS, Marquises de MORSAN in 
Normandy, naturally use : Gules, a chevron between three 
censers or. 

There is one charge of considerable importance in 
Foreign Heraldry which is ecclesiastical in its origin, viz., 
the GONFANON, or church banner. This is a square or 
oblong piece of stuff with triple pendants. Unlike the 
military banner, which was simply a square flag nailed by 
one of its sides to a lance or staff, the gonfanon, or church 
banner, was furnished with rings sewn on its upper edge, 
and was suspended from a cross beam. 

It appears generally in the arms of families who were 
the avoues, or advocati, of bishoprics and other ecclesi- 
astical foundations, who administered civil justice, and 
led to war the military contingent which under the 
feudal system these foundations had to provide. The 



( 373 ) 

Wappenrolle von Zurich of the I4th century (the most 
important of continental armorials) gives five examples 
of the use of this bearing on Plate VI., Nos. 128-132. 
WERDENBERG : Argent, a gonfanon sable, fringed or. 
VELKIERCH (FELDKIRCH), and CHUR, both: Or, a gon- 
fanon gules. TETNANG : Argent, a gonfanon gules; and 
ASPERG : Gules, a gonfanon or. (I have figured the 
charge on Plate XLV., fig. 3, from the Zurich Roll.} 

The best known example of this charge is found in 
the coat borne by the Counts of AUVERGNE, of whom 
ROBERT V. became Count of BOLOGNE or BOUILLON in 
1260, in right of his mother ALICE, who was daughter 
of HENRY I., Duke of BRABANT, by MATHILDE DE 
BOULOGNE. They bore : Or, a gonfanon ringed gules, 
fringed vert (Salle des Croises at Versailles). (In 
the Armorial de Geldre, the horizontal piece is 
reduced to a mere strip from which hang three broad 
pendants.) A legend, which appears to be entirely 
without foundation, ascribes the origin of this bearing in 
the arms of the Counts of BOULOGNE to a consecrated 
banner which was said to have been sent by the Pope to 
a brother of GODFREY DE BOUILLON. The true origin 
is that already suggested above. 

Azure, a gonfanon or, is the coat assigned in SlEB- 
MACHER, Wappenbuch, iii., 12 to the Counts of HERREN- 
BERG. Argent, a gonfanon gules, its rings or, were the 
arms of the Counts of MONTFORT of the Holy Roman 
Empire. (MONTFORT and FELDKIRCH are coupled 
together under this blazon in the modern ecu complet of 
the Austrian Empire. See p. 499.) 

BELLS. The bells which appear as heraldic charges 
are supposed to have an ecclesiastical origin ; and, 
indeed, are usually blazoned " Church-bells," to distin- 
guish them from the grelots, or hawk-bells, to which 
allusion has already been made. Argent, three bells 
azure, is the family coat of the poet WORDSWORTH. 



( 374 ) 

Sable, tJiree church-bells argent (sometimes with a canton 
ermine), is borne by several families named PORTER. 
BELL in Scotland ; BRUMMER of Esthonia ; BELS of 
Flanders ; HAMING, and DE BEYER of Holland ; all 
use Azure, three bells or. Or, tJiree bells sable, is the coat 
attributed to the Byzantian COMNENI. Per fess azure 
and or three bells counter- changed, are the armes parlantes 
of the Bavarian KLOCKEL. Sable, a chevron ermine 
between three church-bells argent, is the coat of BELL in 
England. 

In Continental Armory the clapper of the bell is very 
often of a different tincture. In French blazon the term 
employed to denote this is bataille. The Comtes de 
BELLEGARSE bore : d'Azur, a la cloche d' argent, bataillee 
de sable. Argent, a bell azure, the clapper of the field, is 
the canting coat of CLOCK, in Holland. 

SCOURGES. The BATTUTI of Bologna have as armes 
parlantes the following bearings, which may, I suppose, 
be included among ecclesiastical charges: Argent, a 
bend azure between two scourges gules, each of four cords 
ending in little spiked balls, or. 

CARDINAL'S HAT. Argent, a cardinal's hat, its strings 
now ed gules, is the coat formerly assigned to SCLAVONIA, 
or the WlNDlSCHE-MARK ; as now borne in the Austrian 
Acu Complet it is $ not a cardinal's hat properly so called, 
i.e., one entirely of red ; but a flat ecclesiastical hat of 
black, edged and tied with crimson. The Dutch VAN 
GOGH use ; Argent, three cardinal's hats gules; and the 
Belgian DE BORMANS have the same on a field or. The 
Florentine CAPPELLI bear, Or, a cardinal's hat gules. 
Argent, aflat hat gules, its strings twisted of the same and 
or is borne by N AIMER, and NEU MAYER, in Bavaria, and 
is I suppose intended as the cardinal's hat. Argent, 
three flat Jiats stringed in pale gules, is the coat of 
H6LTSLER. 

THE PALLIUM, or PALL, an ecclesiastical vestment, 



( 375 ) 

the use of which is almost entirely confined to Arch- 
bishops, appears in the arms of the Sees of CANTER- 
BURY (Plate XVI., fig. 11), ARMAGH, and DUBLIN; 
and in those of the French See of EMBRUN. Formerly 
it was also the principal charge of the See of YORK. 

PILGRIM'S STAVES and SCRIPS may be considered 
to come under the category of ecclesiastical charges. 
Argent, three bourdons, or pilgrim's staves, gules (often in 
pile) appear in early Rolls of Anns (e.g.,'m HARL. MS. ,65 89, 
JENYN'S collection) for BURDON. Azure, three pilgrim 's 
staves or, is another coat of this name ; and is also the 
canting coat of PILGRIM. 

The French family of BOURDON DU PLESSIS, uses : 
Sable, three pilgrim's staves paleways, two and one, or. 
The connection with the name is pretty clear in the 
coat of TROTTIER of France ; Azure, tJiree pilgrim's 
staves or, attached to each an escallop gules. The Low 
Country family of STEPS also bears another BOURDON 
coat : Gules, tJiree bourdons or. 

As to the PILGRIM'S SCRIP, or WALLET, this is used 
by ROMIEU ; Or, a pilgrim's scrip azure, tJiereon an 
escallop argent; and the English family of PALMER 
carries : Argent, a chevron between tJiree palmer's scrips 
sable, garnished or. Another family of this name unites 
both staves and scrips ; Argent, a chevron vert between 
three palmers scrips and staves sable garnished or, is the 
coat of the Irish PALMERS (Baronets). 

The multitude of articles used in domestic life which 
appear in our own Armory, and the still wider range 
taken in Foreign Heraldry, will permit of only a few 
being mentioned in a work of this limited magnitude ; 
and a selection must therefore be made of such as 
appear to have some special claim to notice. Nearly 
every culinary or domestic vessel, for instance, appears 
in one or other foreign or British coat ; usually, of 
course, these charges have been adopted as armes par- 



( 376 ) 

lantes, when even a remote connection could be traced 
between their names and the designation of the bearers. 

First of all we will take articles of dress. 

Plate XXX 1 1 1., fig. i, is the coat of HASTINGS, Earls 
of HUNTINGDON, Argent, a maunch sable ; Azure, a 
maunch or, is that of CONYERS. This bearing is known 
in French blazon as une mancJie mal-taillee, it is really 
only the long hanging sleeve of a mediaeval female robe, 
and mal-taillee is only a synonym for old - fashioned. 
There is a good deal of latitude in the way in which 
maunches are represented ; but, as Mr. PLANCH^ 
remarks, "this charge, however extravagantly drawn, 
cannot exceed the absurdity of the fashion it commemo- 
rates." Or, a maunch gules, is also a HASTINGS coat 
and was borne by the Earls of PEMBROKE. HENRY DE 
HASTINGS, No. 146, in GLOVER'S Roll, also bears this in 
Roll of Arms of Antiquarian Society, No. 77 ; and RAUF 
THONEY, No. 79, with the field argent. WILLIAM 
DE MOHUN : Gules, a maunch argent and label azure, is 
No. 156 of ST. GEORGE'S Roll. Other HASTINGS bore : 
Argent, a fess gules between three maunches sable. 
Argent, a chevron between three maunches sable, is the 
coat of MANSEL. (For MOHUN see under MARSHAL- 
LING, p. 458 infra^} Sable, a maunch argent, was borne 
by THOMAS WHARTON, Governor of Carlisle, created 
Lord WHARTON in 1544 by HENRY VIII., who also gave 
him, as an armorial augmentation, a bordure or charged 
with eight pairs of lion's paws saltire-ways erased gules 
(the paws of the Scottish lion !) in memory of his bravery 
and skill against the Scottish forces at Solway Moss. 

This charge is very rarely found except in British 
Armory, where it appears as early as the I3th century ; 
I have, however, noted a few foreign examples. The 
Poitevin family DE LA COSTE uses : de Gueules, a la 
nianche mal-taillee cTor. CONDE" DE COERNEY in Cham- 
pagne, bears : Or, three maunches gules. 



PLATE XXXIII. 




1. Maunch. 
Hastings. 





2. Buckles. 3. Buckles, Lozenge-shaped . 

Leslie. Jerningham. 




4. Ducal Crowns. 
See of Ely. 



7. Covered Cups. 
Schaw. 




10. Hunting-torn. 
Hunter. 




5. Antique Crowns. 
Grant. 



8. Caldrons. 
Guzman. 




11. Clarion. 
Granville. 




6. Keys. 
See of Exeter. 




9. Cushions. 
Randolph. 




12. Words. 
Mendosa. 



( 377 ; 

BUCKLES (fermaux] occur in England as early as 
CHARLES'S Roll, and are supposed to have a military 
as well as a civil significance. There is some diversity 
in the mode of drawing this charge ; the best known is 
that in which they are borne in the Scottish coats of 
LESLIE and STIRLING: Argent, on a bend azure three 
buckles or, Plate XXXIIL, fig. 2. (See also Plate 
XLIL, fig. 4.) The buckles in the arms of JERNING- 
HAM are lozenge-shaped, and are depicted in Plate 
XXXIIL, fig. 3 : Argent, three lozenge-shaped arming- 
buckles gules. The buckles in Continental Armory are 
generally of the lozenge shape. Sable, a lozenge- 
shaped buckle argent, is the coat of Baron von SCHMID- 
BURG in Bohemia. The Prussian Counts WALLENRODT 
use : Gules, a lozenge-shaped buckle argent, the tongue 
broken in the middle. A similar coat, but with the 
lower part of the charge curved into a semi-circle, is also 
borne by several families of ZEDLITZ, Barons and Counts 
in Austria and Prussia. 

One of the best known instances of the buckle as a 
heraldic charge is afforded by the arms of PELHAM : 
Gules, two half-belts palewise in fess, the buckles in chief 
argent. This coat was assumed by Sir JOHN DE PEL- 
HAM to commemorate his share in the capture of King 
JOHN of France, in the battle of Poitiers. It was also 
used as a badge by the PELHAMS, Earls of CHICHES- 
TER, etc. Gules, three round buckles argent, are the early 
arms of ROCELINE or ROSSELYN (temp. EDWARD I.). 

The buckle is used in several Scottish coats as a 
difference to indicate a LESLIE or STIRLING connection. 
The STIRLINGS bore Argent, on a bend (engrailed) sable 
(or azure] three buckles or: in 1292 the buckles were 
borne on a chief. Sir JOHN DE STRYVELIN in 1342 
bore: Argent, on a chief gules three buckles or (See TJie 
Stirlings of Keir ; priv. print, 1858 ; and STODART, 
Scottish Arms, ii., pp. 80, 81). 



( 378 ) 

CUSHIONS have become important in the Heraldry of 
Scotland from having been, as far back as the thirteenth 
century, the bearings in the coat of the family of RAN- 
DOLPH (more correctly RANULF) who became Earls of 
MORAY in 1312. In the earliest RANULF seal, circa 
1280 (LAING, Scottish Seals, i., No. 688), the cushions are 
of a square shape, with a point uppermost and without 
tassels, and may therefore be better designated pillows, 
or oreillers, as pROISSART terms them, and as they are 
styled in CHARLES'S Roll. BRUCE's famous comrade 
in arms, and nephew, got the Royal Tressure as an 
honourable addition to his coat ; and these bearings : 
Argent^ three cushions lozengeways within a double tres- 
sure flory-counter-flory gules, which appear on the seal of 
THOMAS Earl of MORAY in 1314 (Scottish Seals, i., 690) 
(Plate XXXI II., fig. 9), were inherited by the DUNBARS, 
Earls of MORAY (Scottish Seals, i., 196, 297), the heirs 
of line of the RANULPH family; and continued to be 
borne by the descendants (illegitimately) of those Earls, 
the DUNBARS of Westfield, sometimes to the exclusion 
of their ancestral coat of DUNBAR. (See STODART, 
Scottish Anns, ii., 9-12.) Earls of MORAY of a later 
and distant lineage have since borne the cushions within 
the tressure as the feudal arms of their Earldom ; but in 
later times with the field Or instead of Argent. 

Cushions appear in the arms of other noble Scottish 
families including those of the JOHNSTONS, who bear 
the ANNANDALE saltire and chief, the latter charged 
with three cushions (not however placed lozengeways) 
in respect of their supposed connection, feudally or 
otherwise, with the RANDOLPHS (vide ante, p. 145). 

Gules, three square cushions argent (afterwards tasselled 
or), were the arms of GREYSTOCK, Barons of GREYSTOCK, 
1306. PLANCHE, Pursuivant, thinks that these cushions 
(carreaux) came from the family of CARRO, RANULPH 
DE GREYSTOCK having purchased from the King the 



( 379 ) 

wardship and marriage of the heiress. " De goules a trois 
horeillers d'or is in GLOVER'S Roll for REDMAIN ; and 
in CHARLES'S Roll, Argent, tJiree pillows gules, is the 

COat Of WUNHALE. 

CROWNS and CORONETS, as ensigns of dignity and 
external ornaments of the escucheon, fall to be noticed 
in a subsequent chapter. The kind which appears 
most frequently as an armorial charge is the mediaeval 
open-crown ; a circlet of gold with four foliations (three 
of which are visible, an entire one in the centre, two 
others in profile, or only half visible, one on either side 
of it), these foliations are vulgarly called " strawberry 
leaves," and the crown itself is often styled " a ducal 
coronet," though erroneously, since there is in it no 
reference to ducal or other titular rank. 

Three such crowns appear in the arms of the See of 
ELY, Gules, three open croivns or, the mythical coat of ST. 
ETHELREDA (Plate XXXIII., fig. 4). And these bearings 
are used by ESSCHEDE of Holland, and JAGENSDORFF 
of Bavaria. A curious coat is that of DU FAURE, in 
France ; Azure, tJiree open crowns enfiling a bend of the 
field. Argent, tJiree open crowns gules, is borne by 
KONINCK of the Netherlands, and in the arms of the 
kingdom of SWEDEN : Azure, tJiree open crowns or, 
where they are often, but mistakenly, asserted to indicate 
the former union of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, 
SWEDEN, NORWAY, and DENMARK. (On this see 
ScriEFFER, de Antiquis verisque Regni Suecice Insignibus; 
Holmiae, 1678 ; and HlLDEBRAND : Det Svenska Riks- 
vapnet, 1883.) Sable, tliree open crowns in pale or, are the 
arms of the See of BRISTOL. Per pale or and gules, two open 
crowns counter changed, is the coat of CEPEDES of Spain. 

The EASTERN, or ANTIQUE, CROWN, is drawn like 
the corona radiata of classic times, usually with eight 
pointed rays (of which five are visible) proceeding from 
a golden circlet (Plate L., fig. 13). The Scottish 



family of GRANT, now represented by the Earl of 
SEAFIELD, bears : Gules, tJiree antique crowns or (Plate 
XXXIIL, fig. 5). 

Azure, an antique crown of five rays (i.e. of five visible 
rays) or, is the coat of MALCHUS, Counts of MARIEN- 
RODE in Wlirttemberg. 

A ROYAL CROWN, that is a floriated circle closed by 
bands of gold gemmed and surmounted by an orb and 
cross, appears occasionally as an armorial charge. The 
arms of the Spanish kingdom of TOLEDO are, Azure, a 
royal crown or, the cap is gules. These are also the 
annes parlantes of KONIG in Bavaria. Gules, an Imperial 
crown proper, is borne by LANDESCRON, and Gules, 
the crown of CHARLEMAGNE (fig. 97, p. 617) proper, by 
KAISER. This coat was also borne en surtout by the 
Electors of HANNOVER for their dignity of Arch- 
Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire : as such it 
appears in the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom as 
used by the five Sovereigns of the House of HANNOVER. 
KEYSER bears the same but the field is azure. Azure, a 
coronet enfiling a sceptre proper, is the coat of the Barons 
KONIG of Wiirttemberg. 

SCEPTRES. Azure, two sceptres in saltire or, was 
borne by the Princes of HOHENZOLLERN en surtout, as 
the ensign of their office of Arch-Chamberlain of the 
Holy Roman Empire. The same coat forms the first 
and fourth quarters of the arms of the Barons von 
SONDERNDORFF, and is also borne by the WESTHOFENS 
of Liibeck. 

The Princes of THURN and TAXIS have en surtout, 
for the first of their principalities, the following coat : 
Argent, two sceptres in saltire azure, over all a tower 
gules, the port of the second. 

THE ORB OF SOVEREIGNTY, Or, on a field gules, was 
the badge of the Electoral dignity attached to the 
PALATINATE of the RHINE. Azure, an orb argent, 



banded and surmounted by the cross or, is the coat of the 
Marquises de MUN. Or, an orb azure ensigned of 
the field, was used by QUAEDBACH of Liege : the family 
of VERSCHOW bear the curious coat: Argent, an orb 
reversed azure, ensigned or. 

STAVES. The Irish USHERS use : Azure, a chevron 
ermine between tJiree batons or rods or. The ULSTER 
King of Arms of that name, in 1588, appears to have 
borne : Gules, three batons paleways or. 

CUPS. As allusive to their name and office the 
BUTLERS of ORMONDE, etc., quartered with their 
personal arms (Or, a chief indented azure] the coat : 
Gules, three covered cups or. A Portuguese family of 
BOTILHER, combines these bearings. It uses : Gules, 
two covered cups or, and a chief per fess indented or and 
azure. A German descent is attributed to it (but I think 
it is clear from the arms erroneously), in the rare work 
La NobiliarcJiia Portugueza of M. A. MONTEIRO DE 
CAMPOS, 1754, p. 248. " BOTILHER, Sao Alemaes e por 
allusao ao appelido, trazem por armas em campo ver- 
inelho duas copas de ouro cubertas, e hu chefe endentado 
de ouro, e azul." Bishop BUTLER of BRISTOL, and of 
DURHAM, the author of the Analogy, bore : Argent, three 
covered cups in bend sable between two cotices engrailed 
gules. The BUTLERS, Earls of LANESBOROUGH, make 
all the charges sable. Gules, tJiree covered cups argent, 
was the ancient coat of D'ARGENTINE ; and the SCHAWS, 
or SHAWS, of Sauchie bore : Azure, three covered cups or, 
Plate XXXIIL, fig. 7. The LAURIES of Maxwelltown 
used : Sable, a cup argent, issuing therefrom a garland 
between two laurel branches all proper. This seems to be 
derived from an older coat given by PONT and 
PORTEOUS, Sable, a garland ^vitJl an open cup resting on 
tJie upper part of it argent (See STODART, Scottish Arms, 
ii., pp. 198, 403). The Neapolitan Princes PlGNATELLI 
(to which house Pope INNOCENT XII. belonged) bear : 



( 3S2 ) 

Or, three pots with handles sable (those in chief affrontes}. 
These are pignates, and, of course, allusive to the name. 
The CANNEGIETER of Holland bear a similar coat, but 
\h& pignates are gules. Analogous to these is the cant- 
ing coat of the BlGCHlERl of Verona who use: Argent, 
a fess gules between three drinking glasses half -filled with 
red wine proper. The Vicomtes CROESEN of Flanders 
bear : Sable, three chevrons between as many goblets argent, 
but the family of CROESEN of Holland uses : Azure, a 
chevron between three goblets bottoms upward. (Are 
these punning coats from the French griser?} The Mar- 
quises FlASCHI naturally bear : Gules, a flask argent. 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS have, indeed, no direct rela- 
tion to the preceding charges, yet there may be some 
appropriateness in including them here. Not a few of 
them are found represented in both British and Foreign 
Armory. The Violin " the Queen of musical instru- 
ments," is borne allusively by the English SWEETINGS : 
Gules, three violins transposed (i.e. head downwards) 
argent, stringed sable. This is also the coat of the Dutch 
Barons von SwiETEN. The Barons von der HOUVEN in 
Rhenish Prussia bear : Argent, three violins necks upwards 
or (notice les annes fausses) as a variation from the 
ordinary family of the same name who bear: Argent, 
tJiree violins sable, stringed or, necks in base. To the 
Italian family of VlOLA is attributed the following coat : 
Azure, a violin or, crossed by its bow in bend sinister 
proper. In the Wappenrolle von Zurich No. 212 is the 
coat of the old family of WlLDENFlNGEN : Argent, three 
viols transposed gules, corded sable (the viols have very 
short necks after the fashion of the time fourteenth 
century). The Scottish family of SUTTIE of Inveresk 
use : Azure, three viols transposed argent, stringed sable. 

THE LUTE naturally figures in armes parlantes, being 
borne by LUETTE in Brittany : d'Azur, a un luth d'or, 
pose en bande, accompagne de deux mains d* argent. A 



modern family of LAUTZ in Silesia has had a grant of 
Azure, a lyre argent in bend, stringed or, all within a 
b ordure of the last. 

The Bolognese LlRONl use : Azure, a violoncello in 
bend-sinister, crossed by its bow in pale ; in chief three 
mullets, all or. The Swiss family VON STAIN bears : 
Gules, a mandoline transposed in bend argent. In France, 
GuiTTARDT, and GuiTTON, both use : Gules, a guitar or. 

DRUMS. The family of BUBNA in Bohemia (Counts 
since 1644) had as their ancestral coat a cymbal, but 
now bear : Gules, a drum bendways proper ; while the 
French TABOUROTS use : Sable, a chevron between three 
drums fessways argent. THIMUS of Liege has : Gules, a 
tambourine or. 

CYMBALS (or SHAWMS) are the natural armorial 
property of SCHAUMANN of Prussia. Gules, a cymbal of 
bronze, supported by an iron leg proper. (This is a very 
modern invention.) 

HARPS. The best known example of the use of this 
instrument in British Armory is, of course, the coat now 
borne in the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom for 
IRELAND. Azure, a harp or, stringed argent. There has 
been some little uncertainty as to the exact time, and 
the reason, of the adoption of this coat as the National 
arms. RICHARD II. granted to ROBERT DE VERE, 
Marquess of DUBLIN, and Duke of IRELAND, as an 
augmentation to his arms a coat Azure, tJiree crowns or, 
(witJiin a bordure argent). The three crowns in pale 
appear on the Irish coins of HENRY V. and his 
successors ; and, without the bordure, were the well 
known arms assigned by early Heralds to ST. EDMUND 
of Wessex ; and it is not clear why the bearings were 
considered appropriate to IRELAND. But it is certain that 
previous to this date Ireland had no other well deter- 
mined armorial ensign, otherwise it, and not this coat, 
would naturally have been assigned to the royal favourite. 



( 3*4 ) 

HENRY VIII. substituted the present harp for the 
crowns upon his coinage, probably in consequence of his 
having received from the Pope a harp said to be that of 
BRIAN BOROIHME : but he did not use the harp in his 
armorial bearings. In 1552, EDWARD VI. created a 
King of Arms for Ireland, by the title of ULSTER ; and 
the harp formed one of the charges in the arms and 
badge assigned to the new official. None of the Tudor 
sovereigns quartered any arms for IRELAND, though all 
used the harp on their Irish coins. The Irish harp 
crowned, appears as a badge on ELIZABETH'S second 
Great Seal (1586-1603). (British Museum Catalogue 
of Seals, vol. i., No. 990.) On her silver coinage for 
Ireland the escucheon contains three harps, perhaps for 
the three districts of LEINSTER, MUNSTER, and CON- 
NAUGHT, but at her funeral there was carried the 
Banner of Ireland, Azure, a harp, crowned with an open 
crown or, and stringed argent. JAMES I. adopted this, 
but without the crown, as a quartering for IRELAND ; 
and continued the use of the crowned harp as the badge 
of that kingdom. (I have been indebted to the notes of 
" GARTER " LEAKE for some of the above information). 

Sable, a harp argent stringed or, is the i/th century 
coat of HARPHAM ; and, with the inversion of the two 
first tinctures, is borne by HARPSFIELD of England, and 
HARPEN of Prussia. Gules, a harp or, is the coat of LA 
HARPE in Switzerland, and of the Due D'ARPAJON in 
France. Gules, a harp argent stringed or, is the first 
quarter in the arms of the Russian Princes BAGRATION. 

A curious use of the harp as an allusive charge is 
found in the arms borne by several families named 
DAVID, in France, Burgundy, Moravia, Flanders, etc. 

HORNS AND TRUMPETS. Of these the hunting horn, 
bent into a nearly semi-circular shape occurs most 
frequently in Armory. It is often garnished with 
mouthpiece and bands of a different tincture (enguicJie 



et virolle) and stringed (lie}. In Scottish Heraldry 
it is the invariable practice to represent the hunting- 
horn with its mouthpiece on the dexter side of the 
escucheon. In England, and on the Continent, the 
reverse is the case. Besides its use as a charge canting 
on the name it occasionally has reference to some right 
of forestry. The coat of the FORRESTERS of Garden in 
Scotland, is Azure, three hunting-horns sable, garnished 
gules. The Lords FORRESTER of Corstorphine use : 
Argent, a fess gules between tJiree hunting- Jiorns sable, 
garnished or, stringed of the second. The old coat, 
recently revived, of HUNTER of Hunterston is given 
Plate X X X 1 1 1 ., fig. 10. Or, three hunting-horns vert, gar- 
nished and stringed gules. The PENNYCOOKS (or PENI- 
CUIKS) of that Ilk, bore : Argent, a bend azure between 
tJiree hunting-horns, stringed sable. This coat has refer- 
ence to the tenure of the lands of Penicuick, the reddendo 
of which was the blowing six blasts of the horn at the 
King's hunt. 

Argent, a bugle-horn stringed sable, was borne by 
KlNGSLEY of KlNGSLEY at a very early date, as heredi- 
tary Forester of Delamere. The arms of the Princes of 
ORANGE were : Or, a hunting-horn azure, banded gules, 
and appear en surtout in the escucheon of the Princes of 
NASSAU. Azure, a hunting-horn argent, vir oiled gules, 
is the coat of the Counts of MANDELSLOH. Or, a 
Jiunting-horn turned to the dexter and set on a mount 
gules, was borne by the Barons HORNECK DE HoRN- 
BERG in Bavaria. 

In the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 93 is the old 
coat of HORENBERG : Or, out of a mount in base vert 
two hunting-horns paleways sable stringed gules. Here 
the horns are but slightly curved towards the flanks 
of the shield ; but in ancient coats the horns are 
sometimes represented as straight. A well known 
instance occurs in the arms of TRUMPINGTON : Azure, 

2 c 



( 3S6 ) 

crusily and two horns in pile or. This is also the coat 
of PYPE. 

Azure, three bugle-horns or, is the coat of CORNET, and 
of the Barons TRICORNET. 

The important herba of TROMBY I. in Poland has as 
its arms, Argent, three hunting-horns in pairle sable, 
stringed and garnished or, which are accordingly borne 
by the Princes RADZIWILL. Or, three Jiunting-Jiorns 
gules, garnished argent, is the coat of the Counts and 
Princes of HORN in the Netherlands. The Florentine 
GuiCCIARDINl bore : Azure, tJiree hunting-horns argent, 
the mouth-pieces and viroles or, banded gules. 

Gules, three trumpets fessways in pale argent, is the 
canting coat of CALL (Baronets). 

In Plate XXXIII., fig. 1 1, is represented the old coat of 
GRANVILLE (afterwards Earls of Bath) which is blazoned 
as : Gules, three clarions or ; sometimes as rests, or 
organ-rests, otherwise as sufflues or clarichords, etc. 
Some have supposed it was a rest to support the end 
of the lance carried by a mounted knight. But that no 
such contrivance was ever in use is shown by the evidence 
of seals, monuments, etc. PLANCHfi in his Pursuivant 
has an interesting passage on this charge, which he 
conceives to have been a clarion, a canting badge of the 
CLARES, Earls of GLOUCESTER, under whom the GRAN- 
VILLES held the lordship of Neath. He suggests that 
the ancient clarion which, as usually drawn, bears little 
resemblance to a trumpet, may really have been that 
classical instrument the Pan's pipe or mouth organ. 
The CLARES were Lords of GLAMorgan. PLANCHE 
gives a drawing of the charge from Sir CHRISTOPHER 
BARKER'S Heraldic Collections (HARL. MS., 4632) in 
which it is clearly an organ. (See also the Journal of 
the British ArcJiceological Association, vol. iv.) 

Azure, two organ-pipes in saltire between four crosses patee 
argent, was the coat of Lord WILLIAMS of Thame, 1554. 



The family of DE BLASERE in Flanders bears : Or, a 
whistle in pale gules. Gules, on a bend or, a flute, or shep- 
herd's pipe, of the first, appears to be the original coat 
of the Border family of ELLIOT. Sable, three pipes 
argent, is the coat of PlPER. 

I may here mention that a musical stave with notes 
occurs in the arms of VAN NOOTEN in Holland ; and 
that in those of ROLAND DE LATTRE, better known as 
ORLANDO Di LASSO (ennobled, in 1570, by the Emperor 
MAXIMILIAN II.), the musical characters known as a 
"sharp," "flat," and "natural" appear as armorial charges. 

DICE, CARDS, AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS OF AMUSE- 
MENT. Gules, three dice in perspective argent marked 
(for six in front, three on the sinister side, two on the 
top) sable, is the coat of MATHIAS in England ; of a 
family of the same name in France, and of QuiNTANA 
in Spain. For the former families the allusion is clear 
to the " lot " cast by which ST. MATTHIAS was chosen 
to the office of the Apostolate. MACIAS, in Spain, 
similarly bears : Gules, six dice (two, two, and two) all 
marked for sixes sable (PlFERRER, Nobiliario de Espana, 
vol. ii., No. 1113). The English families of AMBESACE 
bear varying coats of the like origin, of which one 
example will suffice : Or, on each of three dice sable an 
ace point argent. Azure, three pair of playing tables 
(backgammon-boards) open proper, edged or, is a coat of 
PEGRIZ. The Dutch family of CAARTEN use : Gules, a 
playing card argent charged with the ace of spades sable. 

CHESS PIECES are also borne. The rook (roc d'echi- 
quier) is a somewhat favourite bearing in Continental 
coats usually in armes parlantes. In early English 
Rolls, however, it appears apart from this. Gules, three 
chess-rooks ermine, is the coat of FlTZSYMON in the Roll 
of Arms of 1277 (HARL. MS., 6137); and Gules, three 
chess-rooks argent, was borne by Sir EDWARD WALSING- 
HAM in the time of EDWARD I. 



( 383 ) 

Families of ROKEWOOD, in the eastern counties of 
England, used : Argent, six chess-rooks three, two, one sable; 
and Argent, three chess-rooks and a chief sable. Azure, 
tJiree chess-rooks argent, is the coat of the Breton Barons 
BONNEFOUX, and the Vicomtes de GuiTON, as well as 
of the Marquis d'Aux, and the Dues de ROQUE- 
LAURE. Azure, a fess between three chess-rooks or, is 
borne by BODENHAM. The chess-rook is also borne in 
the arms of numerous families of ROCA, ROCCHI, DE 
LA ROQUE, ROQUES, ROQUEMAUREL, ROQUETTE, etc. 
It must however be stated that, in at least some of 
these cases, as certainly in that of the family of DE LA 
ROQUE D'ESTUER, the bearing is probably rather the 
cronel, or blunted end, of a tilting lance, than the chess- 
rook. This was called a roquet, or roc, from its resem- 
blance to the chess-rook. MENETRIER says, "Roc est 
le fer morne d'une lance de tournoi, recourbe a la maniere 
des croix ancrees" (cited in C. VON MAYER'S Heral- 
disches A b c-Buch; see also JOUFFROY D'ESCHAVANNES' 
Traite Complet du Blason, p. 158; and the whole 
matter is treated in an interesting way in HlLDEBRAND's 
treatise, det Svenska Riks Vapnet, pp. 45-48 ; where are 
given the above quotation and a reference to VlOLLET 
LE Due's Dictionnaire raisonne du Mobilier}. 

The Spanish family of ROCABRUNA bear: Gules, 
seme of chess-rooks or; and the Catalonian ROCABERTI 
bore : Or, three pallets gides between twelve chess-rooks sable. 

I have met also with examples of other chess pieces, 
e.g., ROHRMANN in Germany uses : Gules, a chess 
knight or; KONING of Holland, Azure, a chess king or. 

A great number of families in Holland named ZUYLEN 
bear charges known as zuylen (often blazoned as 
columns) which are, in all probability, nothing more than 
the familiar chess-rook. 

PLAYING TOPS appear as charges in the armes par- 
lantes of TOPCLIFFE : Argent, a chevron between three 



PLATE XXXIV. 




EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 

1. From Seal of Philippe Comte de Valois, 1327 (Demay). 2. Banner from 
Bayeux Tapestry. 3. Pennoncelle of Percy (Archaeologia JEliana). 
4. From Seal of Earl of Rutland, Admiral of England, 1395 (Demay). 



playing tops sable ; and Azure, a top or, the peg argent, 
is used by TOLLENAER of Holland. 

MONEY. Under Roundles (p. 191) we have alluded 
to the fact that figured bezants, gold coins in fact, are 
found as armorial charges ; we have now to give a few 
instances of the use of these and other coins. The Sires 
de .MONNET, who were Vicomtes de SALINS, bore at a 
very early date: Azure, nine plates, 3, 3, 2, i. The 
Counts von SCHILLING have the curious coat : Gules, a 
fess sable thereon twelve plates = shillings (notice les arnies 
fausses). The DUYSENTDAELDERS of Amsterdam bear: 
Gules, in chief the figure \, and in base three thalers 
argent. The MlCHELl of Venice have a coat which is 
said to be historical : Barry of six azure and argent, 
charged with twenty-one roundles (6, 5, 4, 3, 2, i) of or on 
the azure bars, and azure on those of argent. [Another 
variation is : Barry of six azure and argent, the azure bars 
charged with eleven bezants (5, 4, and 2) and a twelfth on 
the last piece of argentl\ This coat is said to commem- 
orate the fact that the Doge DOMENICO MlCHELl, the 
Crusader, finding himself short of cash for the payment 
of his troops, distributed to them circular pieces of 
leather, afterwards to be redeemed for golden coin. If 
this be true the earliest bank notes were not of paper. 

When we turn to DOMESTIC CHARGES we find some 
curious instances. The CAULDRON, or COOKING-POT, 
which appears in the coats of arms of so many great 
Spanish families, ought perhaps rather to be counted 
among the military charges. The Pendon y Caldera 
were presented by the Sovereign to the newly created 
Ricos hombres, or Knights Bannerets, the banner 
denoting authority to levy and lead troops, the cauldron 
the ability to feed them. " Las insignias de los Ricos 
hombres eran un pendon con divisa, y una caldera, que 
les davan los Reyes, despues de haver velado una noche 
en la y glesia que mas devocion tenian. Con el pendon 



( 390 ) 

les concedian la facultad de hazer gente para la guerra ; 
la caldera significava eran ponderosos para la sustentar 
y mantener." (Origen de las dignidades seglares de 
Castilla y Leon, lib. i., cap. ix.) Out of these caul- 
drons often issue a number of eels, which are often 
blazoned as serpents, as in the arms of GUZMAN, Dukes 
of MEDINA-SlDONlA, etc. Azure, two cauldrons in pale 
chequy or and gules, the handles and five serpents issuing 
at the Junction of the handles with the cauldron all corn- 
pony of the second and third. The whole within a 
bordure-compony of the arms of CASTILE, and LEON. 
Plate XXXI 1 1., fig. 8. The GUZMANS, Counts of TEBA, 
bore : Per saltire, azure and argent in chief and base a 
cauldron, as in the coat above, but with the serpents vert ; 
in each flank five ermine spots (2, i, 2) sable. To this 
family belonged the Empress EUGENIE, wife of 
NAPOLEON III. The original GUZMAN coat appears to 
have been : Azure, two cauldrons in pale or; a b ordure 
gules thereon eight cauldrons of the second. HERRERA 
bears : Gules, two cauldrons in pale or, a bordure of the 
first thereon twelve cauldrons of the second (PlFERRER, 
Nobiliario de los Reinos y Senorios de Espana, No. 5 1 1). 

In some important coats, especially in the northern 
provinces of Germany, a triangular cremailliere, or pot- 
hook with a ratchet, for supporting a cauldron over the 
fire, is frequently found as a charge. Or, a cremailliere 
gules, is the canting coat of KETTLER, Duke of COUR- 
LAND. Argent, a cremailliere sable, was borne by the 
Counts van der DECKEN, and by the family of GRUBEN, 
both of Hannover. The Barons HADELN use : Gules, 
three cremaillieres in f ess argent. 

THE SCOPULI of Mantua bear ; Gules, a besom argent 
in pale, the handle in chief or ; while the ESCOBARS of 
Estremadura have Or, three ozier besoms vert, banded 
gules, the handles in base. The Castilian PADILLAS carry 
Azure, three frying pans paleways in fess, each between as 



many crescents argent, one in base, another to the left 
hand, and the third above, the hollows of all being turned 
towards the instrument. (These charges have a prepos- 
terous legend, the simple reason of their use, viz. as 
canting charges, being too prosaic for some minds.) 

EATABLES, which we would hardly expect to find in 
armorial coats, nevertheless occur there occasionally, not 
merely in the figurative coat borne by the Dutch PAIN 
ET VlN, Azure, a wheat ear and a bunch of white grapes 
leaved proper ; but in a much less conventional way. 
The extinct family of REICHBROD bore : Quarterly, i 
and 4, Argent, an eagle displayed sable ; 2, Azure ; and 
3, Gules ; in each of these last quarters five white loaves 
arranged in cross. A family (not the great one) of 
MONCADA in Arragon, bears: Argent, seven flat loaves 
proper (2, 2, 2, 1 ). Two families of FRANGIPANI have armes 
parlantes ; the one bears, Gules, two lions rampant ajf rente's 
holding (and breaking] a round loaf proper ; the other 
uses, Azure, two hands argent which hold a broken loaf or. 

Gules, an egg argent, is the coat of BUSCH. The 
German DOMEYERS bear : Sable, a chevron ploye between 
tJiree eggs argent ; while the Silesian JAWORSKI use : 
Gules, ten eggs 4, 4, 2, argent. (See also p. 228, ante, 
the arms of WURSTER, etc.) 

MIRRORS are frequently found in German coats for 
the name of SPIEGEL, and its compounds. The Counts 
SPIEGEL ZUM DESENBERG bear : Gules, three round 
mirrors argent in square frames or. 

THE COMBS which appear in several coats are for the 
most part either those used for carding wool, as in the 
coat of TuNSTALL, Sable, three wool-combs argent ; or 
curry combs, as in the arms of the Belgian Marquises 
MAILLEN D'OHEY d'Or, a trois peignes de chevaux de 
gueules. Gules, a chevron between three wool-combs argent, 
is the well-known coat of PONSONBY, Earl of BESS- 
BOROUGH. The Swedish family of ANREP bear : Or, a 



( 39* ) 

comb in f ess, its teeth itpwards azure ; those of the name 
in Esthonia and Prussia pierce the comb at one end with 
a circular aperture. The family in Livonia bear: Or, a comb 
in bend, teeth downwards sable ; and the Russian Counts 
ANREP-ELMPT use : Or, a comb in bend azure, the teeth 
downwards (See KLINGSPOR, Baltisches W appenbucJi}. 

THE JUNGINGENS of Suabia have : Azure, a pair of 
scissors open, blades upwards, argent, a coat which goes 
back at least to the fourteenth century, when it appears 
in the Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 290. 

WEARING APPAREL is represented chiefly by Hats. 

Per f ess argent and azure, a hat counterchanged stringed 
gules, is the coat of CAPELLO of Venice. Argent, three 
caps sable, banded or, is borne by the English CAPPERS. 
A rgent, a chevron gules between three caps of maintenance 
azure, appears to have been the original coat of the 
BRUDENELLS, Earls of CARDIGAN ; though they are 
now generally blazoned as morions or steel caps. 

GLOVES occur in the old coat of WANCY or WAUNCY: 
Gules, three dexter gloves, fingers downwards, argent ; 
another coat of the name is, Gules, six gloves argent. 

SHOES. ZAPATA of Spain uses : Gules, five shoes 
chequy or and sable ; on a b ordure of the field eight 
escucheons of or a bend sable (sometimes azure). 

Gules, two slippers in pale or, is the coat of ABARCA in 
Spain ; Or, three boots sable, is a coat of HUSSEY ; and 
Argent ', three shambrogues sable, is that of COKER. 
Argent, three skates fessways in pale gules ; and Azure, 
three like skates or, are both canting coats of Dutch 
PATYNS. The Barons de RAET bore : Gules, three 
skates or paleways 2 and I. 

THE HAUNCH has been already noticed on page 376 
supra, but there are one or two instances of other articles 
of wearing apparel. COTTEBLANCHE bears : d'Azur, a 
trois cottes d "argent ; and the ABBENBROEKS of Holland 
use : Gules (or azure], a pair of linen breeches argent. 



( 393 ) 

AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL IMPLEMENTS 
Ploughshares, pickaxes, shovels, rakes, fire-pans, eel- 
spears, fish-hooks, hammers, mill-sails, gates, and many 
others appear in Armory as occasional charges but do 
not need more than an allusion here. But the mallet, or 
hammer, appears so early as a charge, and in such 
important coats, that we must make an exception in its 
favour. 

MAILLY bears, Or, three mallets vert, the principal 
arms of the family (See L* Armorial de Geldre, No. 83, 
and the Salle des Croises at Versailles, No. 160). 
Branches of this family differenced by change of tincture, 
the mallets being gules, or azure. The branch in Picardy, 
and that settled in Burgundy bore : Gules, tJiree mallets 
or, which was also the coat of DE MONCHY (Salle des 
Croises, No. 75) and D'HAMERE-ROLLAINCOURT used, 
dA rgent, a trois mallets de gueules. I n these Low Country 
coats the mallet is of a peculiar shape, like the apex of 
a chevron, with a short handle. The mallets are also 
sometimes drawn pencJies, or inclined bendways (they 
are so in the above coat of DE MONCHY). Vert, on a 
chief argent tJiree mallets pencJies gules, is the coat of 
GlELlS, one of the seven patrician families of Louvain. 
Sable, on a chief argent tJiree mallets pencJies of the field, 
is borne by the Counts von STEEN. Azure, on a chief 
or tJiree mallets pencJies gules, is used by QUAREBBE ; 
and Gules, on a chief argent three mallets pencJies sable, 
is the coat of the VAN DER LINDENS, Barons d'HOGG- 
VOORST. ( Vide Plate XL.). 

DE BACQUEVILLE, also an ancient family, bears : 
Or, three hammers gules. (In the Armorial de Berry the 
blazon is, d'Or, a trois maillets de gueules, but I think 
wrongly.) In the Rolls of Arms of the Thirteenth 
Century the coat, Sable, tJiree hammers argent, is ascribed 
both to JOHN and RICHARD MARTELL ; and WILLIAM 
MARTELL bears : Gules, three hammers argent. (In 

2 C Cl 



( 394 ) 

the Armorial de Berry this coat appears for " LE 
SEIGNEUR DE MARTIAU," No. 557.) In the same Roll, 
WILLIAM DE HURSTHELVE bears : Azure, three hatchets 
argent. 

LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET, WORDS, AND ARITH- 
METICAL FIGURES, are found in a good many foreign 
coats ; but in only a few English ones. Among these 
we find one very instructive example in the old coat of 
VAVASSOUR. On the seal of MALGERUS, or MAUGER, LE 
VAVASSEUR the charge is a capital M with widely spread 
legs, which also of course contains the letter V, and was 
practically a monogram of the wearer's names. This 
was the origin of the fess dancetty, which, of Sable, on a 
field or, is the charge of the family arms to the present 
day (See PLANCHE, Pursuivant of Arms, p. 125). 
Argent, a chevron between tJiree old English Ws sable, is 
the coat of TOFTE ; Gules, three 's or that of KEKIT- 
MORE, both English examples. 

Gules, on a fess argent the letter ^ sable, is the coat of 
the Barons ALTHANN. Sable, a fess between three 
gt'j or, is borne by DE FlZE of Liege. The family of 
VAN DER EE uses, Or, a chevron azure between three 
<$s gules. Every letter of the alphabet is similarly 
employed. 

The Italian ABICI bear : Azure, the letters A B in chief 
and C in base gules (note]. The ORSENIGHI use : Argent, 
a lion rampant gules over its neck a label argent charged 
with the letters, A B C D E F. The Sicilian QUARANTA 
have, Azure, on a fess argent X X X X sable. PESC in 
Holland, bears : Gules, tJiree S's argent. The extinct 
family of ZACHREISS in Bavaria used : Sable, on a fess 
argent the word ifft. The MAGALOTTI of Florence 
bear : Barry of six or and sable on a chief gules the word 
LlBERTAS (or LlBERTA) or. This word LlBERTAS 
appears also in the arms of several cities, e.g. LUCCA, 
bears : Azure, between two bendlets the word LlBERTAS. 



( 395 



The Duchy of RAGUSA bears : Argent, tJiree bends azure, 
over all the word LlBERTAS in f ess or. The city of ROME 
still uses the well known letters, S P Q R, preceded by 
a cross, all argent, in bend on a field gules (vide ante, p. 229). 

Many Spanish families bear their motto in a bordure 
around the shield, and sometimes introduce it into the 
shield itself. Plate XXXIII., fig. 12, is the coat of 
MENDOZA, Duke of INFANTADGO : Per saltire vert and 
or, the chief and base charged with a bend gules bordered 
of the second ; the flanks with the words AVE MARIA on 
the dexter, and GRATIA PLENA on the sinister, all azure. 

JOVE uses : Per saltire vert and or, the first charged 
with two bends of the second ; the flanks with the words, 
AVE, and MARIA. (PIFERRER, Nobiliario, etc., No. 790.) 




FIG. 77. 





Fin. 78. 



FIG. 79. 



END OF VOL. I. 



PRINTED bY \V. AND A. K. JOHNSTON, EDINBURGH AND LONDON. 



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CR 
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Woodward, John, 1837-1898. 

A treatise on heraldry British 
and foreign :